Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: A randomized controlled trial

Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 07/2008; 87(6):1785-92.
Source: PubMed


Dietary nucleotides are nonprotein nitrogenous compounds that are thought to be important for growth, repair, and differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract. A higher nucleotide intake may also have favorable effects on the fecal microbial composition and incidence of diarrhea in infancy. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis with an experimental study design.
We tested the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation of infant formula has beneficial effects on fecal bacteriology.
Oligonucleotide probes were used to measure bacterial genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA in stools of a subset of infants (mean age: 20.4 wk) who were randomly assigned to nucleotide-supplemented (31 mg/L; n = 35) or control formula (n = 37) from birth until age 20 wk or were breastfed (reference group; n = 44). The microbial pattern was assessed as the ratio of Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella group (BPP) to Bifidobacterium species.
The ratio of BPP to Bifidobacterium spp. rRNA in infants randomly assigned to the nucleotide-supplemented formula was lower than in infants receiving the control formula (mean difference: -118%; 95% CI: -203%, -34%; P = 0.007), but it did not differ in infants who were breastfed. The difference between randomized formula-fed groups was independent of potential confounding factors (P = 0.003).
Our data support the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation improves the composition of the gut microbiota in formula-fed infants. Because this effect could contribute to previously described benefits of nucleotide supplementation for gastrointestinal tract and immune function, these findings have important implications for optimizing the diet of formula-fed infants.

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    • "Dietary nucleotide supplementation has been reported to improve the balance of infant intestinal microbiota (Singhal et al., 2008; Uauy et al., 1994). The effect of nucleotide supplementation of infant formula on intestinal microbiota was proposed as potential mediator of the benefits of nucleotides supplementation for immune function, as neonatal gut microbiotas have long-term effects on immunity (Singhal et al., 2008). In addition, dose-response effects of dietary nucleotides inclusion were investigated in a few studies (Huu et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2009; Tahmasebi-Kohyani et al., 2011; Xiang et al., 2011), and doses of nucleotides products at 0.5 g/kg (Xiang et al., 2011), 1.5 g/kg (Lin et al., 2009), 2 g/kg (Tahmasebi-Kohyani et al., 2011) and 8 g/kg (Huu et al., 2012) were registered as optimal for growth or immunity. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of yeast nucleotides on the growth, non-specific immunity, intestine growth and intestinal microbiota of juvenile hybrid tilapia. Tilapia (initial average weight of 8.02 g) was fed test diets supplemented with a yeast-originated nucleotide mixture (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 g/100 g diet) for 8 weeks. Fish fed the diet with 0.60% nucleotide had significantly higher weight gain than the control group (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency was improved in the fish fed 0.60% and 1.20% nucleotide compared with that in the control group. The optimal doses of nucleotides supplementation for growth and feed efficiency of fish were determined as 0.63% and 0.81%, respectively. Intestinal growth was improved in the 0.30% and 0.60% groups, as indicated by significant increase in intestine length. The fish fed 0.60% and 1.20% nucleotide showed higher SOD activity and lower MDA level in the liver than the control fish, indicating enhancement of the anti-oxidant status. Serum lysozyme activity was significantly increased in the 0.15% and 0.3% nucleotide supplementation groups, suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. Lastly, dietary nucleotides supplementation exerted moderate influence on the intestinal microbiota of hybrid tilapia. A reduction in the cumulative abundance of putative butyrate-producing species was observed in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed diets with 0.60% nucleotide compared with the control, implying an interaction between dietary nucleotides and butyrate production. Briefly, fish fed diets with 0.60% nucleotide improve the growth performance, immune activity and intestine growth in tilapia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    • "With multifaceted activities, there is a history of safe consumption of NTs in the human diet. Numerous studies have shown that nucleotide-fortified infant formula is safe and beneficial [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]. However, most of the NTs-studies have focused on infants or on adults. "

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    • "According to a recent analysis by Le Huerou-Luron et al. (2010), the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding in the world between 2000 and 2005 was 90% in the early postpartum, but only 41% at 4–6 months of age, with the highest percentages in Africa, followed by East and South Asia, Latin America and The Pacific, and, finally, Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to mimic the composition of human milk by the addition to formula feeding of living bacteria (probiotics), non-digestible fibers, nucleotides and oligosaccharides (prebiotics ), and bovine lactoferrin in order to induce a breast-fed-similar microbiota colonization in formula-fed infants, with the final aim to stimulate the maturation and proper function of the immune system (Fanaro et al., 2003; Rinne et al., 2005; Singhal et al., 2008; Vael and Desager, 2009). Overall, the implementation of formula food with prebiotics and probiotics has been demonstrated to be effective in changing microflora composition toward the desired breast-feeding pattern and stimulating immune response (Rinne et al., 2005; Sherman et al., 2009). "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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