Descriptive study of non-obese persons with night eating syndrome and a weight-matched comparison group

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Eating Behaviors (Impact Factor: 1.58). 09/2008; 9(3):343-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.12.004
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to characterize the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and its correlates among non-obese persons with NES, and to compare them to non-obese healthy controls. Nineteen non-obese persons with NES were compared to 22 non-obese controls on seven-day, 24-hour prospective food and sleep diaries, the Eating Disorder Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnoses interviews, and measures of disordered eating attitudes and behavior, mood, sleep, stress, and quality of life. Compared to controls, persons with NES reported significantly different circadian distribution of food intake, greater depressed mood, sleep disturbance, disordered eating and body image concerns, perceived stress, decreased quality of life, and more frequent Axis I comorbidity, specifically anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. These findings are the first to describe the clinical significance of night eating syndrome among non-obese individuals in comparison to a non-obese control group, and they suggest that NES has negative health implications beyond that associated with obesity.

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    • "Thus, NES appears to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of eating and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of eating (Goel et al., 2009; O'Reardon, Ringel, & Dinges et al., 2004). Boston, Moate, Allison, Lundgren and Stunkard (2008) were able to show this delayed pattern with mathematical models, nicely illustrating the delayed and generally disorganized pattern of eating that continues into the nighttime among those with NES as compared to persons without NES. Major life stressors can trigger NES. "
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    ABSTRACT: The night eating syndrome (NES) has been included into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 as an example of an 'other-specified feeding or eating disorder'. The prevalence of NES has found to be higher in obese populations than in the general population and seems to rise with increasing body mass index. Recent studies suggest a prevalence of 2%-20% in bariatric surgery samples. Given that the core feature of this eating disorder may involve a shift in the circadian pattern of eating that disrupts sleep, and not the ingestion of objectively large amounts of food, it is a pattern that can continue after bariatric surgery. Nonetheless, symptoms of NES appear to decrease after weight loss surgery, and there is no evidence that pre-surgery NES negatively impacts weight loss following surgery. Prospective and longitudinal studies of the course of night eating symptoms are warranted using clear criteria and standardized assessment instruments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · European Eating Disorders Review
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    • "009 ) , bariatric surgery candidates ( Adami et al . , 1999 ; Allison et al . , 2008 ; Rand et al . , 1997 ) , and individuals with psychiatric disorders ( Lundgren et al . , 2006 ) . NES is associated with weight gain over time ( Marshall et al . , 2004 ) and depression , par - ticularly depressed mood in the evening ( Birketvedt et al . , 1999 ; Lundgren et al . , 2008 ) . Several , but not all studies have reported poorer weight loss out - comes in individuals with NES participating in behavioural weight loss programmes ( Gluck et al . , 2001 ; Stunkard et al . , 1955 ) . However , one recent study reported similar weight loss outcomes in indi - viduals with NES compared to control participants witho"
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms are near 24-h patterns of physiology and behaviour that are present independent of external cues including hormones, body temperature, mood, and sleep propensity. The term ‘circadian misalignment’ describes a variety of circumstances, such as inappropriately timed sleep and wake, misalignment of sleep/wake with feeding rhythms, or misaligned central and peripheral rhythms. The predominance of early research focused on misalignment of sleep to the biological night. However, discovery of clock genes and the presence of peripheral circadian oscillators have expanded the definitions of misalignment. Experimental studies conducted in animal models and humans have provided evidence of potential mechanisms that link misalignment to negative outcomes. These include dysregulation of feeding behaviours, changes in appetite stimulating hormones, glucose metabolism and mood. This review has two foci: (1) to describe how circadian misalignment has been defined and evaluated in laboratory and field experiments, and (2) to describe evidence linking different types of circadian misalignment to increased risk for physical (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer) and psychiatric (depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, attention deficit) disorders. This review will describe the role of circadian misalignment as a risk factor for disease in the general population and in clinical populations, including circadian rhythm sleep disorders and psychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Review of Psychiatry
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    • "In addition to consideration of comorbidities in treatment planning for individuals with NES, research indicates that weight status represents an important variable in both the expression of night eating symptoms and in response to NES treatment. Marshall et al were the first to show that compared to obese individuals with NES, individuals at a normal body weight with NES reported more severe nocturnal eating symptoms, including more awakenings, more cravings when up at night, and more nocturnal ingestions, as measured by the NEQ.35 Subsequently, Lundgren et al further characterized normal-weight individuals with NES (N = 19), reporting that they consumed 50% of their daily caloric intake after dinner and experienced 13 awakenings (getting up out of bed) and ten nocturnal ingestions per week, on average.36 These figures are higher than those reported among overweight and obese individuals with NES, who have been reported in one sample (N = 46) to consume 35% of their intake after dinner and experience approximately eleven awakenings and eight nocturnal ingestions per week.37 "
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    ABSTRACT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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