Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: A review – Part II: Clinical studies

Center for Transfusion Medicine Muenster, German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service West gGmbH, Muenster, Germany.
International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.22). 06/2008; 46(5):211-25. DOI: 10.5414/CPP46211
Source: PubMed


The value of bovine colostrum as a biologic in medicine is documented in clinical trials and supported by relatively large databases containing case reports and anecdotal findings. The main actions include an antibacterial effect and modulation of the immune response. The ability of bovine colostrum concentrates (BCC are polyvalent bovine colostrum concentrates produced from the colostrums of several 100 cows) to neutralize lipopolysaccharides, i.e. endotoxins arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and to inhibit enterogenic endotoxemia in animal models as shown in the last review to have its counterpart in patient therapy. Clinical trials with BCC provide evidence that oral application reduces the influx of LPS from the gut and this appears to be a major mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock; data from two well-controlled clinical studies with a total of 100 surgical patients have shown that the inhibition of intestinal LPS absorption measured after the application of BCC not only reduced the LPS levels in the peripheral blood but also inflammatory parameters like IL-6 and CRP were found to be diminished. The usual daily dose of the commercially available BCC preparation, LactobinA (LC1) is 10 â 20 g daily, but higher doses can be used in the majority of patients because of the low incidence of intolerance problems. In chronic diarrhea involving severe forms of secondary immunodeficiencies, patients receiving LC1 were disease-free for about 4 weeks but the response may be lower in patients with AIDS. BCC is effective in infants with hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by infections with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and reduces the likelihood of the disease progressing to a hemolytic uremic syndrome. The safety of newer BCC products obtained from BSE-free regions seems now beyond contention. In the case of LC1, which was used as a commercial dietary foodstuff in Germany until 1992 and tested in three Phase 1 and 5 clinical studies (two trials in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies, one in surgical patients with gastrointestinal disorders, one in patients undergoing open heart surgery and one in pediatric patients with EHEC infections), there were no cases of BSE-associated disease such as the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Side effects of clinical relevance are limited to possible intolerance to lactose and sensitivity to milk proteins as these are also present in many commonly used foodstuffs. Important synergistic actions with conventional drug therapies have been observed with BCC including a reduction in LPS plasma levels in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections treated with bactericidal antibiotics. In healthy persons there are only small concentrations of LPS detectable in peripheral blood (normal values: 3 â 10 pg/ ml plasma, i.e. approximately 0.1 EU/ml). In contrast, elevated systemic levels with concentrations > 300 pg/ml are common in patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. Raised LPS levels occur mainly in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections who have been treated with bacteriocidal antibiotics. The LPS-lowering effects of BCC are probably due to the numerous active components present in BCC which have their origin in the innate humoral and adaptive immune system of their biologic source, the cow.

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    • "But the main actions of BC include antibacterial effects and a modulation of the immune response. The ability of BC to neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and to inhibit enteropathogenic endotoxemia in animal models was investigated.13 Oral administration of BC was shown to reduce the influx of LPS from the gut and this appears to be a major mechanism underlying BC’s therapeutic effect.13 "
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia), containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH. In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days. Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA) scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), adiponectin and T regulatory cells. Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Inflammation Research
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    • "Bovine colostrum is a protein-rich cocktail that contains several nutritional and immunological factors that provide a strong nutritional base for the newborn animal [1,2]. BC is currently promoted as a supplement in sports nutrition for muscle recovery, anaerobic sports functions and also to some extent for its anti-aging property [3,4]. Several studies have reported the use of BC for immune responses and sporting performance with doses ranging from 20 to 60 g per day [5-7] and the recent study has reported a dose as low as 10 g per day that have proven to have a significant effect on human trial [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "In addition, it must be considered that besides IgG, SDP contains growth factors, cytokines and other biologically active compounds that may also contribute to its positive effects on performance. Finally, SDP may reduce both the influx of LPS from the gut and LPS plasma levels, as shown with bovine colostrum in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections (Struff and Sprotte, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a bactericidal action mediated by non-dissociated OA, by lowering gastric pH, increasing gut and pancreas enzyme secretion and improving gut wall morphology. It has been postulated that they may also enhance non-specific immune responses and improve disease resistance. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of OA on the stomach but recent data show they can differently affect gastric histology, acid secretion and gastric emptying. Butyrate and precursors of butyric acid have received special attention and although promising results have been obtained, their effects are dependent upon the dose, treatment duration, initial age of piglets, gastrointestinal site and other factors. The amino acids (AA) like glutamine, tryptophan and arginine are supportive in improving digestion, absorption and retention of nutrients by affecting tissue anabolism, stress and (or) immunity. Glutamine, cysteine and threonine are important for maintaining mucin and permeability of intestinal barrier function. Spray-dried plasma (SDP) positively affects gut morphology, inflammation and reduces acquired specific immune responses via specific and a-specific influences of immunoglobulins and other bioactive components. Effects are more pronounced in early-weaned piglets and under poorer health conditions. Little interaction between plasma protein and antibiotics has been found, suggesting distinct modes of action and additive effects. Bovine colostrum may act more or less similarly to SDP. The composition of essential oils is highly variable, depending on environmental and climatic conditions and distillation methods. These oils differ widely in their antimicrobial activity in vitro and some components of weaning diets may decrease their activity. Results in young pigs are highly variable depending upon the product and doses used. These studies suggest that relatively high concentrations of essential oils are needed for beneficial effects to be observed and it has been assumed that these plant extracts mimic most of the effects of antibiotics active on gut physiology, microbiology and immunology. Often, bioactive substances protective to the gut also stimulate feed intake and growth performance. New insights on the effects of selected OA and AA, protein sources (especially SDP, bovine colostrum) and plant extracts with anti-bacterial activities on the gut are reported in this review.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · animal
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