Article

Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study

Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 50(6):658-66. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.
Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.
Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Grethe Tell, Oct 06, 2014
    • "Consideration of family and social network outside the workplace defines constraints and resources in terms of marital and parental status, strained marital and parental relations, levels of household income, and social support from one's social network outside the workplace. Fewer mental health problems are expected when living with a partner[4,47,80], in households with young children[42,47,79], and those that have low-strain relationships with spouse or children[8,23,47], higher household incomes[41,84], less work-family conflicts[12,33,75], and greater access to the support of social network outside the work- place[22,47,73]. Characteristics of agent personality include gender, age, physical health, psychological traits (self-esteem, locus of control), lifestyle habits (alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity), and stressful childhood events. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study examined the contribution of work, non-work and individual factors on workers' symptoms of psychological distress, depression and emotional exhaustion based on the multilevel determinants of workers' mental health model. Methods: Data from the SALVEO Study were collected in 2009-2012 from a sample of 1,954 employees nested in 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec (Canada). Multilevel regression models were used to analyse the data. Results: Altogether, variables explain 32.2 % of psychological distress, 48.4 % of depression and 48.8 % of emotional exhaustion. Mental health outcomes varied slightly between workplaces and skill utilisation, physical and psychological demands, abusive supervision, interpersonal conflicts and job insecurity are related to the outcomes. Living in couple, having young children at home, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family conflict, strained marital and parental relations, and social support outside the workplace associated with the outcomes. Most of the individual characteristics also correlated with the three outcomes. Importantly, non-work and individual factors modulated the number and type of work factors related to the three outcomes. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest expanding perspectives on occupational mental health that fully recognise the complexity of workers' mental health determinants.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
  • Source
    • ", [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [8]. Fortunately, with the benefit of our overtime planning analysis, it is revealed that there is a much more compelling alternative. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Software Engineering and development is well-known to suffer from unplanned overtime, which causes stress and illness in engineers and can lead to poor quality software with higher defects. In this paper, we introduce a multi-objective decision support approach to help balance project risks and duration against overtime, so that software engineers can better plan overtime. We evaluate our approach on 6 real world software projects, drawn from 3 organisations using 3 standard evaluation measures and 3 different approaches to risk assessment. Our results show that our approach was significantly better (p
    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2013
  • Source
    • "For example, jobs that combine high demand and low control are known to increase the risk of both depression and occupational injury. Long working hours can coincide with high job demand and excessive workload [34], both of which may be risk factors for both injury and depression. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently associated with post-injury depression risk. Conclusions Workers with occupational injury were more likely to become depressed than those with non-occupational injury. The psychosocial consequences of occupational injury, including depression, deserve further exploration to adequately support those injured at work. This finding also emphasizes a need for early intervention to reduce the burden of depression associated with occupational injury.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Public Health
Show more