Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study

Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 50(6):658-66. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330
Source: PubMed


To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.
Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.
Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

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Available from: Grethe Tell, Oct 06, 2014
    • "Consideration of family and social network outside the workplace defines constraints and resources in terms of marital and parental status, strained marital and parental relations, levels of household income, and social support from one's social network outside the workplace. Fewer mental health problems are expected when living with a partner[4,47,80], in households with young children[42,47,79], and those that have low-strain relationships with spouse or children[8,23,47], higher household incomes[41,84], less work-family conflicts[12,33,75], and greater access to the support of social network outside the work- place[22,47,73]. Characteristics of agent personality include gender, age, physical health, psychological traits (self-esteem, locus of control), lifestyle habits (alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity), and stressful childhood events. "
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    • ", [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [8]. Fortunately, with the benefit of our overtime planning analysis, it is revealed that there is a much more compelling alternative. "
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    • "For example, jobs that combine high demand and low control are known to increase the risk of both depression and occupational injury. Long working hours can coincide with high job demand and excessive workload [34], both of which may be risk factors for both injury and depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently associated with post-injury depression risk. Conclusions Workers with occupational injury were more likely to become depressed than those with non-occupational injury. The psychosocial consequences of occupational injury, including depression, deserve further exploration to adequately support those injured at work. This finding also emphasizes a need for early intervention to reduce the burden of depression associated with occupational injury.
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