O : 8 serotype Yersinia enterocolitica strains in China
National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 102206, Beijing, China. International Journal of Food Microbiology
(Impact Factor: 3.08).
05/2008; 125(3):259-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.04.016
Serotypes O:3, O:8 and O:9 Yersinia enterocolitica strains carrying virulence determinants are common pathogens causing human infections. In many years of surveillance in China for Y. enterocolitica, no pathogenic O:8 strains have been found where the isolated O:8 serotypes lacked the major virulence genes and in contrast to O:3 and O:9 strains, none of the O:8 isolates were from humans. These O:8 isolates lack ail, ystA, yadA and virF genes but possess the ystB gene and all belong to Biotype 1A. These O:8 strains did not kill mice and could protect immunized mice against challenge with a pathogenic O:8 strain. Compared to the Chinese pathogenic O:3 and O:9 strains which have similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, the 39 Chinese O:8 animal and food isolates were different from the pathogenic O:8 reference strains. This suggests the O:8 strains lacking virulence determinants may not disseminate rapidly in humans and are maintained in animal reservoirs; and therefore exhibit higher variance and divergence from the virulent type.
Available from: Huaiqi Jing
- "Bacteria were cultured as previously described
. The bacterial DNA was extracted using a Blood & Tissue Kit (QIAGEN, USA). "
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ABSTRACT: Yersinia enterocolitica outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the major outer membrane proteins with high immunogenicity. We performed the polymorphism analysis for the outer membrane protein A and putative outer membrane protein A (p-ompA) family protein gene of 318 Y. enterocolitica strains.
The data showed all the pathogenic strains and biotype 1A strains harboring ystB gene carried both ompA and p-ompA genes; parts of the biotype 1A strains not harboring ystB gene carried either ompA or p-ompA gene. In non-pathogenic strains (biotype 1A), distribution of the two genes and ystB were highly correlated, showing genetic polymorphism. The pathogenic and non-pathogenic, highly and weakly pathogenic strains were divided into different groups based on sequence analysis of two genes. Although the variations of the sequences, the translated proteins and predicted secondary or tertiary structures of OmpA and P-OmpA were similar.
OmpA and p-ompA gene were highly conserved for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The distributions of two genes were correlated with ystB for biotype 1A strains. The polymorphism analysis results of the two genes probably due to different bio-serotypes of the strains, and reflected the dissemination of different bio-serotype clones of Y. enterocolitica.
Available from: Latiful Bari
- "Serotype O:3 is the most frequently isolated type in humans in Europe . In China, serotype O:3 is primarily found in infections followed by O:9, and O:8 . Furthermore, various serotypes demonstrate geographical specificity; for example, the predominant serotype in Australia, Europe, and Canada is O:3 , O:8 in Japan  and O:9 in Scandinavia, The Netherlands . "
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ABSTRACT: Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods.
Available from: Ramesh C. Ray
- "O:8 is the primary infectious serotype in the USA followed by O:3, O:5, 27, O:13a,13b, O:20, O:9, and so forth [6, 7]. In China, serotype O:3 is primarily found in infections followed by O:9 and O:8 . Furthermore, various serotypes demonstrate geographical specificity; for example, the predominant serotype in Australia, Europe, and Canada is O:3 , O:8 in Japan , and O:9 in Scandinavia, the Netherlands . "
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ABSTRACT: Although Yersinia enterocolitica is usually transmitted through contaminated food and untreated water, occasional transmission such as human-to-human, animal-to-human and blood transfusion associated transmission have also identified in human disease. Of the six Y. enterocolitica biotypes, the virulence of the pathogenic biotypes, namely, 1B and 2-5 is attributed to the presence of a highly conserved 70-kb virulence plasmid, termed pYV/pCD and certain chromosomal genes. Some biotype 1A strains, despite lacking virulence plasmid (pYV) and traditional chromosomal virulence genes, are isolated frequently from humans with gastrointestinal diseases similar to that produced by isolates belonging known pathogenic biotypes. Y. enterocolitica pathogenic biotypes have evolved two major properties: the ability to penetrate the intestinal wall, which is thought to be controlled by plasmid genes, and the production of heat-stable enterotoxin, which is controlled by chromosomal genes.
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