Article

Physiologic Responses during Indoor Cycling

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Abstract

During the last decade, there has been active interest in indoor cycling (e.g., spinning) as a method of choreographed group exercise. Recent studies have suggested that exercise intensity during indoor cycling may be quite high and may transiently exceed Vo2max. This study sought to confirm these findings, as the apparent high intensity of indoor cycling has implications for both the efficacy and the risk of indoor cycling as an exercise method. Twenty healthy female students performed an incremental exercise test to define Vo2max and performed 2 videotaped indoor exercise classes lasting 45 minutes and 35 minutes. Vo2, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the indoor cycling classes, with Vo2 data integrated in 30-second intervals. The mean %Vo2max during the indoor cycling classes was modest (74 +/- 14% Vo2max and 66 +/- 14%Vo2max, respectively). However, 52% and 35% of the time during the 45- and 35-minute classes was spent at intensities greater than the ventilatory threshold (VT). The HR response indicated that 35% and 38% of the session time was above the HR associated with VT. In 10 of the 40 exercise sessions, there were segments in which the momentary Vo2 exceeded Vo2max observed during incremental testing, and the cumulative time with exercise intensity greater than Vo2max ranged from 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. It can be concluded that although the intensity of indoor cycling in healthy, physically active women is moderate, there are frequent observations of transient values of Vo2 exceeding Vo2max, and a substantial portion of the exercise bouts at intensities greater than VT. As such, the data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise training, which has implications for both efficacy and risk.

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... To adjust the intensity of training during a cycling session, the instructor has several tools: 1) pedaling cadence, directly related to music tempo; 2) breaking resistance applied by the subject on the bicycle; 3) the position on the bicycle and 4) the ratio at interval to recovery period (5). Few studies have directly assessed the intensity of indoor cycling training and most existing investigations have examined the HR response in a laboratory simulated cycling session (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11). To date, the largest study addressing indoor cycling training intensity is that by López-Miñarro and Muyor-Rodriguez (3), who determined HR and RPE in 59 novice subjects and only during a single session. ...
... So far, the available data indicate a high exercise intensity during indoor cycling (3,(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Battista et al. (10) demonstrated that HR and VO2 during indoor cycling could exceed that observed during incremental exercise test. ...
... HR remains high during most of an indoor cycling session. Battista et al. (10) observed that during more than 10% of a session's duration, HR remained over the rates corresponding to the ventilatory threshold. In addition, Piacentini et al. (12) observed that during 80% of the sessions monitored, subjects showed HR higher than those of the target HR. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to quantify the intensity linked to an indoor cycling session. 300 healthy experienced subjects performed an indoor cycling session while HR was recorded between minute 1-15 (HRmean1), 16-30 min (HRmean2) and 31 min to the peak intensity of the session (HRmean3). RPE values were obtained at 15 min (RPE15), 30 min (RPE30) and 45 min (RPE45). Mean HR of the session was 144.84 ± 15.59 bpm. HRmean1, HRmean2 and HRmean3 were 135.37 ± 16.50 bpm, 148.84 ± 15.85 bpm, and 153.79 ± 16.66 bpm, respectively. RPE15, RPE30 and RPE45 values were 5.39 ± 1.72, 7.14 ± 1.34 and 7.14 ± 2.44, respectively. Bivariate correlations made between HR and RPE values showed significant correlation at 15 (r=0.336; p<0.01), 30 (r=0.291; p<0.01), and 45 (r=0.459; p<0.01) min. These data suggest that indoor cycling can be a vigorous intensity activity. © 2017, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid y CV Ciencias del Deporte. All rights reserved.
... IC is characterized by workout steps, as well as variable intensity and involvement of both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscles. Participants often perform the classes in a dimly lit fitness room, where they cycle to loud rhythmic music in a group on stationary bikes; the teacher provides verbal motivation and instructions 1,2 . IC classes are thought to expend a large amount of energy and are usually very demanding and challenging for participants. ...
... Despite its worldwide popularity, few scientific studies have assessed the impact of IC on metabolic and cardiovascular functions 1,3 . and surface electromyography (sEMG) has only been used in studies with outdoor cycling sessions 4,5 , or with common stationary bikes 6 . ...
... Some authors recommend that the exercise intensity for novice individuals should be lower than the 50-85% recommended by ASCM 8 . They also suggest that the volume of standing climb during the classes should be reduced for novices 1 . In our study, the teacher instructed participants to increase intensity when cycling on the stationary bikes, but this was done voluntarily and at a level chosen by the participant. ...
Article
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Indoor cycling (IC) has recently been increasing in popularity and gaining recognition as an effective training activity. Howe- ver, few studies have investigated the benefits of IC for sedentary participants, and the electrical activity of muscles during IC classes, in fitness clubs, has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare muscle activity, heart rate (HR), and subjective effort between two groups (sedentary participants and trained teachers of the fitness club), over three IC classes. Thirty-eight volunteers were split into two groups according to their fitness status and weekly training load. Each participant completed three IC classes in a private gym over separate days. Variables were compared both between groups and within classes. Exercise intensity, assessed using the HR, was similar in both groups. The subjective perceived effort, assessed using the Borg Scale, was significantly higher in the sedentary group. However, the surface electromyographic (sEMG) data showed adaptive responses in this group after three classes. There was a trend for a gradual reduction in fatigue in sedentary partici- pants, especially for the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles, raising doubts regarding the inclusion of individuals with different training levels in the same class. The root mean square and median frequency of the sEMG data changed over the three IC classes, indicating adaptation to fatigue in the sedentary group, but not in trained participants. Thus, IC can be incorporated into protocols for sedentary individuals, but the short-term adaptation suggests that developing a specific class/ protocol for beginners might be appropriate. They could then be included in an advanced class after the third day of training.
... Some studies have evaluated the exercise intensity of several modes of sport [5,9,32] and fitness activities such as aerobic dance [23,31] or Spinning ® cycle indoor [4,6,19,29], using the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR). ...
... Such a variable-intensity exercise is typically accomplished by changing workload during different stages of the workout to reach different target HR throughout exercise. A few studies have analyzed the intensity pattern of Spinning ® cycle indoor and concluded that the Spinning ® routine is a strenuous physical activity [4,6,19,38] that may be inappropriate for novice subjects. However, in some studies, the subjects individually performed a choreography based on standard videotape in a laboratory setting. ...
... The main purposes of this study were to evaluate the intensity pattern of a Spinning ® session in a real setting (fitness club) and to determine the validity of RPE in novice adults. Previous studies stated that the Spinning ® cycle indoor class is a high-intensity exercise [4,18,38]. Our results show values within the HR limits, 50-85%HRR, recommended by ACSM [1] for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. ...
Article
Objectives. - Spinning (R) cycle indoor has become a popular cardiovascular activity for group exercise classes. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate (HR) response of novice subjects performing 45-min Spinning (R) cycle indoor, and to determine the criterion-related validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) as measure of exercise intensity in novice subjects. Methods. - Fifty-nine subjects ranging from 18 to 38 years (mean +/- SD, age: 32.1 +/- 10.2 years), were recruited from a private fitness club. HR and overall RPE were measured during the session. The Spinning (R) session comprised a warm-up (10 min), and a 25-min trial (cardiovascular phase) of flat, run, seated climb, and standing climb activities followed by a cool down (10 min). Results. - The mean values of the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) and overall RPE in cardiovascular phase were 71.1 +/- 13.7% and 14.2 +/- 1.8 points, respectively. The correlation value between overall RPE and %HRR was moderate to weak, but significant (r=0.41, p < 0.05). Conclusions. - The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate-to-hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode for novice subjects. The reduced validity obtained for the overall RPE suggests that more studies must be performed before using this scale to regulate exercise intensity in novice adults during indoor cycling class.
... Several studies have reported that indoor cycling is a strenuous physical activity (Battista et al., 2008;Caria et al., 2007;Foster et al., 2006;López-Minarro and Muyor, 2010;Muyor and López-Miñarrro, 2012;Richey et al., 1999) which may be inappropriate for novice subjects (Battista et al., 2008;Caria et al., 2007;Foster et al., 2006). Moreover, in literature there are some rhabdomyolysis cases due to the practice of indoor cycling (Montero et al., 2009;Young and Thompson, 2004). ...
... Several studies have reported that indoor cycling is a strenuous physical activity (Battista et al., 2008;Caria et al., 2007;Foster et al., 2006;López-Minarro and Muyor, 2010;Muyor and López-Miñarrro, 2012;Richey et al., 1999) which may be inappropriate for novice subjects (Battista et al., 2008;Caria et al., 2007;Foster et al., 2006). Moreover, in literature there are some rhabdomyolysis cases due to the practice of indoor cycling (Montero et al., 2009;Young and Thompson, 2004). ...
... Moreover, in literature there are some rhabdomyolysis cases due to the practice of indoor cycling (Montero et al., 2009;Young and Thompson, 2004). Battista et al. (2008) found in two simulated indoor cycling classes that there are some moments of the session when the VO2 exceeded the VO2max observed during incremental testing. Crumpton et al. (1999) found that the HR response was 83% of the subjects´ age-predicted maximum in 40 minutes of indoor cycling. ...
Article
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The purpose of the study was: 1) to determine the intensity of an indoor cycling session; 2) to know the correlation between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales (Borg and OMNI) and % heart rate reserve (%HRR) with categories; and 3) to evaluate the validity of RPE scales (Borg and OMNI) with respect to the heart rate (HR) and %HRR. A total of fifty-three subjects, 25 males and 28 females (ages: 28.79 ± 6.04 years; body height: 1.71 ± 0.09 m; body mass: 69.59 ± 13.69 kg) were recruited from a private fitness club. All subjects performed the same predesigned indoor cycling session with a total duration of 50 minutes. During the experimental trial, the HR was recorded every 5 s. The Borg 6-20 RPE and OMNI 0-10 scales were used to assess perceived exertion in each phase. The average HR in the cardiovascular phase was 152.24 ± 14.11 b•min-1, the %HRR was 80.62 ± 7.10; and the overall RPE (Borg and OMNI scales) was 14.94 ± 1.11 and 7.18 ± 0.79 points, respectively. The correlation between an average HR and %HRR with Borg and OMNI scales was lower than r = 0.4 (p < 0.05). The correlation value between the Borg and the OMNI RPE scales was r = 0.82 (p < 0.001). It can be concluded that indoor cycling elicits effort of high intensity which could be inappropriate for some participants. The Borg and OMNI scales showed a low validity to quantify the intensity performed in indoor cycling sessions. It indicates the necessity to control the intensity of effort with other instruments to improve efficacy and decrease the risk of overload in this activity.
... HR is the variable most frequently recommended for controlling intensity in IC [2,3]. However, besides the variations of the intensity of the exercise [4,5], there are multiple factors that can bias the HR, thus the HR can increase or decrease without intensity being the direct cause. These factors include cycling rhythm [6,7], ambient temperature [8,9], state of hydration [10], and music stimuli [11]. ...
... The most frequently used RPE scales are the Borg (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), the Borg CR-10 (0-10), and the OMNI-Cycle scale (0-10) [18]. These RPE scales have been shown to be reliable in the control of exercise intensity during cycling for men and women [19,20] who are familiar with the effort scale and with the exercise mode [21]; however, some authors assert that exercise intensity control during IC is best carried out through the use of HR [3][4][5]22]. ...
... This study is pertinent because there is a lack of consensus in the existing literature concerning the safety of IC, as the intensity has been shown to exceed the levels of maximum effort reached in the laboratory [4,5]. Therefore, it is important to find a safe and effective way to self-regulate intensity during IC. ...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor cycling’s popularity is related to the combination of music and exercise leading to higher levels of exercise intensity. It was our objective to determine the efficacy of heart rate and rating of perceived exertion in controlling the intensity of indoor cycling classes and to quantify their association with oxygen uptake. Twelve experienced males performed three indoor cycling sessions of 45 min that differed in the way the intensity was controlled: (i) oxygen uptake; (ii) heart rate; and (iii) rating of perceived exertion using the OMNI-Cycling. The oxygen uptake levels were significantly higher (p = 0.007; μp2 = 0.254) in oxygen uptake than heart rate sessions. Oxygen uptake related to body mass was significantly higher (p < 0.005) in the oxygen uptake sessions compared with other sessions. Strong correlations were observed between oxygen uptake mean in the oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion sessions (r =0.986, p < 0.0001) and between oxygen uptake mean in the oxygen uptake and heart rate sessions (r = 0.977, p < 0.0001). Both heart rate and rating of perceived exertion are effective in controlling the intensity of indoor cycling classes in experienced subjects. However, the use of rating of perceived exertion is easier to use and does not require special instrumentation.
... In studies on the effectiveness of cycling, it is emphasized that an adequate load can be provided due to a wide range of variations in pedal frequency and resistance level [9,10]. Researchers have studied the features of thermoregulation and changes in lactate level after IC training, and the optimal parameters for the intensity of training were identified [11,12,13,14]. The feasibility and effectiveness of applying IC programs in women of different ages, based on the optimization of physical activity and the selection of special exercises depending on the parameters of their functional state and the presence of diseases, have also been investigated [15,16]. ...
... Coordination was developed by Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2019, 26(3), [14][15][16][17][18][19] implementing riding in a standing position without the hands supported on the handlebars, alternating sitting and standing, and alternating standing and standing uphill. ...
... At the end of the study, the increase in jump height was already 11.13%, the average difference Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2019, 26(3), [14][15][16][17][18][19] between the values being 2.76 cm (F1,28 = 50.349, p < 0.0001). ...
Article
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Introduction. Indoor cycling training programs at fitness clubs offer the possibility of optimizing the structure and amount of physical activity, which reduces the risk of disrupting the adaptive abilities of women’s bodies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an indoor cycling program on the body composition and physical fitness of young women. Material and methods. Twenty-nine women (age = 29.31 ± 3.40 years, body weight = 70.71 ± 6.15 kg, and height = 169.83 ± 3.17 cm) took part in the study, participating in three classes per week for 16 weeks. Each class included three periods: the preparatory, main, and supporting periods. Body composition (waist circumference and body mass index), cardiorespiratory fitness (VО2max), motor fitness (balance), and musculoskeletal fitness (upper and lower body muscle strength and muscular endurance) were compared before the beginning of the study and after 10 and 16 weeks of training. Changes recorded in each variable over time were analyzed statistically using repeated measures methods. Results. Significant improvements in physical fitness were identified in the values of the body mass index (7.81%; ES: 0.95, p = 0.0001) and VО2max (12.51%; ES: 1.02, p = 0.0001). Moderate improvements were found in lower body muscle strength (11.13%; ES: 0.66, p = 0.0001) and waist circumference (6.05%, ES: 0.65, p = 0.0001). There was an increase in the strength of the muscles of the upper body (5.27%; ES: 0.41, p = 0.0001), muscular endurance (8.20%; ES: 0.32, p = 0.0001), and balance (10.68%; ES: 0.29, p = 0.003). Conclusion. Indoor cycling in a fitness club is an effective form of exercise for young women; it has targeted training effects on the body’s functional systems, adaptive abilities, and physical fitness.
... Workout steps, as well as variable intensity and involvement of both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscles characterize IC. Lessons are undertaken in a dimly lit fitness room where participants cycle together on stationary bikes and follow the loud music rhythm 13 , motivation words, and instructions of a teacher 1,3 . IC classes are thought to expend a large amount of energy and are usually very demanding and challenging for participants 14 . ...
... Some Authors recommend that the exercise intensity for novice individuals should be lower than the 50-85% recommended by ASCM 25 . They also suggest that the volume of standing climb during the session should be reduced for novices 1 . In our study, the teacher instructed participants to increase intensity when cycling on the stationary bikes, but this was done voluntarily and at a level chosen by the participant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Indoor Cycling (IC) has been gaining recognition and popularity within recent years and few studies have investigated its benefits for sedentary participants. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the surface electromyography (sEMG) variables, heart rate (HR), and subjective effort in sedentary participants while they performed an IC session and to compare their results with the trained subjects, to answer the question: Are trained cyclists less susceptible to muscle fatigue, since it is expected that they make less effort? Design: Twenty-six volunteers were split into two groups according to their fitness status and weekly training load. Each participant completed an IC session in a private gym, lasting 45 minutes and were encouraged to follow the pedaling frequency and cycle resistance, within their limitations. Main Outcome Measures: HR, participants' subjective effort on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (Borg Scale) and sEMG data were compared between groups. Results: 28.6% of the sedentary participants withdrew from the study. Exercise intensity, assessed using the HR, was similar in both groups. The subjective perceived effort, assessed using the Borg Scale, was significantly higher in the sedentary group. All muscles considered in the sedentary group had higher variation levels of Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) than those in the trained group. Conclusion: Sedentary participants are more likely to present fatigue and IC can be incorporated into protocols for this population, but their fitness levels should be taken into account because each performance depends on the individual's physical fitness. Level of evidence: IIIb.
... As far as we know, no study has investigated cardiac adaptations from a realistic, instructor-led indoor cycling class previously, although a few studies have investigated physiological effects and metabolic demands in this setting [3,4,6,14]. In summary, these studies show that during a standard indoor cycling class, similar to that applied in the current study, there are relatively large variations in oxygen uptake and heart rate, with considerable time spent above the anaerobic threshold [3,4,14].This has led to different conclusions about the feasibility and suitability for untrained indi- viduals [4,6]. ...
... As far as we know, no study has investigated cardiac adaptations from a realistic, instructor-led indoor cycling class previously, although a few studies have investigated physiological effects and metabolic demands in this setting [3,4,6,14]. In summary, these studies show that during a standard indoor cycling class, similar to that applied in the current study, there are relatively large variations in oxygen uptake and heart rate, with considerable time spent above the anaerobic threshold [3,4,14].This has led to different conclusions about the feasibility and suitability for untrained indi- viduals [4,6]. In the current study, no signs of negative effects upon the heart were apparent, while there were several signs of improved fitness in the EX group. ...
Article
Cross-sectional studies provide evidence of larger cardiac dimensions and mass in endurance trained than in untrained females. Much less is known regarding adaptations in cardiac function following training in untrained subjects. We aimed to study left ventricular (LV) adaptation to indoor cycling in previously untrained females, in regard of LV dimensions, mass and function. 42 sedentary females were divided into 2 equally sized groups, either training indoor cycling at regular classes at a local gym for 12 weeks, in average 2.6 times per week, or maintaining their sedentary lifestyle. Echocardiography at rest and a maximal exercise test were performed before and after the intervention. Exercise capacity increased in average 16% in the exercise group (p<0.001), together with decreased heart rate at rest (p<0.05) and at 120 watts steady-state (p<0.001). There were no difference in systolic or diastolic function following the intervention and minimal increases in LV internal diameter in diastole (+1 mm, p<0.01). LV mass was unchanged with training (137±25 vs. 137±28 g, p=0.911). Our findings indicate that attending indoor cycling classes at a gym 2-to-3 times per week for 12 weeks is enough to improve exercise capacity, while a higher volume of training is required to elicit cardiac adaptations.
... Instructor-led cycling classes (i.e., indoor cycling) are a popular way to integrate HIIT in a group setting. Indoor cycling tends to combine aspects from aerobic training, interval training, and mixed intensity training, and may lead to very high within-workout values for VO2, HR, and [HLa] [15,16]. During a class, intensity is modified by changing interval intensity level, sequencing, and work to recovery ratios. ...
... Based on physiological markers, the three sessions showed average values of 72% HRmax and 51% VO2max, resulting in a moderate intensity exercise [23]. Findings are in line with the study from Battista and colleagues [15] but in contrast with Piacentini et al. [16], in which higher intensity were found (86% HRmax and 79% VO2max) in an older sample (>30 years of age). sRPE and EES were used to investigate the individual perceptual responses to the exercise protocol. ...
Article
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Although cycling class intensity can be modified by changing interval intensity sequencing, it has not been established whether the intensity order can alter physiological and perceptual responses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of interval intensity sequencing on energy expenditure (EE), physiological markers, and perceptual responses during indoor cycling. Healthy volunteers (10 males = 20.0 ± 0.8years; 8 females = 21.3 ± 2.7years) completed three randomly ordered interval bouts (mixed pyramid—MP, ascending intervals—AI, descending intervals—DI) including three 3-min work bouts at 50%, 75%, and 100% of peak power output (PPO) and three 3-min recovery periods at 25% PPO. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were expressed as percentages of maximal HR (%HRmax) and VO2 (%VO2max). EE was computed for both the work bout and for the 5-min recovery period. Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES) were recorded. No differences emerged for % HRmax (MP = 73.3 ± 6.1%; AI = 72.1 ± 4.9%; DI = 71.8 ± 4.5%), % VO2max (MP = 51.8 ± 4.6%; AI = 51.4 ± 3.9%; DI = 51.3 ± 4.5%), EE (MP = 277.5 ± 39.9 kcal; AI = 275.8 ± 39.4 kcal; DI = 274.9 ± 42.1 kcal), EES (MP = 4.9 ± 1.0; AI = 5.3 ± 1.1; DI = 4.9 ± 0.9), and sRPE (MP = 4.9 ± 1.0; AI = 5.3 ± 1.1; DI = 4.9 ± 0.9). EE during recovery was significantly (p < 0.005) lower after DI (11.9 ± 3.2 kcal) with respect to MP (13.2 ± 2.5 kcal) and AI (13.3 ± 2.5 kcal). Although lower EE was observed during recovery in DI, interval intensity sequencing does not affect overall EE, physiological markers, and perceptual responses.
... Despite its popularity within the fitness community, little research exists that quantifies cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular responses to Spinning (2,9,11,12,17); and we could find no controlled studies that examined these responses relative to POS and RPE patterns commonly used during Spinning; the 2 factors by which changes in intensity are controlled during a Spinning workout. In contrast, numerous studies have examined cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses among supine, seated, and standing positions in road cyclists with varying results (10,13,14,19,25,29,32,33). A study by Caria et al. (9) assessed metabolic and cardiovascular responses during a simulated 50-minute Spinning class. ...
... Additionally, Kang et al. (17) showed that at a constant workload of 67 6 3% HR max or varying intensities where workload averaged 68 6 4% HR max , average RPE reflected the average intensity. This is especially pertinent since their measurements were made within the intensity range of a typical Spinning class (2). ...
Article
Spinning® is a popular group exercise taught in health and fitness facilities worldwide. Throughout a Spinning® workout session, intensity is variable and is controlled by body position on the Spinner® stationary cycle and perceived resistance. This study examined the effects of 3 body positions and 4 levels of perceived exertion (RPE) on cardiorespiratory response and vastus lateralis normalized electromyographical activity (NrmsEMGVL). Eleven participants (24.4±6.3 years) with 3.2±2.2 years of Spinning® experience completed twelve, three-minute randomly assigned Spinning® conditions across four separate testing days following an 8-hour fast. Conditions were determined by body position (seated, running, and standing climb) and RPE (low, low-medium, medium-high, high).Cardiorespiratory data and NrmsEMGVL were recorded continuously during each Spinning® condition. Respiratory rate and oxygen consumption were significantly higher for running and standing climb than seated, and minute ventilation was significantly higher for running than seated. All cardiorespiratory values were higher at medium-high and high RPE, than low or medium-low RPE, and high RPE generated higher respiratory rate and RER than medium-high RPE. Significant body position x RPE interactions were observed for heart rate and NrmsEMGVL with running and standing climb producing higher heart rates than seated at low and high RPE, and running producing higher NrmsEMGVL than seated at low RPE. Results indicate that running and standing climb provide the greatest cardiorespiratory responses, and maximal efforts are not needed for these responses. Additionally, heart rate appears to be a poor marker of oxygen consumption, especially at high RPEs.
... Among cardiovascular activities, Spinning® cycle indoor has gained popularity within recent years in the fitness industry being an alternative form of exercise that is performed to music in a group exercise setting that may assist in achieving the recommended levels of physical activity for some individuals. A few studies have analyzed the intensity pattern of Spinning® cycle indoor and concluded that the Spinning® routine is a strenuous physical activity [25,26]. Despite its worldwide popularity, little research exists that quantifies the ovarian reserve response to spinning. ...
... On the basis of these previous studies, the main reason for these findings is unclear, but there is a reasonable explanation. Spinning exercise, as in our study, can be considered as a high-intensity exercise mode [26]. Today, it is well known that strenuous physical activity causes anovulation and amenorrhea. ...
Article
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Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether spinning exercise may have an impact on ovarian reserve capacity in reproductive young women. Material and methods: 48 healthy women were included into this prospective cohort study and randomly categorized into control (n = 14) and experimental groups (n = 12). Spinning exercise sessions were conducted for 50 minutes three times a week for 8 weeks in the study group. The control group did not exercise. Immediately before and after the spinning program, each participant underwent the measurements of the body mass index, the waist circumference, the hip circumference as well as serum anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), estradiol (EM), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Results: There were significant differences in both of group in terms of antropemetric features (body weight, BMI, fat percent, waist circumference and hip circumference). There was only a significant difference of AMH in the experimental group. Conclusions: Spinning exercise would be an important cause of associated with a decreased serum AMH level in reproductive young women. Further research should expand the finding by questioning whether intensity or practicing is an important mechanism in reproductive young women. Key words: exercise, spinning, ovarian reserve, AMHh anti-müllerian hormone.
... Workout steps, as well as variable intensity and involvement of both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscles characterize IC. Lessons are undertaken in a dimly lit fitness room where participants cycle together on stationary bikes and follow the loud music rhythm 13 , motivation words, and instructions of a teacher 1,3 . IC classes are thought to expend a large amount of energy and are usually very demanding and challenging for participants 14 . ...
... Some Authors recommend that the exercise intensity for novice individuals should be lower than the 50-85% recommended by ASCM 25 . They also suggest that the volume of standing climb during the session should be reduced for novices 1 . In our study, the teacher instructed participants to increase intensity when cycling on the stationary bikes, but this was done voluntarily and at a level chosen by the participant. ...
... The mental in- volvement and concentration could improve physical adroitness and overcome physical fatigue. Few stud- ies have been conducted to investigate the effects of spinning though some authors have demonstrated the beneficial effects of this pattern of physical activity on cardiovascular weal [17,18]. Despite this, it has been emphasized that spinning puts strain on the cardio- vascular system, questioning whether it can be recom- mended in the elderly [17]. ...
Article
Background: Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of spinning exercise on cardio-vascular weal. Aim: To assess whether a 6 months spinning training, combined with proper diet, is more effective than standard training programs and diet alone in improving metabolic abnormalities in middle-aged and older adults. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting: Rehabilitation Unit of our Department. Population: Patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with diet (group A, n = 10), with diet and general gymnastics program (group B, n = 10), with diet and spinning physical training program (group C, n = 10). Results: During the study period we observed a significant reduction in blood pressure (group C: systolic blood pressure p = 0.03; diastolic blood pressure p = 0.004 / group B: systolic blood pressure p = 0.001), in lipid profile (group B: plasma total cholesterol p = 0.001; triglycerides p = 0.001 / group C: plasma total cholesterol p = 0.04); in fasting blood glucose (group B: p = 0.01; group C: p = 0.008); in Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (group B: p = 0.01; group C: p = 0.001); in waist circumference (group C: p = 0.005; group A: p = 0.02; group B: p = 0.04). No patients reported adverse events during follow-up. Conclusion: Our results confirm the effectiveness of spinning training combined with diet in the management of MetS. Clinical rehabilitation impact: The findings provide a preliminary evidence to support that spinning training may represent a useful and safe intervention also in middle-aged and older adults geriatric with multiple CV risk factors.
... Weather and daylight factor into training, with many riders training indoors or avoiding longer rides during the colder months and shorter days. It is important to note that there are physiologic differences between indoor and outdoor cycling (9,36), with research showing higher power output during outdoor riding despite the same RPE (29). With the development of new technology and devices, cyclists can record location, distance, elevation, HR, and power output for both personal use and the review of coaches or medical professionals. ...
Article
The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.
... hey et al. (1999) evaluaron la respuesta cardiovascular en dos sesiones de ciclismo indoor de 45 minutos de duración, encontrando una intensidad media entre el sesenta y el ochenta y cinco por ciento del VO 2 max en ambas sesiones. Foster et al. (2006) registraron una intensidad media del ochenta y cinco por ciento de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima. Battista et al. (2008) observaron, tras analizar la respuesta cardiovascular en dos sesiones realizadas siguiendo un vídeo de ciclismo indoor, que la intensidad media durante la mayor parte del tiempo de las dos sesiones estaba en un rango del setenta y cinco y el ochenta por ciento del VO 2 máx. Aunque, la prescripción de la intensidad del ejercicio debería ...
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One hundred and thirty-three subjects between 22 and 64 years old (38 males and 95 females) from a private sport centre participated in this study. Mean percentage heart rate intensity (%HRR) and overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during an indoor cycling session. Mean %HRR and RPE shown during the main phase were considered as high intensity in male and females. The correlation value between %HHR and overall RPE was low but significant. In conclusion, indoor cycling is a high-intensity activity. Borg’s RPE is not a valid instrument for controlling the intensity of effort during indoor cycling activity.
... A caracterização e deteção destes per s de comunicação e otimização no desenvolvimento pro ssional pode levar a uma maior adesão a programas de tness e aumentar a motivação dos seu praticantes. Palavras chave: comunicação paraverbal, metodologia observacional, padrões-T, tness Introducción La práctica de las actividades físicas dirigidas por profesionales puede asegurar niveles de condición física saludable (Battista et al., 2008;Berry, Cline, Berry y Davis, 1992). La comunicación positiva que promueven las sesiones de tness en grupo y las sensaciones de autocon anza que promueven sus profesionales asegura el éxito de los programas, la existencia de un buen clima en las sesiones aumenta la motivación y la adhesión de sus practicantes (Moreno y Martínez, 2006;Moreno, et al. 2010). ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze paraverbal communication and communication patterns in fitness instructors in four disciplines: body step, toning, aqua fitness, and indoor cycling. Using observational methodology, we filmed 12 workout sessions (3 for each discipline) led by twelve expert instructors (all women, with a mean age of 31±6.14 years). The sessions were observed using the SOCIN-fitness and SOPROX-fitness observation instruments and analyzed using the LINCE multiplatform sports analysis software. Descriptive results and time patterns (T-patterns) yielded by SPSS v.20.0 and THEME 5.0, respectively, revealed marked variability in kinesic and proxemic behaviors in all 4 disciplines, in addition to a predominance of gestures marked by the execution of the activities, with little interaction and participation with members of the class. Optimization of communication between fitness instructors and participants is key to improving motivation and acceptance of fitness programmes among the general population.
... 12 The stationary bike is an intensive closed-skill fitness program that requires aerobic adaptation of the cardiorespiratory system. 13 For these characteristics, stationary bike has been widely used to investigate effects of music on physical activity. 14, 15 Karageorghis and Terry 16 COPYRIGHT© 2015 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA This document is protected by international copyright laws. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhythmical and extra-rhythmical qualities of music on the Heart Rate (HR) and rates of perceived exertion (RPE), during sub maximal stationary bike activity. HR of 28 female adult participants was monitored during 3 session of physical activity, performed under 3 different conditions: Hi-BPM (music with 150-170 BPM), RHYTHM (rhythmical qualities only of Hi-BPM condition) and control condition without music (CONTROL). Four parameters were analyzed: the highest HR value (High-HR), High-HR minus starting HR (ΔHR), time to reach the 75% of Maximal HR (MHR) (TimeTo75%) and time over 75% MHR (TimeOver75%). HR trend analysis was performed to evaluate differences among the three conditions. OMNICycle Scale was administered to evaluate RPE. MANOVA showed significant differences between the three conditions in TimeTo75%, ΔHR (p<0.01) and TimeOver75% (p<0.05). In RHYTHM and CONTROL conditions after reaching 75% MHR, the HR increase were significantly lower than Hi-BPM (p<0.01). No significant differences were found in OMNI-Cycle Scale scores of Hi-BPM and RHYTHM whereas RPE was significantly higher in CONTROL condition (p<0.05). Hi-BPM and RHYTHM music allowed a faster reaching of the aerobic training zone compared to CONTROL conditions. Nevertheless, after 75% MHR, extra-rhythmical qualities are necessary to maintain or to increase the working HR levels.
... A caracterização e deteção destes per s de comunicação e otimização no desenvolvimento pro ssional pode levar a uma maior adesão a programas de tness e aumentar a motivação dos seu praticantes. Palavras chave: comunicação paraverbal, metodologia observacional, padrões-T, tness Introducción La práctica de las actividades físicas dirigidas por profesionales puede asegurar niveles de condición física saludable (Battista et al., 2008;Berry, Cline, Berry y Davis, 1992). La comunicación positiva que promueven las sesiones de tness en grupo y las sensaciones de autocon anza que promueven sus profesionales asegura el éxito de los programas, la existencia de un buen clima en las sesiones aumenta la motivación y la adhesión de sus practicantes (Moreno y Martínez, 2006;Moreno, et al. 2010). ...
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El objetivo de este estudio es el análisis de la comunicación paraverbal y los perfiles comunicativos de los instructores de programas de Fi tness: step, tonificación, Fitness acuático y cycling. Aplicamos la metodología observacional para grabar videográ$camente doce instructoras expertas (n = 12 mujeres, edad de 31 ± 6.14 años), a razón de tres sesiones de cada uno de estos cuatro programas, que registramos con los instrumentos de observación SOCIN-Fitness, SOPROX-Fitness y codificado mediante el software LINCE. Los resultados descriptivos y de patrones temporales (T-patterns), obtenidos respectivamente mediante los programas SPSS v.20.0. y THEME 5.0., revelan una gran variabilidad en el comportamiento cinésico y proxémico de las instructoras de cada actividad, y también un predominio gestual condicionado por la ejecución con escasa riqueza interactiva y participativa hacia los usuarios. La optimización de los intercambios comunicativos de las instructoras es esencial para promover una mayor motivación y aceptación de los programas de &tness de la población.
... Segundo Battista et al. [29], em aulas de CI ocorrem picos de frequência cardíaca (FC), VO2máx, e sprints de velocidade acima do limiar anaeróbio, tornando o CI uma atividade de alta intensidade. Esta intensidade é benéfica como estratégia para promover o condicionamento físico e aumentar o gasto energético diário. ...
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Background. The Indoor Cycling (IC) is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the physiological responses and adaptations to this modality. In this sense, experimentation is needed for scientific understanding of IC. Aim. To analyze studies that have investigated physiological responses in IC, with primary attention to methodological aspects. Methods. A critical review was conducted after a search using keywords in the databases, books and conference proceedings. Results. The study described variables that contributed to the development of IC. The metabolic variables most frequently investigated were the production of lactic acid, change in heart rate and VO2. Conclusion. Few studies have investigated the importance of music in the classroom and these studies show rare adverse effects. However, we highlight the inconsistency of data regarding energy expenditure in the IC as well as the limitation of the bike used to measure the load and the power produced. Thus, studies that seek to improve and/or validate the cyclergometer equipped with fixed-pion are required
... Furthermore, Spinning exercise routines are usually practiced in environments equipped with acoustical systems in order to increase the motivation to participants [10][11][12]. This self-paced high-intensity exercise mode [13] has been incorporated in physical exercise programs of clubs and gyms, and recommended for healthy and individuals with metabolic disorders such as T1DM people [14,15]. However, how this indoor exercise mode impact the acute blood glucose concentrations in T1DM individuals remains unexplored. ...
Article
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune metabolic disorder characterized by a pancreatic cells inability to secrete insulin. Diabetic individuals are frequently treated with a multidisciplinary program which includes regular physical exercise. The Spinning cycling is an exercise mode currently practiced by different individuals in gyms and clubs. However, the impact of acute Spinning routines on the blood glucose levels in type I diabetic individuals has not been reported. Here, we reported the acute effects of continuous and intermittent Spinning exercise routines in the blood glucose responses of a diabetic woman (26 years old, 52.8 kg, 161.0 cm and 16.7% of body fat). Three different intensities ranging from 60 to 90% of heart rate reserve were investigated. Overall results suggest that such Spinning routines were able to induce decreases in the blood glucose levels in the type 1 diabetic woman investigated. In addition, continuous light and moderate Spinning routines induced the greater blood glucose concentrations reduction.
... Furthermore, Spinning exercise routines are usually practiced in environments equipped with acoustical systems in order to increase the motivation to participants [10][11][12]. This self-paced high-intensity exercise mode [13] has been incorporated in physical exercise programs of clubs and gyms, and recommended for healthy and individuals with metabolic disorders such as T1DM people [14,15]. However, how this indoor exercise mode impact the acute blood glucose concentrations in T1DM individuals remains unexplored. ...
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune metabolic disorder characterized by a pancreatic cells inability to secrete insulin. Diabetic individuals are frequently treated with a multidisciplinary program which includes regular physical exercise. The Spinning cycling is an exercise mode currently practiced by different individuals in gyms and clubs. However, the impact of acute Spinning routines on the blood glucose levels in type I diabetic individuals has not been reported. Here, we reported the acute effects of continuous and intermittent Spinning exercise routines in the blood glucose responses of a diabetic woman (26 years old, 52.8 kg, 161.0 cm and 16.7% of body fat). Three different intensities ranging from 60 to 90% of heart rate reserve were investigated. Overall results suggest that such Spinning routines were able to induce decreases in the blood glucose levels in the type 1 diabetic woman investigated. In addition, continuous light and moderate Spinning routines induced the greater blood glucose concentrations reduction.
... Several exercises modalities are offered in Spa Club centers for improving aerobic capacity. Spinning is considered a high intensity interval exercise modality [6] which leads to improve bone mineral density as a health benefit [7]. Furthermore, highintensity interval exercise may improve health status [8]. ...
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Our aim was to evaluate the recovery effects of hydrotherapy after aerobic exercise in cardiovascular, performance and perceived fatigue. A pragmatic controlled repeated measures; single-blind trial was conducted. Thirty-four recreational sportspeople visited a Sport-Centre and were assigned to a Hydrotherapy group (experimental) or rest in a bed (control) after completing a spinning session. Main outcomes measures including blood pressure, heart rate, handgrip strength, vertical jump, self-perceived fatigue, and body temperature were assessed at baseline, immediately post-exercise and post-recovery. The hypothesis of interest was the session*time interaction. The analysis revealed significant session*time interactions for diastolic blood pressure (P=0.031), heart rate (P=0.041), self perceived fatigue (P=0.046), and body temperature (P=0.001); but not for vertical jump (P=0.437), handgrip (P=0.845) or systolic blood pressure (P=0.266). Post-hoc analysis revealed that hydrotherapy resulted in recovered heart rate and diastolic blood pressure similar to baseline values after the spinning session. Further, hydrotherapy resulted in decreased self-perceived fatigue after the spinning session. Our results support that hydrotherapy is an adequate strategy to facilitate cardiovascular recovers and perceived fatigue, but not strength, after spinning exercise.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01765387.
... Total energy cost is reduced since total cycling time is lesser tan total workout time. Also, termoregulation response is clearly harder for indoor cycling (Battista et al 2008). This value must be considered by the cyclist, being around up a to 20% difference. ...
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Cejuela-Anta R, Esteve-Lanao J. Training load quantification in triathlon. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 218-232, 2011. There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia¿s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathlon simple application.
... It is an exercise modality using both upper body and lower body together with music of fast rhythm on a fixed bicycle, and is known as a popular sport especially for women. Especially, spinning is reported as an exercise that consumes twice as much calories as a general bicycle exercise (Battista et al., 2008;Caria et al., 2007;Hazelhurst and Claassen, 2006;Kang et al., 2005;López-Miñarro et al., 2010). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of spinning and bicycling exercises on body composition, physical fitness and blood variables in female adolescents. Subjects participated in this study were 24 female middle school students (12 spinning cycles, 12 general bicycles) attending to Seoul Yeoksam middle school. Each group was trained for 16 weeks, 3 times a week, and 1 hr per day after school. Body composition, physical fitness (1,200 running, sit-ups, back strength, sit and reach, side-steps) and blood variables (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, reactive oxygen species, and malondialdehyde) were examined before and after 16 weeks of training. As the results, body weight did not show any significant difference; however, body mass index, and % body fat were significantly difference in spinning group. The enhancement in physical fitness factors were recognized in both groups, which was greater in spinning group in sit-ups, back strength, and side steps. Blood parameters were significantly difference between groups, but between group and time interactions were significantly difference in glucose and reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, this study suggests that 16 weeks of bicycle exercises were positive changes in body composition, physical fitness and blood constituents, indicating that spinning cycle is more beneficial as compared to ordinary bicycle.
... Indoor spinning is a high-intensity indoor physical activity offered in many gyms [1,2]. During each spinning session, participants cycle on modified stationary bikes under the guidance of an instructor and with musical accompaniment. ...
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Objectives An increasing number of patients are diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis secondary to indoor spinning. We performed a systematic review to characterise the clinical features of this new clinical entity. Methods We conducted a thorough literature search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published from inception to June 23, 2021 were considered. A two-stage article selection process was performed. Articles that reported clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with spin-induced exertional rhabdomyolysis (SIER) were included. Quality assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklists. Results There were a total of 22 articles and 97 patients with SIER. Most patients were healthy females who had attended their first spinning session. The mean time to clinical presentation was 3.1 ± 1.5 days. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia, dark urine, and muscle weakness in the thighs. Seven patients (7.2%) developed acute kidney injury, and two patients (2.1%) required temporary inpatient hemodialysis. Four patients (4.1%) developed thigh compartment syndrome and required fasciotomies. No long-term sequelae or mortality were observed. The mean length of stay was 5.6 ± 2.9 days. Conclusions Healthcare professionals must have a high index of suspicion for SIER when a patient presents with myalgia, dark urine, or weakness after a recent episode of indoor spinning. Fitness centre owners, spinning instructors, and participants should also be better educated about the clinical features and manifestations of SIER.
... Spinning exercise is a popular aerobic activity, which is performed in groups and with music and the guidance of a trainer. Since spinning is a recreational physical activity, it could encourage exercising and is effective in enhancing the cardiovascular system (9). As a result, training would be possible at high intensities (10) to reduce cardiovascular risk factors (11). ...
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Background: Systematic inflammations are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The production of inflammatory mediators increases in a sedentary lifestyle and reduces with regular exercise. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of eight weeks of spinning workout and green tea supplementation on the anti-inflammatory and inflammatory markers and body composition of overweight women. Methods: This study was conducted on 32 overweight women who voluntarily participated in the research and were randomly assigned to the groups of spinning-green tea (SP-GT; n = 11), spinning-placebo (SP-PL; n = 11), and control (no exercise/placebo; n = 10). The experimental groups carried out eight weeks of spinning workout three days a week non-consecutively with the intensity of 11 - 17 rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured before the intervention and 48 hours after the last training session. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured. Results: After eight weeks of the intervention, BMI, BF%, and TNF-α significantly reduced in the SP-GT and SP-PL groups (P ≤ 0.05). Although the change in IL-6 was not significant in the intervention groups (P > 0.05), it significantly increased in the control group (P = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase was observed in IL-10 in the SP-GT and SP-PL groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, spinning workout improved the inflammatory markers and body composition independent of supplementation, while green tea had a greater effect on IL-10. Therefore, spinning workout could be used for the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors through the improvement of systematic inflammation.
... Spinning exercise is a popular aerobic activity, which is performed in groups and with music and the guidance of a trainer. Since spinning is a recreational physical activity, it could encourage exercising and is effective in enhancing the cardiovascular system (9). As a result, training would be possible at high intensities (10) to reduce cardiovascular risk factors (11). ...
... All the sessions were led and performed by an expert instructor, who verified that all the subjects followed the same training program. The sessions followed the conventional principles widely used in the indoor cycling community and consisted of a warm-up, systematic interval exercise, and cool-down [35]. The training session program was designed according to the intensity distribution of a polarized model as described by Seiler et al. [33]. ...
Article
PurposeThere is growing evidence of an association between physical activity and a reduced risk of cancer and cancer recurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise-conditioned human serum (HS) effects on the proliferative and tumorigenic potential of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and prostate cancer (PC) cells. Moreover, modulated mechanisms and several physiological factors that can predict exercise effects were investigated.Methods Thirty healthy sedentary subjects were recruited for the study. The subjects performed two high-intensity endurance cycling (HIEC) sessions before and after a nine-week period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Cell tumorigenic capacity affected by HS collected before (t0), immediately after (t1), 4 h (t2), and 24 h (t3) after the HIEC sessions was evaluated by in vitro three-dimensional colony formation. The modulation of molecular pathways was analyzed by western blotting and qPCR in TNBC and PC cells, and in TNBC xenografts in exercised mice.ResultsAll of the HIEC-conditioned HS (t1, t2, and t3) markedly impacted the proliferative and the microtumor-forming capacity of both TNBC and PC cell lines, while the HS collected from the subjects at rest did not. Modulation of the Hippo and Wnt/β-catenin pathways by HIEC-conditioned HS before and after the period of HIIT was shown. Multiple linear regression analysis showed relationships between the effects of HIEC-conditioned HS in PC cells, lactate threshold and VO2max.Conclusions These results highlight the potential of HIEC bouts in tumor progression control and the importance of optimizing an approach to identify physiological predictors of the effects of acute exercise in tertiary cancer prevention.
... The 32 subjects were divided in two groups of 16 and trained by two expert instructors with the aim of following the same training program. Each session was choreographed based on conventional principles (. warm-up, systematic high intensity interval exercise, and cool-down) widely used in the indoor cycling community [46]. The Fig. 1 Design of the experimental sessions at 1d and 9w. ...
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Background: Sports nutritional supplements containing branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been widely reported to improve psychological and biological aspects connected to central fatigue and performance in endurance exercise, although the topic is still open to debate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the intake of a commercially available BCAA-based supplement, taken according to the manufacturer's recommendations, could affect the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance indexes at the beginning (1d) and end of a 9-week (9w) scheduled high intensity interval training program, with an experimental approach integrating the determination of psychometric, performance, metabolic and blood biochemical parameters. Methods: This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-two untrained, healthy young adults (20 males and 12 female) were enrolled. A high-intensity endurance cycling (HIEC) test was used to induce fatigue in the participants: HIEC consisted in ten 90 s sprints interspersed by ten 3 min recovery phases and followed by a final step time to exhaustion was used. In parallel with RPE, haematological values (creatine kinase, alanine, BCAA, tryptophan, ammonia and glucose levels), and performance indexes (maximal oxygen consumption - VO2max, power associated with lactate thresholds - WLT1, WLT2 and time to exhaustion - TTE) were assessed. All subject took the supplement (13.2 g of carbohydrates; 3.2 g of BCAA and 1.6 g of L-alanine per dose) or placebo before each test and training session. Dietary habits and training load were monitored during the entire training period. Results: The administration of the supplement (SU) at 1d reduced RPE by 9% during the recovery phase, as compared to the placebo (PL); at 9w the RPE scores were reduced by 13 and 21% during the sprint and recovery phase, respectively; at 9w, prolonged supplement intake also improved TTE and TRIMP. SU intake invariably promoted a rapid increase (within 1 h) of BCAA serum blood levels and prevented the post-HIEC tryptophan: BCAA ratio increase found in the PL group, at both 1d and 9w. There was no difference in dietary habits between groups and those habits did not change over time; no difference in glycemia was found between SU and PL. VO2max, WLT1 and WLT2 values improved over time, but were unaffected by supplement intake. Conclusions: On the whole, these results suggest that i) the intake of the BCAA-based commercially available supplement used in this study reduces RPE as a likely consequence of an improvement in the serum tryptophan: BCAA ratio; ii) over time, reduced RPE allows subjects to sustain higher workloads, leading to increased TRIMP and TTE.
... 6 The IC is a fitness activity characterized by different steps of workouts including variable intensity and a high/moderate involvement of the cardiovascular system as well as the skeletal muscles. 7,8 The ZU is considered one of the best gym activities, in fashion in the last few years. 9 This activity is described as an exercise program inspired by latin dance, usually performed in large groups of participants, where latin rhythms and aerobic steps are combined. ...
Article
Background: Fitness activities such as indoor cycling (IC), Zumba® (ZU) and body pump (BP) are practiced by large segments of population. There are no studies showing which kind of fitness activity can produce more health benefits. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week of IC, alone or combined with ZU (IC+ZU), or BP (IC+BP), on blood pressure, body composition, and physical fitness. Methods: Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four groups: IC, IC+ZU, IC+BP or control group (CG). Before and after 8-week of training, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fat, lean and bone mass, body circumferences, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, limbs strength and vertical jump height (VJH) were assessed. Results: The IC and IC+ZU experienced significant decreases in SBP and DBP, which were significantly greater, compared to CG. Between-group comparisons showed greater decreases in body mass (BM) and body fat mass percentage (BFM) in IC compared to all groups, also significant differences were observed between IC+ZU and IC+B with CG. Decreases in neck, pectoral, waist and hip circumferences were found in IC, IC+ZU and IC+BP compared to CG. All experimental groups significantly increased 10RM leg press and leg flexion, VJH and VO2max compared to CG. Conclusions: Fitness classes of IC, alone or combined with ZU or BP, are effective in reducing blood pressure and improving body composition and physical fitness. The IC is the most effective in reducing BM and BFM.
... Por tanto, y a diferencia de las variables relacionadas con la fuerza y resistencia muscular, es posible que la mejora en la composición corporal y fitness cardiovascular requiera, al igual que las variables de fuerza máxima, de programas de entrenamiento con mayor duración (semanas) y/o volumen de trabajo (días por semana). Esta hipótesis se sustenta en el hecho de que otra actividad colectiva con similares valores de intensidad promedio como es el Spinning ® (Battista, Foster, Andrew, Wright, Lucia & Porcari, 2008;Caria, Tangianu, Concu, Crisafulli & Mameli, 2007;López-Miñarro & Muyor, 2010) ha demostrado ser una intervención eficaz para la mejora de la composición corporal tras ser aplicadas durante al menos 12 semanas (Bianco et al., 2010;Valle et al., 2010;Verrusio et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Resumen. El BodyJump® es una disciplina que ha irrumpido fuertemente en los últimos años en los centros deportivos. Pese a ello, no hay evidencias que permitan respaldar su uso como programa eficaz y seguro para la mejora de la condición física y salud. Por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de un programa de corta duración de BodyJump® sobre la condición física y salud. Un total de tres mujeres adultas sedentarias (edad: 23 años; 55,3 ± 2,8 kg; 161,3 ± 7,1 cm) completaron este estudio de casos siendo sometidas a un programa de BodyJump® durante cuatro semanas. Un total de 17 medidas de condición física y salud y dos medidas relacionadas con sintomatología del tendón de Aquiles y rotuliano fueron definidas como variables dependientes. El efecto del programa de BodyJump® sobre las variables dependientes fue determinado a través del estadístico tamaño del efecto. Un tamaño del efecto pequeño (d = 0,5-1,25) fue encontrado en las medidas relacionadas con la fuerza y resistencia de la musculatura del tronco, potencia de salto vertical con contra-movimiento y equilibrio dinámico. Para el resto de medidas de condición física y salud se observó un cambio trivial o no relevante tras la intervención (d < 0,5). Los hallazgos del presente estudios informan de que un programa de BodyJump®podría ser considerado una actividad eficiente para la mejora de la fuerza y resistencia muscular del tronco, potencia y equilibrio dinámico en mujeres adultas jóvenes sedentarias. Palabras clave: fuerza muscular, salud, fitness, ejercicio físico, resistencia cardiorrespiratoria Abstract. BodyJump® is a discipline that has broken out strongly in recent years in fitness centers. However, there is no evidence to support its use as an effective and safe program for improving fitness and health. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a short-term BodyJump® program on fitness and health. A total of three sedentary adult women (age: 23 years, 55.3 ± 2.8 kg, 161.3 ± 7.1 cm) completed this case study undergoing a BodyJump® program for four weeks. A total of 17 measures of fitness and health and two measures related to symptoms of Achilles and patellar tendon were defined as dependent variables. The effect of the BodyJump® program on the dependent variables was determined through the statistical effect size. A small effect size (d = 0.5-1.25) was found in measures related to trunk musculature strength and endurance, power of countermovement vertical jump and dynamic balance. For the rest of physical and health measures, a trivial or non-relevant change was observed after the intervention (d <0.5). The findings of the current study report that a short BodyJump® program could be considered an efficient activity for improving trunk muscle strength, endurance, and dynamic balance in sedentary young-adult women. Key words: muscle strength, health, fitness, physical activity, aerobic capacity.
... IC is a fitness activity characterized by steps of workout with variable intensity and a high/moderate involvement of the cardiovascular system as well as the skeletal muscles [3,4]. Cycling serves both as a method of physical conditioning and as a method of rehabilitation through exercise. ...
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Background and Objectives: Indoor cycling is one of the most practiced activities in fitness centers for most people regardless of their physical conditioning level. Several studies have analyzed the effect of indoor cycling on several parameters related to health, such as maximal oxygen consumption, blood pressure, body composition, as well as biochemical markers such as HDL or LDL. However, no study has synthesized all health benefits associated with the indoor cycling practice in the form of a systematic review and established guidelines or recommendations. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to conduct a systematic review of published studies about the benefits of indoor cycling training and to establish recommendations for coaches, researchers, and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct the current systematic review. A systematic search was performed to retrieve relevant published articles until January 2019 using the following keywords: ‘indoor cycling’, ‘indoor bicycle’, and ‘spinning exercise’. Information about participants, intervention, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) was extracted. Results: A total of 300 studies were initially identified. After the revision process, 13 of them were included. The total sample size of the studies was 372 (306 women). Results revealed that indoor cycling may improve aerobic capacity, blood pressure, lipid profile, and body composition. These enhancements may be achieved as standalone intervention or combined with other physical exercises or diet. Conclusions: The combination of indoor cycling and diet is recommended to improve the lipid profile, lose weight, and reduce blood pressure. Furthermore, indoor cycling alone may also enhance aerobic capacity. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, these conclusions should be taken with caution.
... 1 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA 2 Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA intensity used during this exercise modality has been shown to elicit positive cardiorespiratory adaptations (Battista et al., 2008;Caria, Tangianu, Concu, Crisafulli, & Mameli, 2007). Participants have also reported improved affect immediately following a GIC class (Szabo, Gaspar, Kiss, & Radvanyi, 2015). ...
Article
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This study investigated factors influencing regular group indoor cycling (GIC) participation in a sample of Black (71%) and White (29%) adults. Seventeen regular GIC participants (≥1 day/week for ≥3 consecutive months) completed surveys that examined motivations for GIC participation. Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ), Preference for and Tolerance of Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire (PRETIE-Q), and open-ended survey questions were used. TSRQ showed autonomous motivation was significantly higher than controlled ( p <.001) and amotivation ( p < .001), with no significant difference between controlled and amotivation ( p = .08). There was no significant interaction between motivation and race. There were no significant differences between race groups for PRETIE-Q. Five themes emerged as reasons for GIC participation: music, physical health, social support, studio atmosphere, and enjoyment/fun. Racial differences surfaced in the themes. More research is needed to understand the role of cultural relevance as it relates to exercise motivation and regular exercise participation. This could inform strategies for promoting regular exercise in various populations.
... Spinning exercise is a popular aerobic activity, which is performed in groups and with music and the guidance of a trainer. Since spinning is a recreational physical activity, it could encourage exercising and is effective in enhancing the cardiovascular system (9). As a result, training would be possible at high intensities (10) to reduce cardiovascular risk factors (11). ...
... To achieve a high generalizability, we chose a realistic setting with regular indoor cycling classes at a local gym. Despite the main- tained popularity of indoor cycling during the last decade, the phys- iological evaluation has mainly been limited to documented per- formance during individual sessions, confirming that most individ- uals during classes occasionally reach their VO2 max [4,9]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: The early vascular adaptation to indoor cycling, a popular activity at many fitness centres, is incompletely evaluated. METHODS: Forty two healthy women (21–45 years) underwent measurements of arterial wall properties and geometry as well as a maximal bicycle exercise test before and after a 3 months period during which 21 of the women joined indoor cycling classes at a gym 2–3 times per week, while 21 women served as time controls. RESULTS: Peak work load increased by in average 16 % (p < 0.001) and ascending aortic diameter by 4 % (p < 0.01) in the exercise group, while unchanged in control group. The exercise intervention had no significant influence on the local intima-media thickness, blood pressure or the pulse pressure wave configuration while the carotid artery distensibility (p<0.05) was higher after the intervention. There was a positive correlation between change in (Δ) peak work load and Δ-diameter of tubular ascending aorta (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) in the exercise group. CONCLUSION: After only 3 months of bicycle exercise training, signs of central arterial remodelling were seen in premenopausal women, which was associated to improvement in exercise capacity
... En otro estudio similar, Battista et al. (2008) realizaron un estudio en el que 20 mujeres sanas realizaron dos sesiones de CI visualizando un video. Se midió la FC máx, el VO2, la potencia, y otros parámetros como el tiempo por debajo del umbral ventilatorio, tiempo entre umbrales y tiempo por encima del umbral anaeróbico. ...
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RESUMEN El ciclismo indoor (CI), es una de las actividades fitness más practicadas en los centros deportivos españoles. Igualmente, el ciclismo recreativo es la actividad deportiva más practicada por los españoles. Ante esto encontramos un gran número de usuarios que combinan ambas actividades, por lo que parece de especial interés conocer las diferencias que surgen entre ambos tipos de población. Se estudiaron a 30 sujetos (n=13; solo CI), (n=17; CI y ciclismo de carretera), que practicasen CI desde hace al menos 3 años, con una frecuencia media de más de 3 días por semana. Se han observado diferencias significativas (p<0,05) para los valores de VO2 en VT1 en mlO2/kg/min (p<0,015); para los w/kg en VT2 (p<0,014); en el caso de la RPE en VT2 (p<0,039) y para el VO2 máx en mlO2/kg/min (p<0,043). Para el resto de los valores analizados, no se han encontrado diferencias significativas, aunque parece que aquellos sujetos que combinan dos actividades muestran una condición física mejor que la de aquellos que únicamente realizan CI. De los resultados obtenidos, se podría extraer que existe una influencia positiva a nivel fisiológico en aquellos sujetos que combinan ambas actividades sin problemas para su rendimiento físico. Palabras Clave: ciclismo indoor, spinning, potencia, ciclismo de carretera
... C urrently, indoor cycling is considered one of the most demanded aerobic activity in fitness centers (35), particularly for its high-intensity pedaling periods and cardiovascular benefits (1,6). Therefore, adjusting the bicycle to the user's anthropometric characteristics is very important to avoid biomechanical-related injuries (18). ...
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... Por tanto, y a diferencia de las variables relacionadas con la fuerza y resistencia muscular, es posible que la mejora en la composición corporal y fitness cardiovascular requiera, al igual que las variables de fuerza máxima, de programas de entrenamiento con mayor duración (semanas) y/o volumen de trabajo (días por semana). Esta hipótesis se sustenta en el hecho de que otra actividad colectiva con similares valores de intensidad promedio como es el Spinning ® (Battista, Foster, Andrew, Wright, Lucia & Porcari, 2008;Caria, Tangianu, Concu, Crisafulli & Mameli, 2007;López-Miñarro & Muyor, 2010) ha demostrado ser una intervención eficaz para la mejora de la composición corporal tras ser aplicadas durante al menos 12 semanas (Bianco et al., 2010;Valle et al., 2010;Verrusio et al., 2016). ...
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Objectives More patients are being diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis secondary to indoor spinning. We conducted a systematic review to characterize the clinical characteristics of this new clinical entity. Methods We conducted a thorough literature search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published from inception till 23 rd June 2021 were considered for inclusion. A two-stage article selection process was performed. Articles that reported clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with SIER were included. Quality assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklists. Results There was a total of 22 articles and 97 patients with SIER. Most patients were healthy females who had attended their first spinning session. The average time to clinical presentation was 3.1 ± 1.5 days. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia, dark urine and muscle weakness involving the thigh. Seven patients (7.2%) developed acute kidney injury, and two patients (2.1%) required temporary inpatient haemodialysis. Four patients (4.1%) developed thigh compartment syndrome and required fasciotomies. There were no long-term sequelae or mortality observed. The average length of stay was 5.6 ± 2.9 days. Conclusions Healthcare professionals must have a high index of suspicion of SIER if any patient presents with myalgia, dark urine or weakness after a recent episode of indoor spinning. Fitness centre owners, spinning instructors and participants should also be better educated about the clinical characteristics and manifestations of SIER.
Chapter
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Resumo: Avaliamos nesse trabalho dois parâmetros a frequência cardíaca (FC) e a Glicemia durante protocolo crescente de carga em ciclistas amadores. Utilizamos o protocolo (adaptado Conconi) com carga crescente da FC com duração de 20 minutos em cada zona de treinamento, sendo elas 70, 80 e 90 % da FC. O Trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as mudanças fisiológicas ocorridas nos atletas em suas zonas de treinamento, apresentar o que acontece quando utilizada a FC como método regulador do treinamento e buscar novas ferramentas com o custo e benefício adequado para melhorar a performance de atletas. Os resultados mostraram diferença estatística na FC em ambos os sexos. A glicemia não alterou nesse estudo. As variáveis apresentaram correlação apenas nas mulheres. Ambos parâmetros estudados são uma alternativa acessível para ciclistas e outras modalidades amadoras em busca de melhores resultados em competições através de aparelhos de baixo custo e com fácil manuseio. Palavras-chave: Ciclismo indoor. Frequência cardíaca. Glicemia. Saúde. Custo x benefício. CHANGES IN HEMODYNAMICS IN LOAD PROTOCOL WITHOUT ALTERING TEH BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF AMATEUR CYCLIST Abstract: In this study, we evaluated two parameters: heart rate (HR) and blood glucose during a growing load protocol in amateur cyclists. We used the protocol (adapted Conconi) with increasing HR load lasting 20 minutes in each training zone, 70, 80 and 90% of HR. The objective of the Work was to evaluate the changes in athletes in their training zones, thus showing us what happens when we use HR as a training method, seeking to improve the performance of amateur individuals and to seek new tools with the appropriate cost benefit for improve the performance of athletes. The results showed a statistical difference in HR in both sexes. Blood glucose did not change in that study. The variables showed a correlation only in women. Both parameters studied are an accessible alternative for cyclists and other amateur sports looking for better results in competitions through low-cost and easy-to-use devices.
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Aim. This research was undertaken to measure the heart rate (HR) response performing indoor cycling session, and to determine the validity of Borg scale of Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) as a measure of exercise intensity in subjects who have had a 6-month experience in the indoor cycling activity. Methods. Eighty healthy subjects, including 19 males and 61 females (mean age: 32.3±9.5 years), were recruited from a private fitness club. The indoor cycling session consisted of a warm-up, cardiovascular phase and a cool down and, finally, stretching exercises off of the bikes, with a total duration of 45 minutes. Results. The mean HR in the cardiovascular phase was 144.11 ±13.8 bpm. The mean values of the percentage of heart rate reserve (% HRR) and overall RPE in the cardiovascular phase were 77.8±7.2% and 14.3±1.7 points, respectively. The correlation value between overall RPE and %HRR, was r=0.18 (P>0.05).Conclusion. The reduced validity obtained for the overall RPE and the high intensity reached in adults during indoor cycling session suggest a more importance of controlling the intensity of this activity for adult subjects.
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Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a distinct entity with special characteristics. We present a case report, and literature review, of rhabdomyolysis in a young healthy male adult after practicing a single spinning session. The objective is to explain the peculiarities of the association spinning and exertional rhabdomyolysis and determine the risk of this disease, even in healthy people, concerning this sport. Muscular contraction during this exercise and the diminished perception of effort, due to being a group activity encouraged by a monitor, may contribute to its association. © 2016 Consejería de Turismo y Deporte de la Junta de Andalucía.
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Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a pathologic condition in which intracellular muscle constituents leak into the blood circulation. It is usually caused by muscle trauma. "Spinning" is an indoor form of cycling where participants use a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel and undergo high intensity cycling classes focusing on endurance. There have been several case reports in the literature of exertional rhabdomyolysis following spin class. Methods: Our nephrology practices have diagnosed a number of cases of symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency departments following their first spin classes, with histories and creatinine phosphokinase levels diagnostic of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Results: We present three unusual cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis, each occurring after a first spin class. In the first case, rhabdomyolysis developed following 15 minutes of spin class. In the second case, it occurred in a young individual who exercises regularly. In the third case, the patient developed biopsy-proved acute kidney injury secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis and required hemodialysis. Conclusion: The high-intensity exercise associated with "spin class" comes with significant risks to newcomers.
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This study was undertaken to determine the response of $\dot V$ O2 max and of running performance (805 and 3218 m) to the onset of training in untrained individuals and to an increase in the volume and intensity of training in well trained individuals. In series A, $\dot V$ O2 max and performances of 12 previously untrained individuals were determined before and after 4 and 8 weeks of training. In series B, performances, $\dot V$ O2 max and $\dot V$ O2 submax of 15 previously well trained runners were determined before and after 4 and 8 weeks of controlled training. In series A, $\dot V$ O2 max increased during the first 4 weeks of training but failed to increase further even in the presence of an increased training load (80 total km for the first 4 weeks, 130 total km for the second 4 weeks). Running performances improved throughout the training period. In series B, neither $\dot V$ O2 max nor $\dot V$ O2 submax changed but running performance improved throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that not all of the improvement in running performance subsequent to training is attributable to changes in $\dot V$ O2 max. Further the results indicate that changes in running economy are not a likely explanation for performance improvement among previously well trained runners. It is suggested that physiological adaptations not integrated in the test of $\dot V$ O2 max, or improvement in pacing contribute to training induced improvements in running performance.
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Unlabelled: The study was carried out to determine the relationship between ventilatory threshold and the onset of ischaemia, as shown on the ECG (horizontal and/or descending ST depression of 0.05 mV, on average). Twenty-seven male patients (aged 58 +/- 7 years) with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) were assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing without medication. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rate-pressure-product (RPP) and blood lactate were measured and/or calculated every 30 s during exercise. In addition, 10 patients, comparable with the above group, were examined to find out the acute effects of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) at ventilatory threshold in relation to ischaemic threshold. The first cardiopulmonary exercise test was carried out without medication, the second 1 h later with 5 mg ISDN, taken sublingually 30 min before the test. Results: (means, SD): (1) The mean ventilatory threshold preceded the ischaemic threshold in relation to exercise capacity (48 +/- 14 vs 55 +/- 20 watts; P < 0.05), VO2.kg-1 (10.0 +/- 2.2 vs 12.0 +/- 2.9 ml.kg-1.min; P < 0.05), HR (93 +/- 15 vs 100 +/- 16.min-1; P < 0.01), RPP (15095 +/- 4424 vs 17166 +/- 5245; P < 0.01) and blood lactate (1.28 +/- 0.53 vs 1.44 +/- 0.60 mmol.l-1; P < 0.05). (2) This relationship was observed more often in the subgroup of patients with angina during cardiopulmonary exercise testing or with myocardial infarction or with three-vessel disease than in patients without angina or infarction or with one- and two-vessel disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Historically, the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has been based on objective criteria such as a leveling off of oxygen uptake with an increase in work rate, high levels of lactic acid in the blood in the minutes following the exercise test, elevated respiratory exchange ratio, and achievement of some percentage of an age-adjusted estimate of maximal heart rate. These criteria are reviewed relative to their history, the degree to which they have been achieved in published research, and how investigators and reviewers follow them in current practice. The majority of the criteria were based on discontinuous protocols, often carried out over several days. Questions are raised about the applicability of these criteria to modern continuous graded exercise test protocols, and our lack of consistency in the terminology we use relative to the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake.
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The traditional view of VO2max owes a great deal to the work of A. V. Hill, who conducted experiments on exercising man in Manchester, England, in the 1920's. Hill and colleagues proposed that there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake (VO2max), that there are inter-individual differences in this variable, and that VO2max is limited by the circulatory and/or respiratory systems. They demonstrated that oxygen uptake increases linearly with running speed, but in some subjects it eventually "reaches a maximum beyond which no effort can drive it," a phenomenon now referred to as the VO2 plateau. In recent years, Timothy Noakes has strongly criticized Hill's concept of VO2max. He maintains that the absence of a VO2 plateau in some subjects is proof that oxygen delivery is not a limiting factor for VO2max. This view fails to recognize that the plateau is not the principal evidence for a cardiorespiratory limitation. Noakes rejects the VO2max paradigm of A. V. Hill in its entirety. The alternative paradigm he proposes is that endurance performance is limited by "muscle factors." Noakes suggests that the best distance runners have muscle characteristics that allow them to achieve higher running speeds, and since running speed is linearly related to oxygen uptake, an indirect consequence of this is that they will have higher VO2max values. This is exactly the opposite of how the relationship between VO2max and running speed at the end of a maximal exercise test should be viewed. Noakes offers little evidence to support his views, and they conflict with a vast body of scientific evidence showing that oxygen transport is a major determinant of endurance performance. After carefully reviewing the evidence on both sides of the issue, we conclude that the older "classical" VO2max paradigm of A. V. Hill is the correct one.
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Bassett and Howley contend that the 1996 J. B. Wolffe lecture is erroneous because: 1) A. V. Hill did establish the existence of the "plateau phenomenon," 2) the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) is limited by the development of anaerobiosis in the active muscle, and 3) endurance performance is also determined by skeletal muscle anaerobiosis because the VO2max is the best predictor of athletic ability. As a result, 4) cardiovascular and not skeletal muscle factors determine endurance performance. They further contend that Hill's "scientific hunches were correct," requiring "only relatively minor refinements" in the past 70 yr. But the evidence presented in this rebuttal shows that Hill neither sought nor believed in either the "plateau phenomenon" or the concept of the individual maximum oxygen consumption. These twin concepts were created by Taylor et al. (97) in 1955 and erroneously attributed to Hill. Rather Hill believed that there was a universal human VO2max of 4 L x min(-1). His error resulted from his incorrect belief that the real VO2 unmeasurable because it includes a large "anaerobic component," rose exponentially at running speeds greater than 13.2 km x h(-1). But Hill and his colleagues were indeed the first to realize the danger that a plateau in cardiac output (CO) and hence in VO2 would pose for the heart itself. For unlike skeletal muscle, the pumping capacity of the heart is both dependent on, but also the determinant of, its own blood supply. Thus, if the CO reaches a peak causing the "plateau phenomenon," the immediate cause of that peak will have been a plateau in myocardial oxygen delivery, causing a developing myocardial ischemia. The ischemia must worsen as exercise continues beyond the supposed VO2 "plateau." To accommodate this dilemma, Hill and his colleagues proposed a governor "either in the heart muscle or in the nervous system" necessary to prevent myocardial ischemia developing during maximal exercise. This governor would cause maximal exercise to terminate before the development of a plateau in either coronary flow, CO, or VO2, or the onset of skeletal muscle anaerobiosis. Accordingly, a new physiological model is proposed in which skeletal muscle recruitment is regulated by a central "governor" specifically to prevent the development of a progressive myocardial ischemia that would precede the development of skeletal muscle anaerobiosis during maximum exercise. As a result cardiovascular function "limits" maximum exercise capacity, probably as a result of a limiting myocardial oxygen delivery. The model is compatible with all the published findings of cardiovascular function during exercise in hypobaric hypoxia, in which there is a greater likelihood that myocardial hypoxia will develop.
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We have investigated the effect of varying the intensity of interval training on 40-km time-trial performance in 20 male endurance cyclists (peak oxygen uptake 4.8+/-0.6 L x min(-1), mean +/- SD). Cyclists performed a 25-kJ sprint test, an incremental test to determine peak aerobic power (PP) and a simulated 40-km time-trial on a Kingcycle ergometer. They were then randomly assigned to one of five types of interval-training session: 12x30 s at 175% PP, 12x60 s at 100% PP, 12x2 min at 90% PP, 8x4 min at 85% PP, or 4x8 min at 80% PP. Cyclists completed 6 sessions over 3 wk, in addition to their usual aerobic base training. All laboratory tests were then repeated. Performances in the time trial were highly reliable when controlled for training effects (coefficient of variation = 1.1%). The percent improvement in the time trial was modeled as a polynomial function of the rank order of the intensity of the training intervals, a procedure validated by simulation. The cubic trend was strong and statistically significant (overall correlation = 0.70, P = 0.005) and predicted greatest enhancement for the intervals performed at 85% PP (2.8%, 95% CI = 4.3-1.3%) and at 175% PP (2.4%, 95% CI = 4.0-0.7%). Intervals performed at 100% PP and 80% PP did not produce statistically significant enhancements of performance. Quadratic and linear trends were weak or insubstantial. Interval training with work bouts close to race-pace enhance 1-h endurance performanc