Article

Four-Week Dynamic Stretching Warm-up Intervention Elicits Longer-Term Performance Benefits

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warm-up (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. Twenty-four male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I wrestlers were randomly assigned to complete either a 4-week treatment condition (DWU) (n = 11) or an active control condition (SWU) (n = 13) prior to their daily preseason practices. Anthropometric and performance measures were conducted before and after the 4-week experimental period (i.e., DWU or SWU). Measures included peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, medicine ball underhand throw, 300-yd shuttle, pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, broad jump, 600-m run, sit-and-reach test, and trunk extension test. Wrestlers completing the 4-week DWU intervention had several performance improvements, including increases in quadriceps peak torque (11%), broad jump (4%), underhand medicine ball throw (4%), sit-ups (11%), and push-ups (3%). A decrease in the average time to completion of the 300-yd shuttle (-2%) and the 600-m run (-2.4%) was suggestive of enhanced muscular strength, endurance, agility, and anaerobic capacity in the DWU group. In contrast to the DWU intervention, there was no observed improvement in the SWU group for peak torque of the quadriceps, broad jump, 300-yd shuttle run, medicine ball underhand throw for distance, sit-ups, push-ups, or 600-m run, and decrements in some performance measures occurred. The findings suggest that incorporation of this specific 4-week DWU intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers produced longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and agility performance enhancements.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In addition, when the literature is examined, there are studies examining the effect of warm up on sports performance in other combat sports (MMA, wrestling, muay thai, kickboxing) [21,[76][77][78]. Herman and Smith [78] were to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warmup (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. ...
... In addition, when the literature is examined, there are studies examining the effect of warm up on sports performance in other combat sports (MMA, wrestling, muay thai, kickboxing) [21,[76][77][78]. Herman and Smith [78] were to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warmup (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. Their measures included peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, medicine ball underhand throw, 300-yd shuttle, pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, broad jump, 600 m run, sit-and-reach test, and trunk extension test. ...
... Wrestlers completing the 4 week DWU intervention had several performance improvements, including increases in quadriceps peak torque, broad jump, underhand medicine ball throw, sit-ups, and push-ups. A decrease in the average time to completion of the 300-yd shuttle and the 600 m run was suggestive of enhanced muscular strength, endurance, agility, and anaerobic capacity in the DWU group [78]. Bayer and Özgür [76], were to evaluate the acute effect of different massage times on squat jump, countermovement jump and flexibility performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A number of specific tests are used to standardize competition performance. Specific Judo fitness test (SJFT) can be applied by considering the start of the competition qualifiers in the morning and the continuation of the final competitions in the evening. The improvement of test performances can be achieved with warm-up for elevating heart rate (HR) and muscle temperature such as raise, activate, mobilise, potentiate (RAMP) protocols. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different warm-up protocols on SJFT at different times of the day in female judokas. Methods: Ten volunteer women participated in this study, who regularly participated in judo training for more than 5 years and actively competed in international competitions. Judokas completed SJFT, either after no warm-up, or RAMP protocols like specific warm-up (SWU), and dynamic warm-up for two times a day in the morning: 09:00-10:00 and in the evening: 16:00-17:00, with at least 2 days between test sessions. The following variables were recorded: throws performed during series A, B, and C; the total number of throws; HR immediately and 1 min after the test, and test index after different warm-ups. Results: When analyzed evening compared to the morning without discriminating three warm-up protocols, evening results statistically significant number of total throws performed during series A, B, and C, the total number of throws; HR immediately and 1 min after the test, and test index than morning results (p < 0.01). Moreover, RAMP protocols interaction with time have demonstrated an impact on SJFT for index [F(2) = 4.15, p = 0.024, ηp2: 0.19] and changes after 1 min HR [F(1.370)= 7.16, p = 0.008, ηp2: 0.29]. HR after 1 min and test index results were statistically significant in favor of SWU (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, SJFT performance showed diurnal variation and judo performances of the judokas can be affected more positively in the evening hours especially after RAMP protocols.
... Although the literature provides ample evidence on the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching exercises on performance [1,2,7,8], the number of studies on the chronic effects of both static [9][10][11] and dynamic stretching are limited and appear inconclusive [12][13][14][15]. Passive stretching is associated with an eccentric elongation of the muscle [16], while on the other hand, energetic stretching induces concentric elongation with parallel increments in the muscle perimeter. ...
... Sprints are important components of team sports, with the majority of research reporting reductions in speed immediately after the performance of static stretching exercises [23][24][25]. Nevertheless, research examining the sprinting ability of athletes after a long-term adherence to static stretching protocols has been limited and has provided conflicting findings [9,12,26]. According to the research, no differences were observed in the sprinting ability with agility changes after the implementation of either a 4 week [12] or a 6 week [9] lower-limb static stretching protocol, whereas the 20 m sprint time was significantly improved after performing static stretching exercises for a total of 10 weeks [26]. ...
... Nevertheless, research examining the sprinting ability of athletes after a long-term adherence to static stretching protocols has been limited and has provided conflicting findings [9,12,26]. According to the research, no differences were observed in the sprinting ability with agility changes after the implementation of either a 4 week [12] or a 6 week [9] lower-limb static stretching protocol, whereas the 20 m sprint time was significantly improved after performing static stretching exercises for a total of 10 weeks [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present trial was to investigate the effect of two stretching programs, a dynamic and a static one, on the sprint ability of recreational volleyball players. The sample consisted of 27 male recreational volleyball players (age 21.6 ± 2.1 years, mean ± standard deviation, body mass 80.3 ± 8.9 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, body mass index 24.3 ± 2.5 kg.m−2, volleyball experience 7.7 ± 2.9 years). Participants were randomly divided into three groups: (a) the first performing dynamic stretching exercises three times per week, (b) the second following a static stretching protocol on the same frequency, and (c) the third being the control group, abstaining from any stretching protocol. The duration of the stretching exercise intervention period was 6 weeks, with all groups performing baseline and final field sprinting tests at 4.5 and 9 m. The post-test sprint times were faster in both the 4.5 (p = 0.027, η2 = 0.188) and 9 m tests (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.605) compared to the pre-test values. A large time × group interaction was shown in both the 4.5 (p = 0.007, η2 = 0.341) and 9 m tests (p = 0.004, η2 = 0.363) with the static and dynamic stretching groups being faster in the post-test than in the pre-test, whereas no change was found in the control group. The percentage change in the 4.5 m sprint time correlated with volleyball experience (r = −0.38, p = 0.050), i.e., the longer the volleyball experience, the larger the improvement in the 4.5 m sprint. Thus, it is concluded that both stretching techniques have a positive effect on the velocity of recreational male volleyball players, when performed at a frequency of three times per week for 6 weeks under the same conditions as defined in the study protocol.
... Each session begins with a dynamic warmup consisting of exercises that emphasize trunk stabilization and emulate the movements performed in the hypertrophy-specific routine (Table 3). A dynamic warmup is included rather than a static-stretching or aerobic warmup because flexibility routines that consist of active, sport-specific exercises have been shown to positively influence performance outcomes following the warmup bout [41]. The session concludes with 5 minutes of static stretching as described in the flexibility protocol. ...
... However, in the event a participant is unable to perform an exercise due to pre-existing bone lesions or pain, an alternative exercise stimulating the same muscle group will be substituted and nonadherence to the original exercise program is recorded. A dynamic warmup is included rather than a static-stretching or aerobic warmup because flexibility routines that consist of active, sport-specific exercises have been shown to positively influence performance outcomes following the warmup bout [41]. The session concludes with 5 minutes of static stretching as described in the flexibility protocol. ...
... A dynamic warmup is included rather than a static-stretching or aerobic warmup because flexibility routines that consist of active, sport-specific exercises have been shown to positively influence performance outcomes following the warmup bout. [41] The session concludes with 5 minutes of static stretching as described in the flexibility protocol. given immediately after each RT session, as previous investigations suggest this is an optimal window for anabolic stimulus post-exercise. ...
... One study conducted with children showed that six months of karate practice resulted in improved flexibility that was more pronounced than when practicing team sports [9]. In addition, the introduction of dynamic stretching exercises, used as a means of warming up in Olympic wrestling training sessions, have been shown to improve various physical capacities (e.g., maximum strength, muscle power, and muscular resistance) compared to warming up without stretching exercises [10]. On the other hand, there are reports that indicate that long-duration static stretching before strength and muscle power sessions can be counterproductive from an acute point of view [11][12][13]. ...
... Herman and Smith [10] reported that among Olympic freestyle wrestlers, the inclusion of dynamic stretching movements during the warm-up phase of a four-week program affected a number of variables when compared with a warm-up without stretching. More precisely, the authors reported increases in: peak torque in the extension of both knees, standing long jump distance, medicine ball throw distance, the number of abdominal repetitions, and the number of push-up repetitions. ...
... Thus, when an athlete performs a kicking technique or a maximum range of motion uchi-mata, they are performing a dynamic technique to increase flexibility. This technique, to reproduce movements of the sport itself, has been widely used in the warm-up phase [10]. The main difference in the dynamic compared with ballistic techniques refers to the lack of insistence on the final stage of the first technique. ...
Article
Full-text available
The range of motion of a joint is extremely important in combat sports, especially when there is a need to execute a certain motor gesture with maximum range of movement, as in throwing techniques such as uchi-mata in judo, certain types of guards in Brazilian jiujitsu or the high kicks common in a variety of striking combat sports. Therefore, in this chapter, we will discuss the elements related to flexibility response during training sessions or combat sports competitions, flexibility tests commonly used for these athletes, and the monitoring and control of the evolution of flexibility in athletes. We will also present the means and methods used for the development of flexibility and longitudinal studies on the development of flexibility in combat sports athletes. Finally, this chapter supports based on the evidence the inclusion of flexibility development within training sessions is an important consideration to maximize performance and other physical capabilities that may be affected both acutely or in the long-term by flexibility.
... Recently, research has supported the use of dynamic over static stretching because of the benefits of increased muscular performance after dynamic stretching. 1,2,9,12,15,19,32 Herman and Smith 12 found that a 4-week dynamic warm-up intervention with collegiate athletes showed sustained improvements in strength, power, muscular endurance, and agility performance, while none of these improvements was observed in the static stretching warm-up group. 12 Little and Williams 15 and Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh 2 also suggest that for athletes engaging in high-speed performance, such as soccer players, a dynamic warm-up might be a more effective form of preparation because of faster sprinting times and increased agility after dynamic stretching. ...
... Recently, research has supported the use of dynamic over static stretching because of the benefits of increased muscular performance after dynamic stretching. 1,2,9,12,15,19,32 Herman and Smith 12 found that a 4-week dynamic warm-up intervention with collegiate athletes showed sustained improvements in strength, power, muscular endurance, and agility performance, while none of these improvements was observed in the static stretching warm-up group. 12 Little and Williams 15 and Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh 2 also suggest that for athletes engaging in high-speed performance, such as soccer players, a dynamic warm-up might be a more effective form of preparation because of faster sprinting times and increased agility after dynamic stretching. ...
... 1,2,9,12,15,19,32 Herman and Smith 12 found that a 4-week dynamic warm-up intervention with collegiate athletes showed sustained improvements in strength, power, muscular endurance, and agility performance, while none of these improvements was observed in the static stretching warm-up group. 12 Little and Williams 15 and Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh 2 also suggest that for athletes engaging in high-speed performance, such as soccer players, a dynamic warm-up might be a more effective form of preparation because of faster sprinting times and increased agility after dynamic stretching. The major drawback to dynamic stretching is that it may not increase muscle extensibility. ...
Article
Background: Static and dynamic exercises are performed before activity to decrease injury risk and increase performance. Although evidence supports using dynamic over static stretching and performing Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ as a dynamic prepractice routine, we do not know the frequency at which these exercises are utilized in high school populations. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that there is a wide variety of preparticipation exercises performed by high school athletes, and that few high school teams perform FIFA 11+ as an injury prevention program in its entirety. Study design: Observational study. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: High school prepractice routines were observed for 185 teams (football, soccer, basketball, and lacrosse) over 1 season. The percentages of team warm-up routines that included components of FIFA 11+ were calculated, and the chi-square test was used to compare sex, sport, and level of competition. Results: Of a total 644 warm-up observations, 450 (69.9%) included only non-FIFA 11+ exercises, 56 (8.7%) included at least 1 FIFA 11+ exercise, and 38 (5.9%) included only jogging; 69 (10.6%) consisted only of sport-specific activities. The type of warm-up differed significantly between males and females ( P = 0.002), sports ( P < 0.001), and level of competition ( P < 0.001). Static stretching and athletes stretching on their own were observed in 14% and 15% of all observations. No team performed the FIFA 11+ injury prevention routine in its entirety. Conclusion: The type of warm-up differed by sex, sport, and level of competition. Static stretching was performed more frequently than anticipated, and an entire FIFA 11+ warm-up was never performed. Clinical relevance: We need to identify the exercises that decrease injury and increase performance and better inform the athletic population about the risks and benefits of static and dynamic warm-up programs.
... Research has provided equivocal evidence on the efficacy of warm-ups on performance enhancement, with much of the uncertainty centered on the influence of stretching. Whereas studies have shown that DS and dynamic warm-up (1,8,12,15,20,24,26) enhance or have no effect (2,8) on physical performance measures, substantial evidence suggests that SS performed in isolation or within a warm-up may have inhibitory effects on measures of muscular strength (10,40), power (11,38), agility (18), and speed (16,39). Nonetheless, others have found no performance degrading effects associated with SS (5,44). ...
... Push-up/pull-up, cardiovascular, sit-up, and sit and reach tests and PFT. One high-quality study (+) reported that DS as compared with SS increased power and sprint time in a trained population (24). ...
... Reviewing the data showed that pre-warm-up and dynamic warm-ups were common elements and typically produced a positive effect on exercise performance regardless of the test(s) being performed. One high-quality study (24) used all tests seen in PFT. DS and movement drills (dynamic warm-up) produced a longer sustained power and resulted in improved strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility compared with SS. ...
Article
Warm-up exercises are commonly used before exercise as a method to physiologically prepare for strenuous physical activity. Various warm-up exercises are often implemented but without scientific merit and, at times, may be detrimental to performance. To date, no systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of warm-up exercises for military physical fitness test (PFT) or combat fitness test (CFT). The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment of the literature was to examine the quantity, quality, and effectiveness of warm-up exercises for PFT and identify those that might increase PFT and/or CFT scores, as reported in the literature. Literature searches of randomized controlled trials were performed across various databases from database inception to May 2011. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) 50 criteria for randomized controlled trial designs, and studies were individually described. Subject matter experts summarized the results applicable or generalizable to military testing. The search yielded a total of 1177 citations, with 37 fitting our inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular warm-ups increased sprint/running time, but dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups had the most positive outcome for the various exercise tests examined. Systematically, static stretching had no beneficial or detrimental effect on exercise performance but did improve range of movement exercises. Selected warm-up exercise may increase PFT and possibly CFT scores. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stretching and dynamic warm-ups.
... In line with the research by Herman et al. (2008), the impact of dynamic warm-up four weeks on the positive benefits of a longterm study in 24 male athletes studied dynamic warm-up and dynamic warm-up exercises reported that four weeks ago the start of the season as a long-term or continuing to improve power, strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, agility and high performance 30 . It is believed that increased stretching over a period of time results in an increase in the number of sarcomeres in series onto the end of existing myofibrils: "Research has substantiated that an addition of sarcomeres is responsible for an increase in muscle length," but additional research must be performed to confirm that the increase in sarcomeres is a direct result of a stretching program 31 . ...
... In line with the research by Herman et al. (2008), the impact of dynamic warm-up four weeks on the positive benefits of a longterm study in 24 male athletes studied dynamic warm-up and dynamic warm-up exercises reported that four weeks ago the start of the season as a long-term or continuing to improve power, strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, agility and high performance 30 . It is believed that increased stretching over a period of time results in an increase in the number of sarcomeres in series onto the end of existing myofibrils: "Research has substantiated that an addition of sarcomeres is responsible for an increase in muscle length," but additional research must be performed to confirm that the increase in sarcomeres is a direct result of a stretching program 31 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and long-term dynamic warm up protocol on static and dynamic balance and balance the vault performance in skilled female gymnast. Methodology: For this purpose, 16 skilled female gymnasts (mean age 9.62±1.45 years and weight 28.24 ±8.52 kg) were divided into two groups (control and dynamic) randomly. The first protocol included a 10 minute jogging, and the second protocol consisted of dynamic warm-up. The indicators of the equilibrium in four static (with two legs, and with one leg) and dynamic situations (with two legs and one leg) were investigated with 7 cameras and Kistler force plate before and after acute and four weeks protocol. Statistical analysis of data was performed through ANOVA and significance level of (p≤ 0.05). Results: On the results, a significant increase in balance-whip performance in the long-term was observed than the acute phase (p ₌ 0.001). Also a significant increase in dynamic and static balance with double feet with a dynamic warm-up protocol in the long-term than acute phase (P = 0.001).The static single foot balance showed no significant difference with dynamic warm-up protocol (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: results showed that long-term dynamic stretching can improve static and dynamic balance and balance whip performance in skilled gymnasts, which can be preserve individual in risk of sports injuries. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific role of dynamic stretch in various sports activities. Key words: static balance, dynamic balance, Dynamic stretch, force plate
... [5,8,18] Some researchers reported that DS and BS exercises enhance flexibility to a similar extent as SS exercise. [20,21] whereas other researchers stated that DS exercise is less effective than SS exercise for improving flexibility. [22] Similar to the results of Herman and Smith [20] as well as those of Beedle and Mann, [21] the results of this study illustrated that hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by both SS and DS exercises at a similar rate. ...
... [20,21] whereas other researchers stated that DS exercise is less effective than SS exercise for improving flexibility. [22] Similar to the results of Herman and Smith [20] as well as those of Beedle and Mann, [21] the results of this study illustrated that hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by both SS and DS exercises at a similar rate. The lack of a clear superiority between the SS and DS exercises in terms of hamstring flexibility may be attributable to the duration of SS in this study, as this duration may have been too short to enhance hamstring flexibility. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: In this study, we compared the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching exercises on flexibility, agility, fatigue index and anaerobic performance in professional football players. Patients and methods: Between August 2013 and September 2013, a total of 20 professional football players (mean age, 25.3±4.3 years; height, 1.83±0.03 m; body mass, 79.1±4.1 kg; football experience, 11.1±2.2 years) completed three different warm-up sessions at 24-hour intervals. First, second and third warmup sessions were named as “aerobic running”, “aerobic running combined with static stretching” and “aerobic running combined with dynamic stretching”, respectively. After each session, the athletes were evaluated in terms of stand and reach flexibility, Illinois agility, and running-based anaerobic sprint tests, respectively. Results: Analysis of variance indicated that “aerobic running combined with static stretching” increased agility (p≤0.05) and decreased relative average power, and relative maximum power (p≤0.05). However, no significant effect of static stretching on minimum power was detected (p>0.05). The fatigue index score was greater following “aerobic running” and “aerobic running combined with dynamic stretching” than following “aerobic running combined with static stretching”. We observed that aerobic running combined with static or dynamic stretching increased the flexibility more effectively than aerobic running alone (p≤0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that football players could prevent possible decreases in anaerobic performance by removing static stretching exercises from warm-up routines used before training and/or competitions. On the other hand, static and/or dynamic stretching exercises can be applied in addition to aerobic running to enhance flexibility. © 2016 by Turkish Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
... [5,8,18] Some researchers reported that DS and BS exercises enhance flexibility to a similar extent as SS exercise. [20,21] whereas other researchers stated that DS exercise is less effective than SS exercise for improving flexibility. [22] Similar to the results of Herman and Smith [20] as well as those of Beedle and Mann, [21] the results of this study illustrated that hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by both SS and DS exercises at a similar rate. ...
... [20,21] whereas other researchers stated that DS exercise is less effective than SS exercise for improving flexibility. [22] Similar to the results of Herman and Smith [20] as well as those of Beedle and Mann, [21] the results of this study illustrated that hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by both SS and DS exercises at a similar rate. The lack of a clear superiority between the SS and DS exercises in terms of hamstring flexibility may be attributable to the duration of SS in this study, as this duration may have been too short to enhance hamstring flexibility. ...
... It enhances force development and vertical jump performance as it raises core body and deep muscle temperatures, stimulates the nervous system, decreases the inhibition of antagonist muscles, increases postactivation potentiation and possibly reduces the risk of injury [11,12]. So, incorporating dynamic stretching warm-up into the daily preseason training regimen can produce sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and agility performance enhancements [13]. However, dynamic warm-ups can also lead to fatigue, which could negatively affect performance [14,15]. ...
... They found that the players who underwent the dynamic stretch treatment significantly decreased their sprint time whereas static stretch group exhibited significant increase in sprint time. Also, the study of Herman and Smith [13] found a decrease in the average time for completion of the 300-yd shuttle (-2%) and the 600-m run (-2.4%) after dynamic-stretching warm-up (DWU) intervention, performed daily over 4 weeks. ...
... Faigenbaum et al. (2006) suggested that voluntary contractions from a low level to high intensity, such as dynamic warming, before performing an athletic activity will increase power generation and performance by activating nerve-muscle function. In some studies, it has been reported that dynamic stretching affects speed, agility (Amiri-Khorasani et al., 2016), vertical jump (Carvalho et al., 2012), medicine ball throwing (Herman & Smith, 2008) Although there are few studies evaluating the acute effects of static and dynamic stretch on speed (Kilit et al., 2019), vertical jump (Carvalho et al., 2012), flexibility (Polat et al., 2018), and upper extremity performances (McMillian et al., 2006), to our knowledge, no research has been conducted on the acute effects of five different stretching exercise protocols (no stretching, SS, DS, CSD, CDS) on the speed, jump, flexibility and upper extremity performance of wrestling players. Based on some studies that reported a decrease in some performances after static stretching (Amiri-Khorasani et al., 2010;Amiri-Khorasani et al., 2016), it is assumed that there will be an acute decrease in performance responses and performing dynamic and combined stretching will increase the performance of athletes by performing static stretching exercises afterwards. ...
... The protocols are followed by each athlete's heart rate monitor (M400, Polar Electro Inc., Kempele, Finland), 8 minutes of general warm-up at a heart rate of 140 beats per minute, 3 minutes of rest, 30 seconds of stretching program for each muscle group (excluding stretch group), 2 minutes of rest followed by it consists of acceleration, vertical jump, flexibility and medicine ball throwing tests. Both static and dynamic stretching protocols have been adapted from the study of Herman & Smith (2008). The experimental procedure has been summarized in was automatically activated when experimental subjects passed through the first gate, and their time was recorded at 10 m after passing the end gate (Gorostiaga et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the acute effects of different stretching methods on acceleration, vertical jump (CMJ), flexibility and upper extremity performance of young wrestlers. 8 young female wrestlers (15.37 ± 1.06 years; 162.46 ± 4.12 cm and 57.47 ± 6.41 kg) participated in the study voluntarily. Stretching methods were divided into five groups: control (no stretching), static, dynamic, static + dynamic and dynamic + static. The findings showed faster speed performance after control (p = .012; η2 = 0.57), dynamic stretching (p = .050; η2 = 1.11) and static + dynamic combined stretching (p = .043; η2 = 0.96) compared to static stretching; and there is a statistically significant positive difference according to the test averages after dynamic stretching (p = .050; η2 = 0.91) compared to dynamic + static combined stretching (p<0.05). Vertical jump performance, according to the control warming up, a statistically significant difference has been found according to the test averages after dynamic stretching (p = 041; η2 = 1.17) and static + dynamic combined stretching (p = .043; η2 = 1.07). No difference was found in flexibility and medicine ball throwing performances according to different stretching protocols (p>0.05). It was determined that the acute effect of static stretching had a negative effect on acceleration performances and dynamic stretching caused an increase in jump performance. This study suggests that dynamic and static + dynamic stretching can be used in young wrestlers to provide better performance in acceleration and jumping skills during warm-up sessions. Keywords: wrestling, speed, vertical jump, throwing medicine ball, stretching exercises
... The present study showed that warm-up using chronic dynamic protocol improves the performance of anaerobic power, sprint and balance the vault skill than the warm up with a chronic static protocol and the control group. In line with the research, Herman et al (2008), Effect Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-time performance benefits of 24 male athletes studied and reported that incorporation of this specific 4 week dynamic warm-up intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers producted longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance enhancements (Herman and Smith, 2008). Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh (2013) have also reported that anaerobic power records, sprint, agility and flexibility with dynamic stretching protocols were significantly higher in male footballers compared with static stretching. ...
... The present study showed that warm-up using chronic dynamic protocol improves the performance of anaerobic power, sprint and balance the vault skill than the warm up with a chronic static protocol and the control group. In line with the research, Herman et al (2008), Effect Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-time performance benefits of 24 male athletes studied and reported that incorporation of this specific 4 week dynamic warm-up intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers producted longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance enhancements (Herman and Smith, 2008). Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh (2013) have also reported that anaerobic power records, sprint, agility and flexibility with dynamic stretching protocols were significantly higher in male footballers compared with static stretching. ...
... The present study showed that warm-up using chronic dynamic protocol improves the performance of anaerobic power, sprint and balance the vault skill than the warm up with a chronic static protocol and the control group. In line with the research, Herman et al (2008), Effect Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-time performance benefits of 24 male athletes studied and reported that incorporation of this specific 4 week dynamic warm-up intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers producted longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance enhancements (Herman and Smith, 2008). Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh (2013) have also reported that anaerobic power records, sprint, agility and flexibility with dynamic stretching protocols were significantly higher in male footballers compared with static stretching. ...
... The present study showed that warm-up using chronic dynamic protocol improves the performance of anaerobic power, sprint and balance the vault skill than the warm up with a chronic static protocol and the control group. In line with the research, Herman et al (2008), Effect Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-time performance benefits of 24 male athletes studied and reported that incorporation of this specific 4 week dynamic warm-up intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers producted longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance enhancements (Herman and Smith, 2008). Amiri-Khorasani and Sotoodeh (2013) have also reported that anaerobic power records, sprint, agility and flexibility with dynamic stretching protocols were significantly higher in male footballers compared with static stretching. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and long-term static and dynamic warm-up protocols on fitness and motor performance in skilled female Gymnast. Methodology: For this purpose, 24 female skilled gymnasts (with a mean age of 9.66±1.43 height 129.91±13.68 cm, weight 28.45±8.48 kg and BMI 16.44±2.16 kg/m 2 ) were selected. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups (general warm-up, general warm-up and static stretching and general warm-up and dynamic stretching). The first protocol consisted of a 10 minute jogging, second protocol consisted of jogging and static stretching and third protocol consisted of jogging and dynamic stretching in muscles used in performing the skill. Subjects were tested before and after acute protocol and four weeks as the using different protocols. Anaerobic power and a 20-meters sprinting was recorded digitally by Bosco test and Sprint digital timer respectively . Also for score the subjects, two experienced referees certified by Board of gymnastics were used. Statistical analysis of data was performed through ANOVA with repeated measurements and Bonferroni post hoc test at significance level (p≤0.05). Findings: The results of this study showed, significant differences in acute and long-term dynamic protocols at balance the vault Performance (p=0.001). As well as anaerobic power and sprinting performance showed a significant increase in long-term dynamic warm-up protocol compared to the acute phase (p=0.04). While balance the vault Performance, anaerobic power and sprinting 20 meters significantly decrease after a long-term static warm-up protocol compared to the acute phase (p=0.001). Conclusion: Therefore, it seems that dynamic stretching by post-activation potentiation and optimal muscle temperature cause better performance and in contrast, static stretching cause less performance due to decreased muscle activation and less muscle stiffness and Based on the findings of this research, Warm up in the long-term compared to acute warm-up causes further development of the balance the vault, anaerobic power and sprint Performance. Keywords: Dynamic warm-up, Static warm-up, Balance the Vault, anaerobic power, sprint
... In volleyball, high-level reaction and acceleration speed are required as players have to react very quickly because the ball travels at high velocity and the volleyball court is also relatively small in the area which inhibits them to attain maximal speed (Johnson et al., 2010). However, researches on the relationship of flexibility with speed and agility are also limited and have conflicting results (Alikhajeh et al., 2012;Alipasali et al., 2019;Bazett-Jones et al., 2008;Fletcher & Jones, 2004;Herman & Smith, 2008). In studies, it has been found that dynamic stretching is effective in the improvement of agility performance (Taleb-beydokhti & Haghshenas, 2015;Van Gelder & Bartz, 2011). ...
... In the case of acceleration speed, only one study found which supported the results of the present study, where it was reported that after six-week training, both static and dynamic stretching protocols significantly improved the performance 4.5 and 9 m sprint tests among recreational volleyball players (Alipasali et al., 2019). Studies also reported positive effects of active dynamic stretching on sprint performance (Alikhajeh et al., 2012;Fletcher & Jones, 2004;Herman & Smith, 2008). On the other hand, they also concluded that static stretching included in warm-up may decrease short sprint performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the effect of high and low levels of flexibility on key performance indicators of volleyball performance. Eighty-four volleyball players (n=84; mean±SD; decimal age: 16.57±1.51; height (cm): 176.23±8.77; body mass (kg): 66.14±11.79) were selected for the study. The design of the study was cross-sectional and to measure selected variables i.e. agility, lower body muscular power, and acceleration speed; 6×10 m shuttle run, countermovement jump (with arm swing) test and 20 m sprint test (standing start) were used. To measure the flexibility level of the players, sit and reach test was used. Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted to check the distribution of data and the Levine test was applied to check homogeneity of the variance in data. Participants were divided into two groups i.e. High Flexibility Group (HFG) and Low Flexibility Group (LFG) using k-means cluster analysis and independent t-test was applied to find the differences between HFG and LFG. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results showed statistically significant difference between HFG and LFG in agility, acceleration speed and lower body muscular power and, based on the results, it was concluded coaches should include flexibility training in the regular training programme. The results obtained supported the rationale that baseline flexibility may influence the performance of volleyball players. Article visualizations: </p
... However, it is not clear if these transient improvements can be transferred into sustained enhancements with the incorporation of dynamic stretching into the warm-up before daily training. Despite the growing number of studies documenting the useful immediate effects of dynamic stretching, there is surprisingly limited research examining the chronic training effect of integrating dynamic stretching into the warm-up (Herman & Smith, 2008;Laroche, Lussier, & Roy, 2008;Woolstenhulme, Griffiths, Woolstenhulme, & Parcell, 2006). Woolstenhulme et al. (2006) reported that basketball players who performed 6 weeks of ballistic stretching within a warm-up increased flexibility, but did not affect vertical jump height. ...
... Woolstenhulme et al. (2006) reported that basketball players who performed 6 weeks of ballistic stretching within a warm-up increased flexibility, but did not affect vertical jump height. In a second study (Herman & Smith, 2008), the incorporation of dynamic stretching into the daily pre-season training regimen of wrestlers produced significant longer term or sustained enhancements of power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance within a 4-week intervention. Finally, Laroche et al. (2008) suggested that 4 weeks of ballistic stretching had little effect on muscle strength, power, work or lengthÁtension relationship. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract There is abundant research involving the acute effects of stretching on subsequent performance; however, there is little information on dynamic stretch training programmes on range of motion (ROM), power and speed measures. It was the objective of this research to examine the training consequences of active dynamic stretching (ADS) and static dynamic stretching (SDS). A repeated measures design compared the effects of 8 weeks of warm-ups incorporating two dynamic stretch modalities: ADS and SDS on squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) and hip ROM in 37 male soccer players. SJ height (SDS: 4.6%; ADS: 5.3%; p <0.05), CMJ height (SDS: 5.3%; ADS: 3.4%; p<0.05), CMJ force (SDS: 7.2%; ADS: 12.7%; p<0.001) and CMJ peak power (SDS: 3.9%; ADS: 3.3%; p<0.05) increased significantly after SDS and ADS training compared to the control group (no significant change). Sprint performance and RSA were not affected by either of the dynamic stretch training regimens. The SDS and ADS training programmes elicited similar improvements in flexibility (SDS: 57.6%; ADS: 45.1%; p<0.01) compared to the non-significant changes in the control group. The inclusion of ADS and SDS within the regular warm-up of an 8-week training programme can improve not only flexibility but also jump power measures as well.
... Warm-up intensity was progressively increased by including faster paced jogging as well as the inclusion of dynamic exercises such as squats, lunges and arm rotations. 13,14 This was followed by a short period of dynamic stretching of major muscle groups such as the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteal and calf muscles. Finally, the skill specific 7 component of the warm-up comprised paired passing where participants passed to each other over 15 m marked by cones. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time-course of decrements in physical performance following a pre-match warm-up in soccer players. Knowledge of this information could be used to inform re-warm-ups and pre-pitch entry practices of soccer substitutes. Data were collected over five sessions with 12 male youth professionals (15-17 yrs). Across the five sessions each player performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (30 and 40 cm), pre-warm-up, immediately post-warm-up, and following 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-minutes of inactivity. Physical performance was assessed by jump height and calculation of reactive strength index (RSI). Hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs) were fitted within a Bayesian framework to identify plausible time to achieve 10 to 50% decrements of the initial pre to post warm-up improvement. Mean improvements of 5.4 cm (95%CrI: 4.8 to 6.0), 0.24 ms-1 (95%CrI: 0.19 to 0.29), and 0.32 ms-1 (0.27 to 0.36) were obtained for the CMJ, and RSI measured from the 30 and 45 cm box, respectively. Decrements for all assessments were non-linear with the steepest rates of decline measured in the initial periods following warm-up. High probabilities were calculated (p ≥ 0.979) that up to 50% of the initial warm-up improvement for the CMJ would be lost between 20 and 30 minutes. The results of this study provide a guide for future research and practitioners managing the pre-pitch entry of soccer substitutes. It is suggested that practitioners consider and assess the effectiveness of exposing players to a re-warm-up between 20- and 30-minutes prior to pitch entry to maintain performance capabilities.
... ISSN 1885 -7019 110 5º Estiramientos dinámicos, técnica de carrera, técnica de carrera aplicada, y técnicas de desplazamiento desde la línea de fondo hasta la línea de medio campo. Se ha demostrado que la aplicación de estiramientos dinámicos en el calentamiento tienen un efecto a largo plazo de mejora de la potencia, fuerza, resistencia muscular, capacidad anaeróbica y agilidad (Herman y Smith, 2008). Duración aproximada de 4 minutos. ...
... Therefore, it is possible that active warm up of high intensity, especially it includes a sprint component or maximum voluntary contractions may improve certain types of performance by increasing muscle contractile performance [2]. PAP appears to have its greatest effect on fast twitch fibers, the same fibers that are probably predominantly used when performing the dynamic warm-up exercises in the current study and also has a same impact on trained athletes [9,10,11]. A brief period of intermittent stimulation results in enhanced contractile response while continuous stimulation results in fatigue. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different warm-up protocols and no warm up on speed performance among football players. Twenty five football players aged 15.6 ± 0.70 years each participated in this study. One initial study familiarization session has been conducted. Three randomly assigned experimental test sessions have been conducted in three consecutive days a week which consisting no warm-up with 3 minutes time interval between trial, 15 minutes static warm-up and 10 min dynamic warm-up. All test sessions were separated by at least 48 hours and done in the morning at eight a.m. Performance testing consist 40m sprint for speed test. One-Way ANOVA on the warm-up conditions showed a significant difference among the three different protocols (F=9.782; p=0.02). Post Hoc comparisons revealed that participant sprint performance was faster following no warm-up (5.386 + 0.13907 sec) than in static warm-up (5.5740 + 0.20601sec) and dynamic warm-up (5.5440 + 0.21397 sec). This study indicated that speed performance in 40m sprint was better without performed a warm-up compared to static and dynamic warm-up. Moreover, the static and dynamic warm-up diminished the speed performance. An intense warm-up may result in decrease in performance because of the reduction in high-energy phosphates.
... ISSN 1885 -7019 110 5º Estiramientos dinámicos, técnica de carrera, técnica de carrera aplicada, y técnicas de desplazamiento desde la línea de fondo hasta la línea de medio campo. Se ha demostrado que la aplicación de estiramientos dinámicos en el calentamiento tienen un efecto a largo plazo de mejora de la potencia, fuerza, resistencia muscular, capacidad anaeróbica y agilidad (Herman y Smith, 2008). Duración aproximada de 4 minutos. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Warm-up is used, accepted and performed by every participant before practising any sport. Warm-up is also considered by most sportmen as fundamental to achieve optimal performance. However, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness. This lack of evidence, together with the diversity of sports, requires the standardisation of common warm-up patterns for each sport activity. As elite basketball is concerned, a large scientific gap has been found, which the present article will attempt to fill in. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are: first, conducting a literature review on all aspects of warm-up, i.e. warm-up definition, warm up types, warm-up benefits, warm-up structure (intensity, duration, recovery and specificity), influential factors, as well as what kind of stretching must be included in the warm-up; and secondly, from the conclusions obtained, describing and proposing a methodology which is adapted to competitive warm-up for high-level basketball, so this methodology serves as a justified reference guide when going through the pre-game phase.Key Words: static stretching, dynamic stretching, generic warm-up, specific warm-up, basketball.
... Bompa (2007, p.331) hace referencia a la utilización de los balones medicinales como un medio de desarrollo de la fuerza o bien, como modo de evaluación de dicha capacidad. El realizar evaluaciones de fuerza de las extremidades superiores, a través del lanzamiento del balón medicinal, se ha evidenciado que es válido y fiable (Herman y Smith, 2008), muy relacionado con los resultados obtenidos en este estudio. ...
Article
Full-text available
El propósito del estudio fue validar una modificación al test de lanzamiento del balón medicinal de 2 Kg., que facilite la búsqueda de talentos deportivos en Halterofilia en edades infantiles, evaluando la fuerza explosiva a través de un gesto técnico similar al levantamiento del arranque. Se evaluaron 65 sujetos, 47,7% hombres y 52,3% mujeres, una edad promedio de 10,88 ± 0,72 años. Después de un calentamiento, los sujetos efectuaron el test modificado de lanzamiento del balón medicinal de 2 Kg., en la misma sesión de trabajo realizaron un test ya validado de lanzamiento del balón medicinal de 2 Kg. esto para obtener la validez del test modificado; para finalizar la aplicación de las mediciones se repitió el test modificado con el fin de obtener la confiabilidad del mismo. Se ejecutó un análisis correlacional de Pearson (r) para obtener tanto la validez como la confiabilidad (test-retest); utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS versión 18.0 con un nivel de significancia de 0,05. La correlación entre el Test Modificado y el Test validado de Lanzamiento del Balón Medicinal es de r = 0,533 sig. <0,001; en el análisis de test – retest la correlación es de r = 0,454 sig. 0,007. En conclusión, si existe una correlación directamente proporcional entre el test modificado y el test validado de lanzamiento del balón medicinal, por lo tanto el nuevo test es valido y a su vez es confiable (test-retest); de igual forma en el análisis según el género, es valido y confiable, indiferentemente el sexo.
... Por otro lado, existe una transferencia positiva hacia habilidades de lanzamientos de otros deportes (Pare, 2008). Si pretendemos hacer una evaluación del nivel de fuerza de las extremidades superiores, los resultados obtenidos confirman que cualquier modalidad de lanzamiento que se emplee (por encima de la cabeza, hacia atrás o desde el pecho), es válida y fiable (Herman y Smith, 2008). El test de flexo-extensiones de brazos en un minuto, al igual que su variante de realización de máximo número de repeticiones en 30 segundos, son válidos para la medición de la fuerza-resistencia de las extremidades superiores (Martínez, 2002; Blázquez, 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: we checked the possibility of using a contact platform to assess upper body strength, from lying prone. PROCEDURE: 84 men executed flexion and extension arms (1') and adapted SJB, 34 of them, throwing medicine ball (3kg and 7 variants). We performed tests for reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: ICC) and validity (Pearson). RESULTS: ITC launches test (0.98 to 0.83 depending on variant) adapted SJB (0.90), flexion and extension arms in 1'(0.98). R Pearson SJB adapted shoots (r = 0.49) and the test arm flexion and extension (r = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: The three tests are reliable. The SJB adapted predicts the number of flexion and extension arms in 1', but not test launches.
... Because of their inherent laxity, swimmers should emphasize preserving the overall stability of the shoulder and less time on general static stretches [26]. Instead, a dynamic warm-up (Fig. 2) has been found to produce short-term and long-term performance enhancements in power, agility, strength, muscle endurance, and anaerobic capacity [26,38,44,45]. A dynamic warm-up tends to include some form of dynamic stretching, agility, and plyometric activities and specific motor pattern movements [46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environmental and chemical exposures. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries, overtraining, respiratory problems, and dermatologic conditions are among the most common problems swimmers encounter. Although not unique to swimming, overtraining is a serious condition which can have significant negative impact on swimmers' health and performance. This review article is an attempt to discuss various issues that a medical team should consider when caring for swimmers.
... De acordo com as informações apresentadas nos trabalhos, registra-se a necessidade de identifi cação dos elementos que caracterizam as modifi cações no desempenho, o que torna os tipos de alongamento (estático ou dinâmico) componente viável para interpretação dos achados, em virtude da possibilidade de agrupamento de estudos nos quais foram desempenhados protocolos com os dois tipos diferentes de estímulos: estático ou dinâmico. Esse agrupamento contribui para a análise dos resultados, considerando que diferentes métodos tendem a apresentar efeitos agudos particulares, o que pode ser refl etido no resultado das avaliações (HERMAN & SMITH, 2008 Por outro lado, são encontrados resultados demonstrando que técnicas as quais envolvam alongamentos dinâmicos (AD) podem produzir melhor rendimento (CHAOUACHI, CASTAGNA, CHTARA, BRUGHELI, TURKI, GALY, CHAMARI & BEHM, 2010; LITTLE & WILLIAMS, 2006). Algumas das principais justifi cativas são: semelhança dos padrões de movimento utilizados (NEEDHAM, MORSE & DEGENS, 2009), aumento da temperatura corporal (TAYLOR, SHEPPARD, LEE & PLUMMER, 2009), auxílio na propriocepção e permissão de melhor pré-ativação do organismo para a tarefa posterior (GELEN, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on the effects of stretching on sprint performance is controversial. This meta-analysis aimed at examining the outcomes of the studies using different stretching protocols prior to sprint efforts. The search was conducted in several databases, using combinations of the following keywords: sprinting and stretching. Inclusion criteria included studies with males aged over 16 years irrespective of the sport, fitness level and assessment procedures performed. After the evaluation of the selected studies, 11 were considered appropriate for the analysis, resulting in 62 cases to be studied. The effect size (ES) and delta percentage (Δ%) were considered as dependent variables. The study design, type of stretching, assessment protocol, number of sets, sport, fitness level and previous practice of stretching were considered as factors. The results suggest that: a) dynamic stretching (DS) significantly improves performance when compared to static (SS) (p < 0.001) or mixed (MS) (p < 0.002) stretching methods; b) there are significant differences in ES and Δ% between runs with change of direction and linear races (up to 20 m, p = 0.003, and above 20 m, p < 0.009); c) performing multiple tests provides better results than a single test after the warm-up and stretch (p = 0.001), and d) performing a single bout of stretching is less harmful to performance than two (p = 0.016) and three (p < 0.001) bouts. Therefore, it is possible to obtain small gains in high-intensity sprinting performance by using DS when compared with SS, MS or no stimuli.
... A goalie in ice hockey must abduct their legs when in a butterfly position, gymnasts perform a split position, wrestling, martial arts, synchronized swimming, figure skating, are examples of the necessity of a pronounced static range of motion. Some dynamic stretching studies have reported similar increases in static flexibility as static stretching (Beedle and Mann, 2007; Herman and Smith, 2008), but other studies have indicated that dynamic stretching is not as effective at increasing static flexibility as static stretching (Covert et al., 2010; O'Sullivan et al., 2009). Hence, it could be important to include static stretching for sport specific flexibility. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance), countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013) in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM) by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083) than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance. Key pointsActivity specific warm-up may improve sprint performance.Static stretching was more effective than dynamic stretching for increasing static range of motion.There was no effect of the warm-up protocols on countermovement jump height or movement time.
... 13 Güreşçiler üzerinde yapılan 4 haftalık dinamik ısınmanın, kuvvettin artmasında, kas dayanıklılığında, anaerobik kapasite üzerinde ve çevik bir performans artırımında etkili olduğu saptanmıştır. 8 Isınma ve soğuma egzersizleri sporcuların sağlık ve performans yeterliliği için düzenli yapılması elzem olan ve öğrenilerek elde edinilmiş yalın davranışlar bütünüdür. Sporcu, bu alışkanlığı düzenli ve sürekli olarak yineleyecek biçimde öğrenmesi ve uygulaması, bu alışkanlığın kazanıldığını gösterir. ...
... A dynamic warm-up is included rather than a static-stretching or aerobic warm-up because flexibility routines that consist of active, sport-specific exercises have been shown to positively influence performance outcomes following the warm-up bout. 41 The session ► Chemotherapy or radiation therapy within the past four weeks ► Opioid-requiring cancer-related pain ► Acute coronary or vascular event within the past one year ► Major surgery within the past six months ► Uncontrolled coronary heart disease ► Neurological, orthopaedic or genitourinary limitations that preclude participation in exercise ► History of allergic reaction or intolerance to whey protein (lactose intolerance is acceptable) ► Current use of N-acetylcysteine orα-lipoic acid supplements ► Current participation in a structured exercise programme ADT, androgen deprivation therapy; GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Prostate cancer survivors (PCS) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience deleterious side effects such as unfavourable changes in cardiometabolic factors that lead to sarcopenic obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). While loss of lean body mass (LBM) compromises muscular strength and quality of life, MetS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and may influence cancer recurrence. Exercise can improve LBM and strength, and may serve as an alternative to the pharmacological management of MetS in PCS on ADT. Prior exercise interventions in PCS on ADT have been effective at enhancing strength, but only marginally effective at enhancing body composition and ameliorating cardiometabolic risk factors. This pilot trial aims to improve on existing interventions by employing periodised resistance training (RT) to counter sarcopenic obesity in PCS on ADT. Secondary aims compare intervention effects on cardiometabolic, physical function, quality of life and molecular skeletal muscle changes. An exploratory aim examines if protein supplementation (PS) in combination with RT elicits greater changes in these outcomes. Methods and analysis A 2×2 experimental design is used in 32 PCS on ADT across a 12-week intervention period. Participants are randomised to resistance training and protein supplementation (RTPS), RT, PS or control. RT and RTPS groups perform supervised RT three times per week for 12 weeks, while PS and RTPS groups receive 50 g whey protein per day. This pilot intervention applies a multilayered approach to ameliorate detrimental cardiometabolic effects of ADT while investigating molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle changes in PCS. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the University of Southern California Institutional Review Board (HS-13–00315). Results from this trial will be communicated in peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Trial registration number NCT01909440; Pre-results.
... Specifically, these warm-up routines should consist of both global and joint-specific range of motion (ROM) activities to prepare for both resistance training movement patterns and mat-based training. Based on previous wrestling research (26) and more generalized warm-up recommendations (23), a warm-up lasting approximately 10-15 minutes is considered optimal. In addition, the '9+ program', developed by Maliaropoulos et al. (31), consisting of nine individual and partner-based judo-specific warm-up exercises should be considered as part of a judo-specific warm-up. ...
... Concerning the intensity of dynamic stretching, studies and literature are unclear and inconsistent. For example, Herman and Smith [11] are concerned with the intensity of dynamic stretching and they state that stretching is done at a slow pace, but the intensity is not precisely defined. Fletcher [7] in his study mentions that at a rate of 100 beats per minute performance improves in the countermovement jump test than if the stretching is applied at a rate of 50 beats per minute. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. This article deals with the issue of the effects of stretching on the level of explosive strength abilities in the lower limbs in warm-up. We know from a large amount of scientific studies that dynamic stretching has a positive effect on most sport performances (especially power and speed sports) rather than static stretching. Dynamically stretched muscles produce more power primarily because of the increased activation of the motor units. Higher performance during fast dynamic exercise is related to higher activation of the central nervous system. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) seems to be an optimal method of stretching when trying to increase joint mobility in the joint-muscle unit, where muscle contraction is used, followed by a relaxation phase and the subsequent stretching of the muscle. Aim of Study. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of dynamic and PNF stretching on explosive strength abilities of the lower limbs in active hockey players (n = 19, weight 84.7 ± 6.4 kg, height 179.8 ± 3.1 cm) and football (soccer) players (n = 23, weight 77.6 ± 5.1 kg, height 175.5 ± 4.3 cm) ranging in age from 18 to 26. Material and Methods. The PNF method of Sölveborn was used, a method characterized by the physiological knowledge that a muscle significantly decreases its tone after isometric contraction is applied. This was compared in our research to the use of dynamic stretching during warm-up. We used the following motor exams for testing the explosive strength of the lower limbs – a standing long jump (rebound with feet together) and a vertical jump (Sargent test). Results. We can state from the results of the parametric t-test that on the chosen level of significance (p < 0.05) practically significant differences were noted in the application of dynamic and PNF stretching in the hockey players’ vertical jump, and in addition to this, that the observed differences were substantively significant. For soccer players there are no statistically different results in the vertical jump test (p < 0.05) and that the participants have similar results after both dynamic and PNF stretching exercises. Conclusions. The impact of the acute application of dynamic stretching on explosive strength abilities in the lower limbs of hockey players was significantly more effective than the application of the PNF stretching technique in the vertical jump test performances. The experiment confirmed the short-term effect of the application of dynamic stretching on the explosive strength of the lower limbs of hockey players.
... Mechanical therapy, especially tensile loading, improved physiological performance of muscle, with maximum tetanic tension highest in the GS group (Fig. 4). Stretching is widely believed to be beneficial to athletes [48], although mechanisms and the degree of efficacy are not clear [49,50]. Possible effects that might contribute beyond pure mechanics include increased muscle temperature and nerve sensitization [51], and possible effects of static magnetic fields on Ca 2+ in myotubes [52]. ...
Article
Muscle atrophy following injury can be alleviated by periodic, lateral muscle compression via massage therapy or via periodically actuated magnetically hydrogel implants that simulate massage. Although contraction parallel to a muscle’s contractile axis is well known to be superior to such lateral compression for promoting muscle strengthening in both athletic training and mechanobiology, it is not known whether this is the case for preventing muscle disuse atrophy. To test the hypothesis that axial stretch can alleviate muscle disuse atrophy, we therefore developed an injectable, biodegradable magnetic hydrogel system for exogenous promotion of muscle mass and regeneration through periodic, axial muscle stretch, and tested the system in an animal model of disuse atrophy. The system consists of a biocompatible magnetic hydrogel that can be injected into muscles and actuated to stretch muscles periodically by a wearable device. The hydrogel is durable and self-healing, and when triggered to degrade is flushed from the body over the course of two weeks. Results showed axial muscle stretch to be superior to massage-like compression in maintaining muscle mass and structure in the animal model, and suggests pathways for combatting muscle disuse atrophy during prolonged bed rest, persistent coma, and prolonged spaceflight.
... Developing and keeping static and dynamic flexibility of hamstring muscles are consequently essential to achieving ample and esthetic figures. Some dynamic stretching studies have reported increases in static flexibility also (Beedle & Mann, 2007;Herman & Smith, 2008), but other studies have indicated that dynamic stretching is not as effective at increasing static flexibility as static stretching (Covert, Alexander, Petronis, & Davis, 2010;O'Sullivan, Murray, & Sainsbury, 2009). Static stretching involves lengthening a muscle until either a stretch sensation or the point of discomfort is reached and then holding the muscle in a lengthened position for a prescribed period of time (Behm, Blazevich, Kay, & McHugh, 2016), and dynamic stretching rather involves the performance of a controlled movement through the ROM of the active joint(s) (Fletcher, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of static and dynamic hamstring muscles stretching on kinematics and esthetics of grand battement (high velocity kicks) in adolescent recreational dancers. Sixteen participants were assessed before and immediately after both stretching modalities. Kinematics of movement was measured by an optoelectronic system and esthetics was scored by a jury of professional dancers. Both stretching modalities led to significant kinematic differences compared with without stretching. Significant linear correlations between kinematic parameters and esthetic scores have been observed: improving dancers’ physical performances has noticeable impact on the perception of their movements.
... Likewise, there was no change in ROM for the DSg, which used active quadriceps contraction during assessments and interventions. According to Herman and Smith (2008), this is not the most appropriate technique for increasing flexibility, although some authors (Samukawa et al., 2011) have reported acute changes in ROM after dynamic stretching. One of the possible explanations involves stretching speed, which may have favored activation of the myotatic reflex (Bandy et al., 1998), not relaxing the hamstrings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a single hamstring static or dynamic stretching session and a 10-session stretching program on the range of motion, neuromuscular performance and functional performance of healthy subjects. Forty-five, healthy, active men were divided into three groups: control; static stretching and dynamic stretching. There were no significant differences in ratings between the experimental and control groups for any of the variables (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that neither a single session of hamstring static or dynamic stretching nor a 10-session stretching program affected range of motion, neuromuscular or functional performance.
... In this regard, dynamic stretching has been a popular choice to replace static stretching because the acute effects have been shown to improve performance parameters such as agility, endurance, strength, power, and anaerobic capacity (Dalrymple, Davis, Dwyer, & Moir, 2010;A. D. Faigenbaum et al., 2006;Herman & Smith, 2008;Jaggers, Swank, Frost, & Lee, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of dynamic and static (standard) stretching on hamstring flexibility. Twenty-five female volleyball players were randomly assigned to dynamic (n = 12) and standard (n = 13) stretching groups. The experimental group trained with repetitive dynamic stretching exercises, while the standard modality group trained with static stretching exercises. The stretching interventions were equivalent in the time at stretch and were performed three days a week for four weeks. Both stretching groups showed significant improvements (P <.001) in range of motion (ROM) during the intervention. However, no difference in gains in the range of motion between stretching groups was observed. It was concluded that both dynamic stretching and standard stretching are effective at increasing ROM.
... In a study on wrestlers, the effects of four weeks of dynamic flexibility exercises on performance were examined and significant improvements in anaerobic capacity and strength characteristics were obtained (Herman & Smith, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Is there a relationship between flexibility ability and the selected long jump performance components of teenage athletes? Există o relație între capacitatea de flexibilitate și componentele de performanță selectate ale sariturii in lungime la tinerii sportivi? Abstract Background. The long jump is technically divided into four stages: run-up, jump, flight and landing. The total measured distance of the long jump consists of the sum of these three lengths: takeoff distance (L1), flight distance (L2) and landing distance (L3). The parts of the long jump were examined to determine by analyzing the various kinematic variables such as the percentage of L1, L2 and L3 rates in previous studies. Aims. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between flexibility ability and selected variables of long jump performance components, particularly the landing distance (L3) for teenage athletes. Methods. The research group comprised 32 male athletes, age 16.2 ± 0.6 years, who participated in the qualification round in the Turkey Youth Indoor Championships. All trials of the athletes were recorded and a two-dimensional analysis of their best performances was made. Velocity values (V10) of the last 10 meters of the approach run of the athletes, contact time at takeoff , takeoff angle, and long jump performance component (L1, L2, L3) values were calculated. Result. When the relationship between the flexibility ability and other performance components of the athletes was examined, only a weak statistically significant correlation was found between the approach run velocity and flexibility (r=0.45). Various studies have been conducted in different events, examining the effects of flexibility on sprint and jumping ability. Conclusions. Due to the L3 similarity of the body position in landing with the sit & reach test, the anticipated relationships were not found except for V10. Keywords: flexibility, long jump, L3, teenage athlete. Rezumat Premize. Săritura in lungime este tehnic împărțită în patru etape: elanul, desprinderea, zborul și aterizarea. Distanța totală măsurată a săriturii în lungime reprezintă suma a trei lungimi: distanța de elan (L1), distanța de zbor (L2) și distanța de aterizare (L3). În studii anterioare, fazele săriturii în lungime au fost examinate pentru a determina valorile procentuale ale ratelor L1, L2 și L3 prin analizarea diferitelor variabile cinematice. Obiective. Scopul acestui studiu a fost de a determina dacă există o relație între capacitatea de flexibilitate și variabilele selectate ale componentelor de performanță ale săriturii în lungime, în special distanța de aterizare (L3) pentru sportivii tineri. Metode. Grupul de cercetare a fost format din 32 de sportivi de sex masculin, cu vârsta 16,2 ± 0,6 ani, care au participat la runda de calificare a Campionatului Indoor de Tineret, Turcia. Toate încercările sportivilor au fost înregistrate și a fost făcută o analiză bidimensională a celor mai bune performanțe. Au fost calculate valorile vitezelor (V10) pe ultimii 10 metri de abordare a săriturii în lungime, timpul de contact la bătaie, unghiul de desprindere și valorile componentelor de performanță pentru săritura în lungime (L1, L2, L3). Rezultate. Atunci când s-au examinat relațiile dintre capacitatea de flexibilitate și celelalte componente ale performanței sportivilor, s-a constatat o corelație semnificativă statistic între viteza de deplasare și flexibilitate (r = 0,45). Diverse studii au fost realizate cu ocazia diferitelor evenimente, examinând efectele flexibilității asupra abilităților de sprint și săritură. Concluzii. Datorită asemănării L3 a poziției corpului în aterizare cu testul sit & reach, relațiile așteptate nu au fost găsite decât în cazul V10. Cuvinte cheie: flexibilitate, săritura în lungime, L3, viteza de deplasare.
... The first technique includes stretching which has an effect on restoring the original muscle length along with recovering ROM. It also increases the muscle torque and exhibits an analgesic effect by increasing the pain threshold [6]. The second technique is massage, which is applied to soft tissues and can contribute to alteration of blood flow, blood pressure, and skin temperature using the hands, a vibrator, and a roller [7,8]. ...
... Por otro lado, existe una transferencia positiva hacia habilidades de lanzamientos de otros deportes (Pare, 2008). Si pretendemos hacer una evaluación del nivel de fuerza de las extremidades superiores, los resultados obtenidos confirman que cualquier modalidad de lanzamiento que se emplee (por encima de la cabeza, hacia atrás o desde el pecho), es válida y fiable (Herman y Smith, 2008). El test de flexo-extensiones de brazos en un minuto, al igual que su variante de realización de máximo número de repeticiones en 30 segundos, son válidos para la medición de la fuerza-resistencia de las extremidades superiores (Martínez, 2002; Blázquez, 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCCIÓN: se comprobó la posibilidad de utilizar una plataforma de contacto para evaluar la fuerza del tren superior, desde tumbado prono. PROCEDIMIENTO: 84 varones ejecutaron flexo-extensiones de brazos (1’) y SJB adaptado; 34 de ellos, lanzamientos de balón medicinal (3Kg y 7 variantes). Se realizaron pruebas de fiabilidad (coeficiente de correlación intraclase: CCI) y de validez (Pearson). RESULTADOS: CCI del test de lanzamientos (0,98-0,83 según variante); SJB adaptado (0.90); flexo-extensiones de brazos en 1’ (0,98). “r” de Pearson del SJB adaptado con los lanzamientos (r=0,49) y con el test de flexo-extensiones de brazos (r=0.95). CONCLUSIONES: los tres test son fiables. El SJB adaptado predice el número de flexo-extensiones de brazos en 1’, pero no del test de lanzamientos. PALABRAS CLAVE: fuerza, extremidades superiores, plataforma de contacto, balón medicinal, SJB, flexo-extensione
Article
Full-text available
Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM) of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair, and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups: athletes (24), clinical (29), elderly (12), and general population (87). The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance.
Article
Full-text available
Volume 16(1s) ~ 2021 ~ DOI: 10.18002/rama.v16i1s Strength and conditioning for combat sports athletes
Article
Full-text available
‬ The effect of four weeks dynamic warm-up on static and dynamic balance and proprioceptive receptors in skilled female Gymnast Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of four weeks dynamic warm-up on static and dynamic balance and proprioceptive receptors in skilled female Gymnast Methodology: For this purpose, 16 skilled female gymnasts (mean age 9.62±1.45 years, height 130 ±15.62 cm, weight 28.24 ±8.52 kg and BMI 16.27±1.46kg/m2) were selected and divide into two groups [general warm-up (control), and dynamic stretching] randomly. The first protocol included a 10 minute jogging, and the second protocol consisted of jogging and dynamic stretching in muscles used in performing the skill. Subjects were tested before and after acute protocol and four weeks as the using different protocols. The indicators of the equilibrium of) anterior-posterior internal-external) in four static (with two legs, and with one leg) and dynamic situations (with two legs and one leg) by removing visual input were investigated. Balance assessed with dynamometer system equipped with 7 cameras and Kistler force plate. Statistical analysis of data was performed through ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test at significance level of (p≤ 0.05). Results: The results of this study showed, a significant increase in dynamic balance with both feet and a feet by removing visual input in a state of equilibrium with a dynamic warm-up protocol after four weeks (p=0.001 Also Static balance on two legs and one foot with a dynamic warm-up protocol was significantly increased after four week dynamic protocols respectively (p=0.001, p=0.005). Conclusion: Since the removal of visual inputs can lead to a dysfunction in the postural sway control, Use a dynamic warm-up exercises demonstrated in female gymnast that the fluctuations are significantly reduced compared to the control group in a way that improves there in the balance performance.
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a quantidade de exercícios de alongamento para os membros inferiores que causa melhor salto vertical. Esse estudo seguiu a metodologia proposta pelo PRISMA para revisão sistemática e meta-análise. Os estudos foram identificados na base de dados no período de outubro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014. A pesquisa na literatura foram realizadas no Google Acadêmcico, no Research Gate, no PubMed, no Medline, no Scielo, Dialnet e no periódicos CAPES. Os estudos que foram incluídos na revisão sistemática e meta-análise tiveram um total de 14 pesquisas. O tamanho do efeito de 1 a 5 exercícios de alongamento dinâmico foi de 13,19±28 (grande efeito) e o tamanho do efeito de 6 a mais exercícios de alongamento dinâmico foi de 0,48±0,4 (pequeno efeito). O teste Shapiro Wilk determinou que os dados não são normais e o histograma mostrou os dados não normais. O teste U de Mann-Whitney detectou diferença não significativa (U = 15, p= 0,52) entre 1 a 5 exercícios de alongamento dinâmico versus 6 a mais exercícios de alongamento dinâmico. Entretanto, 1 a 5 exercícios de alongamento dinâmico tiveram melhor salto com contramovimento. Em conclusão, parece que 1 a 5 exercícios de alongamento dinâmico causa um melhor salto com contramovimento, entretanto, mais estudos sobre esse tema são necessários com o objetivo de corroborar esta afirmação.
Article
The purpose of this article is to overview the cardiovascular fitness benefits associated with HIIT and speed training, as well as discuss specific ways coaches and fitness professionals can introduce and promote speed workouts as a viable, and creative, exercise alternative.
Article
Background The effect of interventions to the Sternocleidomastoid(SCM)-muscle, as an important element of neck movement which is overactive in individuals with chronic neck pain(CNP), are unknown. Objective The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of SCM stretching and massage on pain, range of motion(ROM), endurance, disability, and kinesiophobia in individuals with CNP. Methods In this study, individuals with CNP were randomized 1:1 to parallel SCM-Group(n=30) or control group (CG)(n=30). Conventional physiotherapy was applied to CG. In addition to the same interventions applied to the CG, classical massage and stretching exercises were applied to the SCM-muscle in the SCM-Group. Treatment sessions were administered three times each week for a total of 5 weeks. Pain, endurance, ROM, disability, and kinesiophobia were evaluated. Both prior to and immediately following the treatments. Mixed-model repeated measured ANOVAs were then employed to determine if a group*time interaction existed on the effects of the treatment on each outcome variable for each group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variables. Results Improvements in pain, disability, ROM(extension, left-lateral flexion, and right/left-rotation), and endurance were found to be greater in the SCM-Group compared to the CG(p<0.05). Changes in flexion and right-lateral flexion ROM and kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between the groups(p>0.05). Conclusion Stretching exercises and massage applied to the SCM-muscle, together with conventional physiotherapy, can reduce pain and disability, and increase ROM and endurance in individuals with CNP. This treatment may therefore be considered for use as an alternative method in treating CNP.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aim: Impairments of joint proprioception make the joints prone to injury. It has been suggested that stretching exercises can cause changes in properties of the joint receptors, thereby alter the sensibility of the joints proprioceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dynamic stretching of muscles surrounding the knee on the knee joint position sense in college football players. Materials and Methods: 30 college football players (mean age, 23.20± 1.45years) participated in this study. A 5 min warm up was performed before stretching followed by measuring knee joint position sense in dominant knee as pre-test record. Post test record was performed immediately after dynamic stretching of elected muscles. Results: There was significant difference (p=0.04) in pre- and post-stretch on knee joint position sense. The absolute angular error decreased significantly after the stretching protocol (2.38±1.48 vs. 3.11±1.52). Conclusion: A dynamic stretch regimen improved the accuracy of the knee joint position sense in 45˚of flexion in college football players
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.
Article
Background and purpose: Breast cancer survivors are known to develop upper torso pain and stiffness including shoulder elevation and ipsilateral inclination of the trunk within a short period of time as a result of cancer adjuvant therapies correlating with the type and side of surgery. Hence, the study. Methods: Twenty-two breast cancer survivors at a tertiary care hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, have participated in this pre-post experimental study which included myofascial release (MFR), stretching, and strengthening for four sessions per week for 3 weeks that is, a total of 12 sessions. The participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using photogrammetry for Posture and shoulder range of motion (ROM), flexicurve for spinal curvatures, digital inclinometer for cervical ROM, manual muscle testing and hand dynamometer for strength of the upper back, shoulder muscles and hand grip, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) for shoulder impairment and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) for quality of life. Results: The outcomes were analyzed with a p-value set at ≤0.05. The results of the study demonstrated a substantial improvement in the posture alignment (p = 0.001), shoulder and cervical ROM (p = 0.001), upper back and shoulder muscle and hand grip strength (p = 0.001), SPADI (p = 0.001), and FACT-B (p = 0.001) values. Discussion: The upper torso malalignment and muscular imbalance is seen in patients who has undergone surgeries involving the chest wall and early physiotherapy intervention can benefit the patients overall physical performance and quality of life. Hence, MFR, stretching and strengthening has shown to be beneficial in improving upper torso malalignment in breast cancer survivors. Implications of physiotherapy practice: The suggested techniques can be applied at a larger scale which can involve patients with head and neck cancer since the areas of intervention are identical. CTRI (Clinical Trial Registry- India) Registration No.: CTRI/2021/01/030453.
Chapter
Full-text available
To be successful in taekwondo, the athlete must possess an adequate range of motion (ROM) for striking, kicking and evading while maintaining high strength, and power. Prolonged static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching have been shown to cause impairments in subsequent strength, power, sprint time, reaction and movement time and balance among other attributes. Research has demonstrated that short durations of static and PNF stretching can still improve flexibility without decreasing performance. On the other hand, prolonged dynamic stretching can improve ROM with either an enhancement or no significant impairments to subsequent performance. Thus an appropriate warm-up for taekwondo would involve an aerobic type warm-up followed by short duration (6 or less repetitions of less than 10s each) static or PNF stretching. These components would be followed by more than 90s of dynamic stretching and finishing with taekwondo specific sport actions to prime the movements. Separate flexibility training sessions should be incorporated to chronically improve ROM. Similar to resistance training, 3-5 flexibility-training sessions should be included per week with prolonged static and PNF stretching (30-60s per individual stretch) of all involved muscle groups. The combination of these procedures during the warm-up and the separate flexibility training sessions should ensure an extensive ROM to allow the athlete to execute their taekwondo movements efficiently and with power.
Article
Full-text available
ntroduction: Lack of balance during sport activities may results in the possibility of sports injuries. Recently, it has been shown that using of warm-up exercise may enhance sensitivity of mechanoreceptors, namely muscle spindle, and so preventing of injury during sport activities. This study was designed to find out the acute effect of warm-up training on the static and dynamic balance indices in athletic and non-athletic subjects. Materials and Methods: 64 university athletic students (16 male and 16 female) and university non-athletic students (16 male and 16 female) participated in a cross over study and were randomly assigned in one of the two experimental groups: warm-up group (5 minutes running on treadmill) and control group (no intervention), so that all participants attended in both warm-up and control groups in two assessing sessions with 2 weeks interval. Falling risk index, dynamic (bilateral standing) and static (single leg standing) overall, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral indices were assessed by measuring centre of pressure displacement during both eye-open and closed-eye condition before and after the intervention. Results: The comparison of mean changes before and after intervention in both groups showed no significant difference in static balance indices in eye-open condition between groups (p>0.05), while static balance indices in closed-eye condition and dynamic balance indices in both, eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were significantly improved after warm-up, compared to the control group (p<0.05). After warm-up intervention, falling risk index was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in both athletic and non-athletic participants. No significant difference was found between athletic and non-athletic subjects, in term of static and dynamic balance indices. Conclusion: These results showed that general warm-up training may improve static and dynamic balance control and falling risk in both athletic and non-athletic groups. From these findings may conclude that performing general warm-up training prior to sport activity may prevent of sport injuries by enhancing balance control
Article
Full-text available
The Cybex II® isokinetic dynamometer is frequently used to assess muscular strength, power, and endurance in a variety of performance and health related areas, e.g., physical therapy, rehabilitative medicine, and exercise physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical accuracy of Cybex II analog torque recordings, specifically related to the velocity and damping characteristics of the instrument. The results indicated that the Cybex II controls the velocity of movement at all settings of the machine. The damping characteristics of the analog recorder, however, affected the accuracy of the torque recordings. The instrument damping setting of four produced the most accurate peak torque recordings and angle of occurrence for peak torque regardless of load or speed. It was concluded that the damping setting used for calibration should be the same as that used in testing and not varied depending on the range of motion or body part being tested as has been recommended by the manufacturer.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the force loss occurring after prolonged, static, passive stretching. Subjects were tested before and 5-10 min following 20 min of static, passive stretching of the quadriceps (N=12) or a similar period of no stretch (control, N=6). Measurements included isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, surface integrated electromyographic (iEMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, evoked contractile properties (twitch and tetanic force), and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT). Following stretching, there was a significant 12% decrement in MVC with no significant changes in the control group. Muscle inactivation as measured by the ITT and iEMG increased by 2.8% and 20.2%, respectively. While twitch forces significantly decreased 11.7%, there was no change in tetanic force post-stretch. Although possible increases in muscle compliance affected twitch force, a lack of tetanic force change would suggest that post-stretch force decrements are more affected by muscle inactivation than changes in muscle elasticity.
Article
Full-text available
The acute effect of stretching on the kinematics of the vertical jump was investigated in a sample of 20 young adults. Sagittal plane videography (60 Hz) was used to measure the kinematics of vertical jumps after 2 warm-up routines, control and stretching. Subjects were tested on 2 occasions with warm-up routine randomized. There were no significant changes in vertical velocity, knee angle, or the durations of the eccentric and concentric phases as a result of stretching despite good statistical power for the tests. Fifty-five percent of the subjects had lower vertical velocities (-7.5%) after stretching, while 45 percent of the subjects had no change (10%) or higher vertical (35%) velocities (2.4%) after stretching. Stretching prior to stretch-shortening cycle activities like the vertical jump results in small decreases in performance in some subjects, but the nonsignificant biomechanical changes suggest that neuromuscular inhibition may be the mechanism rather than changes in muscle stiffness.
Article
Full-text available
While warm up is considered to be essential for optimum performance, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in many situations. As a result, warm-up procedures are usually based on the trial and error experience of the athlete or coach, rather than on scientific study. Summarising the findings of the many warm-up studies conducted over the years is difficult. Many of the earlier studies were poorly controlled, contained few study participants and often omitted statistical analyses. Furthermore, over the years, warm up protocols consisting of different types (e.g. active, passive, specific) and structures (e.g. varied intensity, duration and recovery) have been used. Finally, while many studies have investigated the physiological responses to warm up, relatively few studies have reported changes in performance following warm up. The first part of this review critically analyses reported changes in performance following various active warm-up protocols. While there is a scarcity of well-controlled studies with large subject numbers and appropriate statistical analyses, a number of conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of active warm up on performance. Active warm up tends to result in slightly larger improvements in short-term performance (<10 seconds) than those achieved by passive heating alone. However, short-term performance may be impaired if the warm-up protocol is too intense or does not allow sufficient recovery, and results in a decreased availability of high-energy phosphates before commencing the task. Active warm up appears to improve both long-term (>/=5 minutes) and intermediate performance (>10 seconds, but <5 minutes) if it allows the athlete to begin the subsequent task in a relatively non-fatigued state, but with an elevated baseline oxygen consumption (VO(2)). While active warm up has been reported to improve endurance performance, it may have a detrimental effect on endurance performance if it causes a significant increase in thermoregulatory strain. The addition of a brief, task-specific burst of activity has been reported to provide further ergogenic benefits for some tasks. By manipulating intensity, duration and recovery, many different warm-up protocols may be able to achieve similar physiological and performance changes. Finally, passive warm-up techniques may be important to supplement or maintain temperature increases produced by an active warm up, especially if there is an unavoidable delay between the warm up and the task and/or the weather is cold. Further research is required to investigate the role of warm up in different environmental conditions, especially for endurance events where a critical core temperature may limit performance.
Article
Full-text available
This study quantitatively assessed the mechanical reliability and validity of position, torque and velocity measurements of the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. Trial-to-trial and day-to-day reliability were assessed during three trials on two separate days. To assess instrument validity, measurement of each variable using the Biodex System 3 dynamometer was compared to a criterion measure of position, torque and velocity. Position was assessed at 5 degrees increments across the available range of motion of the dynamometer. Torque measures were assessed isometrically by hanging six different calibrated weights from the lever arm. Velocity was assessed (30 degrees/s to 500 degrees/s) across a 70 degrees arc of motion by manually accelerating the weighted lever arm. With the exception of a systematic decrease in velocity at speeds of 300 degrees/s and higher, the Biodex System 3 performed with acceptable mechanical reliability and validity on all variables tested.
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to clarify the effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Eleven healthy male students took part in this study. Each subject performed static stretching and dynamic stretching on the 5 muscle groups in the lower limbs and nonstretching on separate days. Leg extension power was measured before and after the static stretching, dynamic stretching, and nonstretching. No significant difference was found between leg extension power after static stretching (1788.5 +/- 85.7 W) and that after nonstretching (1784.8 +/- 108.4 W). On the other hand, leg extension power after dynamic stretching (2022.3 +/- 121.0 W) was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than that after nonstretching. These results suggest that static stretching for 30 seconds neither improves nor reduces muscular performance and that dynamic stretching enhances muscular performance.
Article
Full-text available
The results of previous research have shown that passive muscle stretching can diminish the peak force output of subsequent maximal isometric, concentric and stretch-shortening contractions. The aim of this study was to establish whether the deleterious effects of passive stretching seen in laboratory settings would be manifest in a performance setting. Sixteen members (11 males, 5 females) of a Division I NCAA track athletics team performed electronically timed 20 m sprints with and without prior stretching of the legs. The experiment was done as part of each athlete's Monday work-out programme. Four different stretch protocols were used, with each protocol completed on a different day. Hence, the test period lasted 4 weeks. The four stretching protocols were no-stretch of either leg (NS), both legs stretched (BS), forward leg in the starting position stretched (FS) and rear leg in the starting position stretched (RS). Three stretching exercises (hamstring stretch, quadriceps stretch, calf stretch) were used for the BS, FS and RS protocols. Each stretching exercise was performed four times, and each time the stretch was maintained for 30 s. The BS, FS and RS protocols induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase (approximately 0.04 s) in the 20 m time. Thus, it appears that pre-event stretching might negatively impact the performance of high-power short-term exercise.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different modes of stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on high-speed motor capacities important to soccer performance. Eighteen professional soccer players were tested for countermovement vertical jump, stationary 10-m sprint, flying 20-m sprint, and agility performance after different warm-ups consisting of static stretching, dynamic stretching, or no stretching. There was no significant difference among warm-ups for the vertical jump: mean +/- SD data were 40.4 +/- 4.9 cm (no stretch), 39.4 +/- 4.5 cm (static), and 40.2 +/- 4.5 cm (dynamic). The dynamic-stretch protocol produced significantly faster 10-m sprint times than did the no-stretch protocol: 1.83 +/- 0.08 seconds (no stretch), 1.85 +/- 0.08 seconds (static), and 1.87 +/- 0.09 seconds (dynamic). The dynamic- and static-stretch protocols produced significantly faster flying 20-m sprint times than did the no-stretch protocol: 2.41 +/- 0.13 seconds (no stretch), 2.37 +/- 0.12 seconds (static), and 2.37 +/- 0.13 seconds (dynamic). The dynamic-stretch protocol produced significantly faster agility performance than did both the no-stretch protocol and the static-stretch protocol: 5.20 +/- 0.16 seconds (no stretch), 5.22 +/- 0.18 seconds (static), and 5.14 +/- 0.17 seconds (dynamic). Static stretching does not appear to be detrimental to high-speed performance when included in a warm-up for professional soccer players. However, dynamic stretching during the warm-up was most effective as preparation for subsequent high-speed performance.
Article
We report 14 separate studies of the mechanical and/or physiological performance reliabilities of selected isokinetic dynamometers, including the Biodex, Cybex 340, Cybex Liftask, Cybex TORSO, Cybex TEF, and Merac systems. A total of 171 volunteer subjects (85 females, 86 males; age range 16–34 years) were randomly assigned to a dynamometer for physiological reliability testing. Testing consisted of five maximal performance efforts across a velocity spectrum. Each session was preceded by an isokinetic and cardiovascular warm-up, through a controlled range of knee, spine, or lifting motion in a test/retest design separated by 48 hours. Mechanical reliability testing consisted of five repetitions of dropping a certified load through a controlled motion arc across a velocity spectrum, also under the test/retest paradigm. Intraclass correlation statistical procedures showed significant levels of mechanical and physiological test/retest reliability for each of the tested dynamometer systems. Within the limitations of the study, the selected isokinetic devices demonstrated reliability for performance measurement during concentric isokinetic, eccentric isokinetic, or concentric isotonic functions, depending on the specific device.
Article
Stretching exercises are either performed alone or with other exercises as part of the athlete's warm-up. The warm-up is designed to increased muscle/tendon suppleness, stimulate blood flow to the periphery, increase body temperature, and enhance free, coordinated movement. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding stretching, with the aim of defining its role during the warm-up. Implications of stretching on muscle/tendon flexibility, minimizing injury, enhancing athletic performance, and generally preparing the athlete for exercise are discussed. Physiology applied to stretching is also discussed together with different related techniques and practical aspects. A proposed model stretching regime is presented based on the literature reviewed.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of prior exercise (warm-up and stretching) on the electromyographic and force output of mechanically elicited triceps surae reflexes. Fifty male subjects performed eight reflex experiments under each of three successive conditions in one session: (1) no prior exercise, (2) after static stretching of the passive triceps surae (3 min) and (3) after a 10-min warm-up run on a treadmill. Tendon tap reflex force was elicited in the triceps surae of the right leg by means of a standardized reflex hammer and measured in a custom-built fixture. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded with surface electrodes over the medial head of the gastrocnemius (G) and the soleus (S). Low coefficients of variation within subjects contrasted with high between-subject variations, indicating highly individual reflex characteristics. After stretching, reductions in the peak force (-5%; P < 0.05), the force rise rate (-8%; P < 0.01), the half relaxation rate (-5%; N.S.), the EMG amplitudes (G, -16%; S, -17%; P < 0.01) and integrals (G, -15%; S, -18%; P < 0.01), and an increase in EMG latencies (G, +3%; S, +1%; P < 0.01), were found compared with the values obtained without prior exercise. After running, the peak force reached the values obtained without prior exercise (-2%; N.S.), the force rise rate and half relaxation rate increased by 8 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.01), and the impulse (force-time integral; -12%), EMG amplitudes (G, -20%; S, -23%; P < 0.01), integrals (G, -18%; S, -23%; P < 0.01) and latencies (G, -1%; S, -2%; P < 0.01) decreased significantly. The changes in the force characteristics observed after the stretching treatment indicate improved muscle compliance that might reduce the risk of injury. On the other hand, the changes after the additional warm-up run had a more pronounced influence with regard to improved force development and a decreased EMG activity, which can be viewed as a performance-enhancing effect.
Article
Although different warm-up and flexibility routines are often prescribed before physical activity, little research has been conducted to determine what effects these routines have on athletic performance in activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what degree different warm-up routines affect performance in the vertical jump test. The 40 female participants were asked to perform a general warm-up only, a general warm-up and static stretching, and a general warm-up and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on 3 nonconsecutive days. Each of the treatments was followed by a vertical jump test. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in vertical jump performance. A post hoc analysis revealed decreased vertical jump performances for the PNF treatment group. Based on the results of this study, performing PNF before a vertical jump test would be detrimental to performance.
Article
Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is the transient increase in muscle contractile performance after previous contractile activity. This review describes the features and mechanism of PAP, assesses its potential role in endurance and strength/speed performance, considers strategies for exploiting PAP, and outlines how PAP might be affected by training.
Article
The aim was to evaluate electromyographically the validity of the sit-up section of the Army Physical Fitness Test as a way to assess abdominal endurance. Twenty-eight Reserve Officer Training Corps students at the University of Scranton (Scranton, PA) performed the test while eight electromyography surface electrodes picked up the activity of the rectus abdominus and rectus femoris muscles. The researchers analyzed three groups of five contractions from the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The percentage area of each group of five contractions for each channel and for each of the 28 participants was averaged. Two paired sample t tests were used to analyze the change in area for the left hip flexor and left abdominal muscle (t = 5.951, p < 0.001) and right hip flexor and right abdominal muscle (t = 5.025, p < 0.001). Results for both right and left sides indicate a statistically significant increase in the use of hip flexors as compared with abdominal muscles. Hip flexors can compensate for fatigued abdominal muscles, causing sit-ups to be performed unsafely, yet are still counted as correct according to Army Physical Fitness Test standards.
Article
We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of stretching as a tool to prevent injuries in sports and to make recommendations for research and prevention. Without language limitations, we searched electronic data bases, including MEDLINE (1966-2002), Current Contents (1997-2002), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), the Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus, and then identified citations from papers retrieved and contacted experts in the field. Meta-analysis was limited to randomized trials or cohort studies for interventions that included stretching. Studies were excluded that lacked controls, in which stretching could not be assessed independently, or where studies did not include subjects in sporting or fitness activities. All articles were screened initially by one author. Six of 361 identified articles compared stretching with other methods to prevent injury. Data were abstracted by one author and then reviewed independently by three others. Data quality was assessed independently by three authors using a previously standardized instrument, and reviewers met to reconcile substantive differences in interpretation. We calculated weighted pooled odds ratios based on an intention-to-treat analysis as well as subgroup analyses by quality score and study design. Stretching was not significantly associated with a reduction in total injuries (OR = 0.93, CI 0.78-1.11) and similar findings were seen in the subgroup analyses. There is not sufficient evidence to endorse or discontinue routine stretching before or after exercise to prevent injury among competitive or recreational athletes. Further research, especially well-conducted randomized controlled trials, is urgently needed to determine the proper role of stretching in sports.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different static and dynamic stretch protocols on 20-m sprint performance. The 97 male rugby union players were assigned randomly to 4 groups: passive static stretch (PSS; n = 28), active dynamic stretch (ADS; n = 22), active static stretch (ASST; n = 24), and static dynamic stretch (SDS; n = 23). All groups performed a standard 10-minute jog warm-up, followed by two 20-m sprints. The 20-m sprints were then repeated after subjects had performed different stretch protocols. The PSS and ASST groups had a significant increase in sprint time (p < or = 0.05), while the ADS group had a significant decrease in sprint time (p < or = 0.05). The decrease in sprint time, observed in the SDS group, was found to be nonsignificant (p > or = 0.05). The decrease in performance for the 2 static stretch groups was attributed to an increase in the musculotendinous unit (MTU) compliance, leading to a decrease in the MTU ability to store elastic energy in its eccentric phase. The reason why the ADS group improved performance is less clear, but could be linked to the rehearsal of specific movement patterns, which may help increase coordination of subsequent movement. It was concluded that static stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease short sprint performance, whereas active dynamic stretching seems to increase 20-m sprint performance.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching on peak torque (PT), the joint angle at PT, mean power output (MP), electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during maximal, voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extensions at 60 and 240 degrees x s(-1) of the stretched and unstretched limbs. Twenty-one volunteers [mean age (SD) 21.5 (1.3) years] performed maximal, voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extensions for the dominant and non-dominant limbs at 60 and 240 degrees x s(-1). Surface EMG (muVrms) and MMG (mVrms) signals were recorded from the VL and RF muscles during the isokinetic tests. PT (Nm), the joint angle at PT, and MP (W) were calculated by a dynamometer. Following the initial isokinetic tests, the dominant leg extensors were stretched using four static stretching exercises. After the stretching, the isokinetic tests were repeated. PT decreased (P< or =0.05) from pre- to post-stretching for the stretched limb at 60 and 240 degrees x s(-1) and for the unstretched limb at 60 degrees x s(-1). EMG amplitude of the VL and RF also decreased (P< or =0.05) from pre- to post-stretching for the stretched and unstretched limbs. There were no stretching-induced changes (P>0.05) for the joint angle at PT, MP, or MMG amplitude. These findings indicated stretching-induced decreases in force production and muscle activation. The decreases in PT and EMG amplitude for the unstretched limb suggested that the stretching-induced decreases may be due to a central nervous system inhibitory mechanism.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a dynamic warm up (DWU) with a static-stretching warm up (SWU) on selected measures of power and agility. Thirty cadets at the United States Military Academy completed the study (14 women and 16 men, ages 18-24 years). On 3 consecutive days, subjects performed 1 of the 2 warm up routines (DWU or SWU) or performed no warm up (NWU). The 3 warm up protocols lasted 10 minutes each and were counterbalanced to avoid carryover effects. After 1-2 minutes of recovery, subjects performed 3 tests of power or agility. The order of the performance tests (T-shuttle run, underhand medicine ball throw for distance, and 5-step jump) also was counterbalanced. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed better performance scores after the DWU for all 3 performance tests (p < 0.01), relative to the SWU and NWU. There were no significant differences between the SWU and NWU for the medicine ball throw and the T-shuttle run, but the SWU was associated with better scores on the 5-step jump (p < 0.01). Because the results of this study indicate a relative performance enhancement with the DWU, the utility of warm up routines that use static stretching as a stand-alone activity should be reassessed.