900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: Protection by vitamins E and C
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. Toxicology and Industrial Health
(Impact Factor: 1.86).
09/2007; 23(7):411-20. DOI: 10.1177/0748233707080906
There are numerous reports on the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems. Mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in the biological effects of this radiation. The aims of this study were to examine 900 MHz mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of ROS and to investigate the role of vitamins E and C, which have antioxidant properties, on endometrial tissue against possible 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment in rats. The animals were randomly grouped (eight each) as follows: 1) Control group (without stress and EMR, Group I), 2) sham-operated rats stayed without exposure to EMR (exposure device off, Group II), 3) rats exposed to 900 MHz EMR (EMR group, Group III) and 4) a 900 MHz EMR exposed + vitamin-treated group (EMR + Vit group, Group IV). A 900 MHz EMR was applied to EMR and EMR + Vit group 30 min/day, for 30 days using an experimental exposure device. Endometrial levels of nitric oxide (NO, an oxidant product) and malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), increased in EMR exposed rats while the combined vitamins E and C caused a significant reduction in the levels of NO and MDA. Likewise, endometrial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities decreased in EMR exposed animals while vitamins E and C caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In the EMR group histopathologic changes in endometrium, diffuse and severe apoptosis was present in the endometrial surface epithelial and glandular cells and the stromal cells. Diffuse eosinophilic leucocyte and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the endometrial stroma whereas the combination of vitamins E and C caused a significant decrease in these effects of EMR. It is concluded that oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduces the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial damage both at biochemical and histological levels.
Available from: Arın Tomruk
- "SOD, CAT, and GSH- Px are antioxidant enzymes . SOD catalyzes the breakdown of superoxide anion into H 2 O 2 and oxygen; CAT and GSH-Px are the enzymes playing role in the reduction of H 2 O 2 to water   . XO is an oxidant enzyme catalyzing oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine, and it can produce superoxide radicals. "
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We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the parotid gland of rats in short and relatively long terms.
Material and Methods
Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups A and B served as the control groups (for 10 days and 40 days, respectively), and each group included six rats. Groups C and D were composed of nine rats each, and they were the exposure groups. The rats were exposed to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a third generation mobile phone for 6 hours /day, 5 days/ week, for 10 or 40 days. Following exposure, the rats were sacrificed and parotid glands were removed. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed.
Although there were no histopathological changes in the control groups except for two animals in group A and three animals in group B, the exposure groups C (10 days) and D (40 days) showed numerous histopathological changes regarding salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The histopathological changes were more prominent in group D compared to group C. There was statistically significant different parameter regarding variation in cell size between the groups B and D (p = 0.036).
The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes.
Available from: Aylin Sepici-Dinçel
- "Although there are published researches related to the oxidative damage resulting from the exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone-like radiation (Ozguner et al. 2005, Koylu et al. 2006, Guney et al. 2007, Meral et al. 2007, Sokolovic et al. 2008), there are a few studies which investigated the RFR eff ect on protein carbonyl content (Dasdag et al. 2012). Ferreira et al. (2006) reported that protein oxidative damage did not change due to the mobile phone-like radiation in 800 – 1800 MHz frequencies. "
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The widespread and sustained use of mobile and cordless phones causes unprecedented increase of radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated RFR (average whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 0.4 W/kg, 10 or 20 min daily for consecutive 7 days) to the liver tissue of guinea pigs and the protective effects of antioxidant treatments.
Materials and methods:
Adult male guinea pigs were randomly divided into nine groups as: Group I (sham/saline), Group II (sham/EGCG), Group III (sham/NAC), Group IV (10-min RF-exposure/saline), Group V (20-min RF-exposure/saline), Group VI (10-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VII (20-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VIII (10-min RF-exposure/NAC), and Group IX (20-min RF-exposure/NAC). Protein oxidation (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated after the exposure and the treatments with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).
Results and conclusions:
Significant decreases in the activities of SOD were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Protein damage did not change due to RFR exposure. On the other hand, only NAC treatment induced increased PCO levels, whereas EGCG treatment alone elevated the level of AOPP. Due to antioxidants having pro-oxidant behavior, the well decided doses and treatment timetables of NAC and ECGC are needed.
Available from: Borut Poljšak
- "Vitamins E and C Guney et al., (2007)  "
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ABSTRACT: Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example,
-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.
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