AQP1 gene expression is up-regulated by arginine vasopressin and cyclic AMP agonist in trophoblast cells
Perinatal Research Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David-Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90502, USA. Life Sciences
(Impact Factor: 2.7).
07/2008; 82(25-26):1272-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.04.014
Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels that regulate water flow in many tissues. As AQP1 is a candidate to regulate placental fluid exchange, we sought to investigate the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cAMP agonists on AQP1 gene expression in first trimester-derived extravillous cytotrophoblasts (HTR-8/Svneo) and two highly proliferative carcinoma trophoblast-like cell lines but with a number of functional features of the syncytiotrophoblast namely; JAR and JEG-3 cells. Our data demonstrated that AVP (0.1 nM) significantly increased the expression of AQP1 mRNA at 10 h in HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 cells (P<0.05). Both SP-cAMP, a membrane-permeable and phosphodiesterase resistant cAMP, and forskolin, an adenylate cyclase stimulator significantly increased AQP1 mRNA expression in all cell lines after 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) with a parallel increase in protein expression. In the time course study, 5 microM of either SP-cAMP or forskolin significantly stimulated AQP1 mRNA expression after 2 h in HTR-8/SVneo cells and after 10 h in JAR and JEG-3 cells. AQP1 protein expression was highest after 20 h in both HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 cells (P<0.05). AVP-stimulated cAMP elevation was blocked in the presence of 9-(tetrahydro-2'-furyl) adenine (SQ22536) (100 microM), a cell-permeable adenylate cyclase inhibitor (P<0.05). These results indicate that in trophoblasts-like cells AQP1 gene expression is upregulated by both AVP and cAMP agonists. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a cAMP-dependent pathway is responsible for the AVP effect on AQP1. Thus, modulation of AQP1 expression by maternal hormones may regulate invasion and fetal-placental-amnion water homeostasis during gestation.
Available from: Ana Paula Martins
- "In line with the lung Aqp1 up-regulation reported here, is well known that AP1, SP1 and CREB are selectively activated in pulmonary hypoxia  and could be part of the hypoxic response of AQP1. Furthermore, CREB activation by cAMP and binding of this to HBS ,  in the Aqp1 promoter may constitute an alternative explanation for transcriptional regulation of AQP1 by cAMP , . "
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ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel that is highly expressed in tissues with rapid O(2) transport. It has been reported that this protein contributes to gas permeation (CO(2), NO and O(2)) through the plasma membrane. We show that hypoxia increases Aqp1 mRNA and protein levels in tissues, namely mouse brain and lung, and in cultured cells, the 9L glioma cell line. Stopped-flow light-scattering experiments confirmed an increase in the water permeability of 9L cells exposed to hypoxia, supporting the view that hypoxic Aqp1 up-regulation has a functional role. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulatory process, transcriptional regulation was studied by transient transfections of mouse endothelial cells with a 1297 bp 5' proximal Aqp1 promoter-luciferase construct. Incubation in hypoxia produced a dose- and time-dependent induction of luciferase activity that was also obtained after treatments with hypoxia mimetics (DMOG and CoCl(2)) and by overexpressing stabilized mutated forms of HIF-1α. Single mutations or full deletions of the three putative HIF binding domains present in the Aqp1 promoter partially reduced its responsiveness to hypoxia, and transfection with Hif-1α siRNA decreased the in vitro hypoxia induction of Aqp1 mRNA and protein levels. Our results indicate that HIF-1α participates in the hypoxic induction of AQP1. However, we also demonstrate that the activation of Aqp1 promoter by hypoxia is complex and multifactorial and suggest that besides HIF-1α other transcription factors might contribute to this regulatory process. These data provide a conceptual framework to support future research on the involvement of AQP1 in a range of pathophysiological conditions, including edema, tumor growth, and respiratory diseases.
Available from: Eliezer Shalev
- "In a previous study, we showed that Forskolin (PKA) induces MMP-2 and MMP-9 and trophoblast invasiveness in both JAR cells and 1st trimester trophoblasts . Forskolin has been used also in other studies to induce invasion or invasion-related molecules [19,20]. Additionally, Forskolin/cAMP has been used to induce syncytiotrophoblast formation [21,22]. "
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ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 is a key-enzyme in early trophoblast invasion and that Protein Kinase A (PKA) increases MMP-2 expression and trophoblast invasion. The aim of this study was to examine MMP -2 regulation by PKA in invasive trophoblasts: JAR choriocarcinoma cell-line and 6-8 w first trimester trophoblasts.
The effect of Forskolin (PKA) on MMP-2 expression was assessed by Northern Blot and RT-PCR. Possible transcription factors binding to consensus MMP-2 promoter sequences in response to Forskolin, were detected by EMSA binding assay and their expression assessed by western blot analysis. Antisense transfection of relevant transcription factors was performed and the inhibitory effect assessed on MMP-2 expression (RT-PCR), secretion (zymography) and trophoblast invasiveness (transwell migration assay).
We found that Forskolin increased MMP-2 mRNA in JAR cells within 24 hours, and induced binding to p53, Ets, C/EBP and AP-2. Transcription factors Ets-2, phospho- p53, C/EBP epsilon, C/EBP lambda and AP-2 alpha bound to their respective binding sequences in response to Forskolin and the expressions of these transcription factors were all elevated in Forskolin- treated cells. Inhibition of Ets-2 and p53 reduced MMP-2 expression, secretion and invasiveness of Forskolin treated cells.
MMP-2 is regulated by PKA through several binding sites and transcription factors including Ets-2, p53, C/EBP, C/EBP lambda and AP-2 alpha. Ets-2 and p53 mediate cAMP- induced trophoblast invasiveness, through regulation of MMP-2.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of juvenile obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. In adults, central insulin administration decreases hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, food intake and body weight more effectively in males than females. Mechanisms regulating energy balance in juvenile animals are inherently different from those in adults due to differences in growth rates and hormonal milieu. Therefore, we sought to determine if central insulin treatment in juvenile rats (4 wk) would have similar sex-dependent effects on food intake as those reported in adult rats. Twenty-four hour food intake was measured following icv saline or insulin (0.01 or 0.1 U) prior to the onset of dark phase of the light cycle. An additional set of animals was used to assess the effects of central insulin on hypothalamic orexigenic (NPY, AgRP) and anorexigenic (POMC) neuropeptide mRNA expression. In both males and females, insulin reduced meal size initially (first 4 h) and later decreased meal frequency (4–24 h) to reduce cumulative food intake. Consistent with this, central insulin decreased hypothalamic NPY and AgRP and increased POMC mRNA expression. In contrast to adult studies, there were no demonstrated sex differences. These studies indicate that juvenile females and males are equally sensitive to central insulin anorexigenic effects, perhaps due to a lack of circulating gonadal hormones. The anorexigenic responsiveness of both genders suggests a potential pharmacologic approach to childhood obesity.
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