Article

Sex determination from the foramen magnum: Discriminant function analysis in an eighteenth and nineteenth century British sample

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Abstract

The successful identification of the deceased is vital to the progress of any forensic investigation. One of the principal biological traits to be established from skeletal remains is the sex of the individual. This becomes more difficult if only parts of a skeleton are found or if the bones are compromised by physical insults such as fire, explosions or violence. The basal region of the occipital bone is covered by a large volume of soft tissue and is therefore in a relatively well-protected anatomical position, and as such, classification of sex using the occipital bone may prove useful in cases of significantly disrupted remains. The aim of this paper is to evaluate manually recorded morphometric variables of the region of the foramen magnum using both discriminant function analysis and linear regression. The skulls utilised in this study were selected from the eighteenth to nineteenth century documented skeletal collection of St. Bride'fs Church, Fleet Street, London. Adult human skulls n = 158 (permil;82/76) were measured to derive statistical functions. The results demonstrated that significant sexual dimorphism is present in the cranial base of the St. Bridefs material. The correctly classified crania within this population ranged from 65.8% for univariate functions to 70.3% for multivariate functions within the cranial sample. Males were correctly classified at 70.7% and females at 69.7% using multivariate functions. The linear regression equations predicted sex in the cranial sample correctly for 76% of the males and 70% for the females using different variables; however, overall highest correct prediction percentage was only 68%. Cross-validation brought the percentage down in some cases, but it was concluded that, overall, the expression of sexual dimorphism in the foramen magnum region within the St. Bridefs population is significantly demonstrable, and therefore, this area of the skull should be considered useful in the identification of sex.

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... Gapert et al. [21] done a study in British ethnic group using DFA and logistic regression analysis on 158 dry adult skulls in 2008 observed that with DFA the predicted value for male, female, and overall sex was 65.9%, 68.4%, and 67%, respectively. Sex prediction by LRA was better (66%, 70%, and 68%). ...
... The overall accuracy was same as of Raghavendra Babu et al., [20] They concluded that the sexing potential is limited due to considerable overlapping of male and female values. Burdan et al. [15] Jain and Jasuja [16] Aghakhani et al. [17] Gapert et al. [18] Uthman et al. [19] Raghavendra Babu et al. [20] Kamath et al. [21] Singh and Talwar [22] APD ( [25] on 50 dry skulls from Punjab in 2013 reported, that length of foramen magnum was insignificant in predicting sex. They were able to predict the sex with 70% overall accuracy with DFA. ...
... The result of the present study was more accurate than other study [15,16,[18][19][20][21][22][26][27][28] and marginally legs the results of Aghakhani et al. [17] The present study has the potential to serve as a data base for sexual dimorphism from foramen magnum in north Indian region. More research on a wider scale of adult population will be useful in preparation of biological profile of modern population of this region. ...
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Background: Radiological imaging plays a pivotal role in forensic anthropology. As have the imaging techniques advances, so have the digital skeletal measurements inched towards precision. Secular trends of the population keep on changing in modern times. Hence, finding the precise technique of bone measurement, with greater reproducibility, in modern population is always needed in making population specific biological profile. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the foramen magnum measurement, obtained by three dimensional multi-detector computed tomography using volume rendering technique with the cut off value of each variable, in sex determination of an individual. Materials and Methods: Two metric traits, an antero-posterior diameter (APD) and transverse diameter (TD), were measured digitally in an analysis of 130 radiological images having equal proportion of male and female samples. Foramen magnum index and area of foramen magnum (Area by Radinsky's [AR], Area by Teixeira's [AT]) were derived from APD and TD. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis, using unpaired t-test, showed significant higher value in males in all the variables. Using Pearson correlation analysis, maximum correlation was observed between area (AT and AR r = 0.999) and between area and TD (AR r = 0.955 and AT r = 0.945 respectively). When used individually, TD had the highest predictive value (67.7%) for sex determination among all the parameters followed by AT (65.4%) and AR (64.6%). Cutoff value of variables TD,AR and AT were 29.9 mm, 841.80 mm2 and 849.70 mm2 respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve predicted male and female sex with 96.2% and 89.2% accuracy respectively. The overall accuracy of the model was 92.7%. Conclusion: Measurements from 3D CT using volume rendering technique were precise, and the application of logistic regression analysis predicted the sex with more accuracy.
... Recent studies report that morphometry is a fast and efficient method for the evaluation of demographic characteristics, such as ethnicity, gender, age, etc. Evidence suggests that the shape and dimensions of the FM exhibit sex dimorphism and population based variations [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Therefore, the shape and dimensions of the FM and their variations have been reported to be of diagnostic, anthropological, forensic and clinical importance [12]. ...
... Although the morphometry and shape of the FM have been studied with reference to various human population groups [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]21], to the best of our knowledge, none has been documented in the literature for Sri Lankans, despite its anatomical, anthropological and clinical relevance. Hence, the current study was conducted to determine the dimensions and shape of the FM in a Sri Lankan population, make comparisons with other population groups and investigate the sexual dimorphism of FM morphology. ...
... Discriminant function analyses carried out in previous studies have demonstrated varying degrees of sex predictability by these dimensions of the FM. Hence, it is the view of many authors that the measurements of the foramen should be used in conjunction with other sexing evidence available to ascertain the sex of unidentified individuals [17,19,21]. In the meantime, it should be noted that smaller female sample size is one of the limitations of the present study and future studies with larger sample is recommended to make concrete conclusions. ...
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Abstract Objective: The foramen magnum (FM) that transmits a large number of vital structures is an important anatomical landmark in neurosurgical procedures and forensic anthropology. The aim of the present study was to determine the dimensions and shape of the FM in a Sri Lankan population. Material and method: Forty-four adult skulls (32 males and 12 females) were selected for the study. Sagittal (FMSD) and transverse (FMTD) diameters of the FM were taken using a sliding digital vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm by one investigator. The area of the FM was calculated using Radinsky's formula; A=1/4 X 3.14 X FMTD X FMSD and FM index was calculated using the formula: FMTD x 100 / FMSD. The skulls were visually assessed to determine the shape of the FM. The shape of the FM was recorded as round, oval, egg-shaped, tetragonal, pentagonal, hexagonal or irregular. Results: The mean sagittal and transverse diameter, area and index of the foramen magnum in males were 34.62 ±2.17 mm, 29.52±2.13 mm, 695.77±90.64 mm2 and 85.41±5.66, respectively, whereas they were 33.87±2.31 mm, 28.28±1.99 mm, 662.56±98.67 mm2 and 83.69±6.13, respectively, in females. The shape of the foramen was found to be eggshaped in 34.1%, and round in 27.2% of the cases. Conclusions: The size and shape of the foramen magnum are highly variable among different world populations. Sri Lankan skulls showed smaller foramen magnum in compare with those of African, Mediterranean and European populations. Males displayed larger mean values than females for all measured variables. Keywords: Foramen magnum, Morphometry, Population difference, Sexual dimorphism
... not from Brazil). [6][7][8] This places limitations on the applicability of these studies to the Brazilian population, given that without knowledge of the parameters for measurements on Brazilian skulls, researchers are obliged to use international tables. This could lead to uncertainty regarding the results. 2 Therefore, the present study had the objective of determining sexual dimorphism in Brazilian skulls from measurement of the area of the triangle formed by lines between the infraorbital foramina (IOFs) and the nasion. ...
... This can be achieved through analysis of cranial measurements and visual evaluation of the skull, among other means. 1,4,5,7,[9][10][11][12][13][14] Because craniofacial structures are seldom destroyed, they have been widely used by several authors for determining sex. [1][2][3][4][5][6]9,10,15,16 The quantitative method was used in the present study to determine sex. ...
... Many studies conducted around the world have used quantitative variables in their analyses. 7,10,12,13,[16][17][18][20][21][22][23] In these analyses, the researchers only used international data because they did not have any measurements on Brazilian skulls. According to Almeida Junior et al., 4 Almeida Junior et al., 5 Bigoni et al., 17 Francesquini Junior et al., 2 Franklin et al., 18 Gapert et al., 7 Kimmerle et al. 11 and Kruger et al., 12 this may compromise the analysis because of the possibility that a variety of factors such as climate, local geography, diet, socioeconomic conditions and quality of life might interfere with defining an individual's sex. ...
... [13] The CT scan images can be used in sex determination research because of easier access to a large documented sample, data easily shared to other researchers and provides several reliable measurements without fleshy barriers. [14] Previous studies were widely done on European [15][16][17], American [18] South American [19][20][21], Libyan, [22], Turkish [23][24][25], Egyptian [26,27], Iraqi [28], Iranian [29] Sudanese [30] Indian [31][32][33][34] and Nepalese population [35]. To date, very little researches have been was conducted on the Saudi Arabian population [36]. ...
... Eight variables were recorded according to the definitions provided by Gapert et al. [15,16]. The maximum length of the FM (FML) in the midsagittal plane (basion to opisthion) and the maximum width of the FM (FMW) were recorded at the widest transverse diameter between the lateral margins measured approximately perpendicular to principle axis of the foramen (Fig. 2). ...
... The surface area of the foramen magnum (FMA) was calculated by using Radinsky's formula 1/4 × × FML × FMW. [15] The maximum length of right and left occipital condyle (ROCL and LOCL) were measured along the long axis from the edges of the articular surface. The maximum width of right and left occipital condyle (ROCW and LOCW) were measured from the articular edges along a line perpendicular to the long axis. ...
Objective of the study The objective of this study was to evaluate FM and occipital condyles measurements morphometrically for sex determination by using discriminant function analysis and to note visually the variation in the shape of the foramen magnum in a Saudi Arabian population by using CT scan images. Material and methods This study included 472 CT scans (236 males and 236 females; age range, 18–72 years). The foramen magnum shapes were classified into 8 types: oval, egg, round, hexagonal, pentagonal, tetragonal, irregular (A) and irregular (B). The intraobserver and interobserver test was done to calculate the reliability of the measurement. Eight dimensions of the FM and occipital condyle were evaluated to determine the sexual dimorphism using an independent t-test. Sex determination was estimated using discriminate function analysis. Results The commonest shape of FM was hexagonal and the tetragonal shape was the least common type. Coefficient of reliability (R) was high, ranging between 0.89 and 0.99, which indicates the measurements are reliable and sufficiently precise. All the eight measurements, the FM length and width, FM index, FM area, the width and length of right and left occipital condyles were significantly greater in males than the female. Univariate discriminant function showed an accuracy rate varying from 61% to 66.6% based on FM or occipital condyles measurements. The multivariate analysis of FM and occipital condyle measurements increased the overall accuracy rate of sex determination to 71.6%. Conclusion The univariate analysis of FM and occipital condyle measurements indicates, that the FM area (66.1%), FML (62.5%), FMW (62.5%) and ROCL (62.1%) could be reliable individual variables in sex determination. The multivariate analysis including all the eight variables of FM and occipital condyle increased the accuracy rate of sex determination to 71.6% in determining the sex as male (73.3%) or female (69.9%). The shape of the FM is not useful in sex estimation. The results obtained showed a low degree of sexual dimorphism in the basicranium, the use of this method in forensic anthropology could be helpful for assessment on highly fragmented skull bases.
... The margins of the foramen magnum are interiorly encroached by the occipital condyles, which articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas [1] . The foramen magnum is protected by Soft tissue mass inferiorly [2,3] . This makes it difficult to assess lesions in case of fractures etc but with CT imaging techniques a comparison between the dried skulls and CT images can help in more precise localization of lesion. ...
... Gapert et al. [2] 35.91 30.51 ...
... Gapert et al. [2] 862.41 ...
... Sex identification of an individual is a very challenging task in forensic medicine especially if skeletal remains are used (Gapert et al., 2009a) Sex can be estimated with 100% accuracy using the whole skeleton, 98% accuracy when the skull and pelvis are used. But when the skull alone is used for sex estimation, the accuracy is 80-90% (Krogman and Iscan, 1986). ...
... Sexing of the crania depends on size differences (Gapert et al., 2009a), which are influenced by genetic, social, and environmental factors. Therefore sex identification differs from one population to another (Rösing et al., 2007). ...
... Authors explained the limited expression of sexual differences in the foramen magnum by its development as it reaches adult size in early childhood before secondary sexual characteristics influence its growth. However, they suggested that after growth cessation in skull base region, the dimensions of foramen magnum might increase due to bone resorption (Gapert et al., 2009a;Manoel et al., 2009). In addition, the passage of main neurovascular bundle through the skull base with larger structure in males than females might be responsible for larger foramen magnum area in males (Manoel et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Sex identification using fragmented skeletal remains is a very challenging task in forensic medicine. The aim of the present study was to estimate the accuracy of occipital condyles and foramen magnum measurements in sex prediction, also to develop a logit response model for sex identification in Egyptian population. Computed tomography studies of adult individuals (70 individuals: 46 males and 24 females) who carried out temporal Computed tomography examinations in Diagnostic Radiology department were included. Seven dimensions of both occipital condyles and foramen magnum were measured. Males showed larger measurements than females. Left occipital condyle length and foramen magnum width using Binary Logistic Regression could predict sex with an overall accuracy 90% and with accuracy of 91.3% & 87.5% in males and females respectively.
... Identification of the deceased is vital to the process of forensic investigation. 1 Sex is a principal trait that can be used to establish the identity of the individual. Estimation of sex plays a crucial role, as it narrows the possibility for identification by 50%. 2 Identification is important for legal, medical, administrative as well as humanitarian purposes. ...
... The present study found mean Antero-Posterior Diameter (APD) and Transverse Diameter to be less than those found in earlier studies. 1,18,[20][21][22][23] The present study was conducted in wet skull of all medico-legal autopsies, while most of the previous studies were conducted on dry skull, 1,5,7,[17][18][19][20] or using imaging tools like CT-scan or MRI. 8 Presence of soft tissue in wet skull and shrinkage of dry skull and use of imaging tools might have contributed to these differences in mean value of different diameters. ...
... The present study found mean Antero-Posterior Diameter (APD) and Transverse Diameter to be less than those found in earlier studies. 1,18,[20][21][22][23] The present study was conducted in wet skull of all medico-legal autopsies, while most of the previous studies were conducted on dry skull, 1,5,7,[17][18][19][20] or using imaging tools like CT-scan or MRI. 8 Presence of soft tissue in wet skull and shrinkage of dry skull and use of imaging tools might have contributed to these differences in mean value of different diameters. ...
Article
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Human skull is considered as one of the most reliable bones for sex differentiation. This study is an attempt to estimate sex, using variations in dimensions of Foramen Magnum among the Nepalese population. Most studies on the skull have been carried out in dry skull, using ectocranial measurements. This study on sexual dimorphism in Foramen Magnum of Nepalese population was carried out in wet skull and measurements are taken intracranially by using sliding Vernier’s caliper. A cross-sectional study of 96 medico-legal autopsies (53 males and 43 females) was conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, to establish reference standards for sexual dimorphism of dimensions of Foramen Magnum. The mean antero-posterior diameter (APD) was found to be 33.45 mm in males and 30.70 mm in females. The mean transverse diameter (TD) was found to be 27.64 mm in males and 25.19 mm in females. Both APD and TD were found to have statistically significant dimorphism between the sexes. Discriminant function analysis showed that the accuracy ranged between 55.8% and 81.4 % with use of both APD and TD showing the most accurate classification. Binary logistic regression showed that 69.8% were correctly classified as female and 79.2 % were correctly classified as male and 75% on overall population.
... In addition to age determination, estimation of biological sex is one of the most important aspects in the identification of unknown human skeletal remains [1]. The estimation of sex is based on an assessment of sexual dimorphism in the shape and size of skeletal features. ...
... It is essential that every part of the human skeleton is assessed on its own merit to determine its value for identification purposes because the investigator has no influence over which elements may be presented for examination, especially in cases of mass disasters such as fire, explosions or extreme physical violence, where only skeletal fragments remain to be examined [1]. The occipital region has attracted increasing interest for sexual determination because of its robustness and relatively well-protected anatomical position [1]. ...
... It is essential that every part of the human skeleton is assessed on its own merit to determine its value for identification purposes because the investigator has no influence over which elements may be presented for examination, especially in cases of mass disasters such as fire, explosions or extreme physical violence, where only skeletal fragments remain to be examined [1]. The occipital region has attracted increasing interest for sexual determination because of its robustness and relatively well-protected anatomical position [1]. ...
Article
This study examined the sexual dimorphism in variables of the foramen magnum in a modern German population. This includes measurements of the maximum width, the maximum length, the circumference and the area of the foramen magnum, which were taken using the imaging software OsiriX (v.4.1.1. 64 bit). The data set includes 200 cadavers (100 males, 100 females) that were autopsied during the years 2011-2013 at the Institute of XXX. Each variable examined showed clear sexual dimorphism with p <0.001 significantly higher values in male individuals than in female individuals. To analyse sexual dimorphism in the sample univariate and multivariate discriminant function analyses were performed. The resulting formulas allow a sex classification after cross-validation with up to 74.7% accuracy for this population. The results and mean values raised in this study are compared with those of recent studies and highlight the importance of raising and following population-specific standards in forensic and anthropologic investigations so as to avoid biased and incorrect results.
... Assymetrical Foramen transversarium results due to tortuosity of vertebral artery, which may cause bone destruction and hence may be a factor determining the size of foramen transversarium and asymmetry in size of foramen transversarium [16] Impingement of osteophytes from uncinate process and articular process of cervical vertebrae is also responsible for narrowing of foramen transversarium and compression of vertebral artery or irritation of surrounding sympathetic plexus [17] Double foramen transversarium occurs due to variations in the vertebral vessels which will be manifested in the changes of foramen transversarium as vertebral vessels play a key role in the formation of foramen transversarium. In contrast, variations of foramen transversarium can be useful in estimating the variations of vessels [18]. ...
... The different shapes of the foramen can be attributed to the manner in which these centres unite [15]. The foramen also develops very early during embryogenesis and within 5-7 years of age it is completely fused [16]. ...
Article
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Abstract Background: Cervical vertebrae are seven in number. C3-6 are typical whereas C1 (Atlas), C 2 (Axis) and C7 (Vertebrae prominens) are atypical. The cervical vertebrae are identified by the presence of foramen transversarium in the transverse process. Skeletal abnormalities of cervical region or in craniocervical region are of interest to anatomists, orthopaedicians, neurologists, neurosurgeons and even orthodontists. These abnormalities may result in severe neck pain, decreased neck mobility, muscular weakness and sensory deficits of both upper limbs and sudden unexpected deaths. Aims and Objectives: The present study is carried out to know the incidence of variations with respect to it’s morphology seen in both typical and atypical cervical vertebrae. Materials and Methods: The study is conducted on a total of 210 dry human adult cervical vertebrae of both sexes obtained from Department of Anatomy, ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru. The cervical vertebrae showing variations with respect to it’s morphology were identified and the photographs were taken. Results: We came across the presence of fused cervical vertebrae (C2, 3 & 4 )and (C6 & 7), arcuate foramen, elongated odontoid process, assymetrical foramen transversarium and double foramen transversarium. Conclusion: A thorough knowledge of these variations will be helpful for neurosurgeons, radiologists, head & neck and vascular surgeons. Keywords: Cervical Vertebrae; Foramen Transversarium; Arcuate Foramen; Odontoid Process; Fused Vertebrae
... (9) Because of its anatomical position, the FM is protected by the occipital bone and has an increased potential for survival, making it ideal for determining sex. (10) The results of the current study show that although the FM dimensions (length and width) for males were larger than for females, this difference was not statistically significant. These results concur with previous studies. ...
... These results concur with previous studies. (9)(10)(11) FMSD and FGTD were 36.11 mm and 29.56 mm in males and females, respectively. ...
... Regarding the human osteological analysis, sex determination based only on the skulls was fraught by the absence of the mandibles. The method applied in first instance was based on the visual assessment of cranial morphological traits [25][26][27][28], morphometric variables [29,30], and the discriminant functions [31] based on an American sample from the Terry Collection. ...
... Aware of this problem, sex assessment through morphometric traits was nonetheless considered as an alternative method. Attending to the mastoid length [29] both crania classify as males, with 28.33 mm for Cranium 1 and 28.76 mm for Cranium 2. Based on the foramen magnum [30], Cranium 1 is classified as female, while Cranium 2 may be classified as male, based on the maximum length and circumference, or as female based on the maximum width and circumference. To avoid the use of a single trait, the discriminant functions [31] were applied and, interestingly, the results coincide with those of the morphological analysis, classifying Cranium 1 as female and Cranium 2 as male. ...
Article
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There is a significant number of funerary contexts for the Early Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula, and the body of information is much larger for the Late Neolithic. In contrast, the archaeological information available for the period in between (ca. 4800-4400/4200 cal BC) is scarce. This period, generally called Middle Neolithic, is the least well-known of the peninsular Neolithic sequence, and at present there is no specific synthesis on this topic at the peninsular scale. In 2017, an exceptional funerary context was discovered at Dehesilla Cave (Sierra de Cádiz, Southern Iberian Peninsula), providing radiocarbon dates which place it at the beginning of this little-known Middle Neolithic period, specifically between ca. 4800–4550 cal BC. Locus 2 is a deposition constituted by two adult human skulls and the skeleton of a very young sheep/goat, associated with stone structures and a hearth, and a number of pots, stone and bone tools and charred plant remains. The objectives of this paper are, firstly, to present the new archaeological context documented at Dehesilla Cave, supported by a wide range of data provided by interdisciplinary methods. The dataset is diverse in nature: stratigraphic, osteological, isotopic, zoological, artifactual, botanical and radiocarbon results are presented together. Secondly, to place this finding within the general context of the contemporaneous sites known in the Iberian Peninsula through a systematic review of the available evidence. This enables not only the formulation of explanations of the singular new context, but also to infer the possible ritual funerary behaviours and practices in the 5th millennium cal BC in the Iberian Peninsula.
... Thus, the FM is of particular interest to clinicians, like radiologists, neurosurgeons, or skull-base surgeons [5,10]. The anterior border of the FM is formed by the basilar process of the occipital bone, the lateral borders by the left and right exoccipitals, and the posterior border is formed by the supra-occipital part of the occipital bone [7]. ...
... Despite its particular clinical importance, only a few anatomical reports on FM are available in the literature. These reports are generally on measurement of the current size of FM [10,21,23], determination of its shape [5,23], gender differences [7,11,25], ethnic differences [6,18], dimensions in other mammals [14] and relationship to the intra-cranial volume [1]. ...
Article
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The foramen magnum (FM) is an important landmark because of its close relationship to key structures such as the brainstem and spinal cord, an extension of the medulla oblongata. Because of the similarity in their shape, the existence of a relationship between cranial length and anteroposterior diameter of the FM, and between cranial width and transverse diameter of the FM may reveal the magnificent harmony of the skull and FM. Based on this idea, we investigated the existence of this harmony in skulls that we used in our study. Materials and methods: In this study, 60 adult dry skulls belonging to the Turkish population were examined. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum and the length and width of the skull were measured. Measurements were made directly on the skull using a digital sliding caliper. New indices and ratios were applied with those measurements. Results: Our study suggests that FM width and FM length could be estimated by using the cranial length and cranial width measurements in the skull by accepting the mean of these coefficients (4.62) as the golden ratio. The average of the coefficients of cranial width to FM width ratio [4.62 ± 0.35 (95% CI: 4.52-4.70)] and the average of the coefficients of cranial length to the FM length ratio [4.62 ± 0.50 (95% CI): 4.49-4.76)] were found to be equal to each other. In order to check the accuracy of this hypothesis, FM width and FM lengths were estimated with the help of new equations. Conclusions: In the present study, the ratio between the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of both FM and the cranium was estimated at 4.62, indicating a magnificent harmony between cranial and subcranial structures. With this ratio, it is easy to estimate FM's size based on simple cranial measurements.
... Interestingly, compared to other skeletal elements, the foramen magnum reaches its adult size rather early in childhood [23] and is therefore unlikely to respond to significant secondary sexual changes thereby explaining the degree of sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum dimensions. Also biomechanically, there is no musculature acting upon the shape and size of the foramen magnum, making its principal function to allow the passage of vital structures into and out of the cranium, particularly the medulla oblongata, which occupies the greatest proportion of the foraminal space [24]. Since the nervous system develops and reaches maturity at a very young age in comparison to other body systems, it imparts no change in the dimensions of the foramen magnum. ...
... Catalina-Herrera et al. [30] revealed significant differences between males and females for sagittal and transverse diameters of the FM and the values of males were larger than those of females. Gapert et al. [24] demonstrated statistically significant differences between males' and females' skulls in FM dimensions using discriminant function and regression analysis in an eighteenth and nineteenth century British sample. In contrast, different studies have not found significant sexual dimorphism in the diameters of the FM [26,31]. ...
Article
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Objectives: The study was planned to evaluate the role of morphometric analysis of foramen magnum in determining sexual dimorphism. Also, we have compared the measurement of foramen magnum with age of individual. Material & Methods: study was retrospectively and scans of CBCT were retrieved from archives of department. Length and width of foramen magnum in adults was measured. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Mean length and width of foramen magnum was greater in males (34.65mm, 31.22mm) as compare to females (33.59mm, 30.11mm) and it was statistically significant (p<0.05). Mean length decreased in dimension i.e. from 35.22mm to 33.73mm as age progressed (18-60 years). Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism can be determined using foramen magnum dimensions. However, age estimation by morphometric analysis of foramen magnum requires more research.
... The results indicated that the DF were not interchangeable between the samples used in this study. Gapert et al. (2009) expressed concerns over the accuracy of discriminant functions when applied to groups from dissimilar temporal contexts and the results of this study support that concern. The results support the argument for generation of sample specific discriminant functions. ...
Thesis
This research aims to demonstrate how “form related to function” can be used to explain differences in the degree of zygapophyseal (facet) joint sexual dimorphism seen in populations with differing lifestyles. Whilst sex can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy from the facet joints of the spine in populations with a high degree of sexual dimorphism, it can be problematic in samples that do not. Bone adapts to reflect the physiological strain placed upon it during life. Analysis of the relationship between bony adaptation to occupational stress and facet morphology identifies extrinsic factors that correlate to changes in facet size and to a lesser degree sagittal angle. Extrinsic factors are external biocultural influences on bone morphology (e.g. nutrition and physical activity). The number of discriminant functions that can be derived from a population with a low degree of sexual dimorphism is increased when these factors are included, increasing the potential to estimate sex. The strength of correlation and prevalence of extrinsic factors can also be used to measure the degree of physical activity undertaken by individuals and is indicative of gendered division of labour in the population under study. Analysis of facet size and sagittal angle and the relationship and prevalence of extrinsic factors related to physical activity from skeletal material were examined from three contrasting samples. Two were from 18th century London with differing socio-economic status and the third a composite sample from three 5th -7th century Anglo-Saxon cemeteries located in southeast England. A comparative study of facet size and angle identified inter-sample differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. Further comparison of differences in lifestyle as evidenced by activity patterns was carried out to assess the impact of extrinsic factors on facet remodelling. In particular, this thesis focuses on evidence of the gendered division of labour as manifest by femoral robusticity, humeral directional asymmetry, vertebral osteophytosis, and osteoarthritis with analysis of the individual diagnostic criteria of eburnation, pitting and osteophytes. A distinct difference in prevalence of these factors was observed in the Anglo-Saxon sample and most obviously in females when compared with the 18th century samples, indicating that there was a difference in intensity of activity undertaken by this group in comparison with the other samples in this study. This suggests that the lack of facet joint sexual dimorphism observed in Anglo-Saxons is attributable to the degree of physical activity undertaken by these females and the subsequent remodelling of the facets as a functional adaptation to the mechanical loading they were subjected to. This research demonstrates that for some populations, sex can be estimated with reasonable accuracy from vertebral facet dimensions but for less dimorphic samples, inclusion of extrinsic factors related to physical activity when deriving discriminant functions increases the opportunity to estimate sex. Furthermore, analysis of inter-sample prevalence rates for extrinsic factors provides supporting evidence of different levels of physical activity between the samples.
... The mentioned studies dealing with the relationship between relatedness and similarity, however, were only focused on comparing individuals of the same sexeither because the study sample did not allow for anything else, because the aim of the research was to determine the similarity of the biologically related only in the male line, or because researchers were also aware that significant sexual dimorphism in cranial dimensions has been known for just as long (e.g. Giles and Elliot 1963, Holland 1986, Gapert et al. 2009, Toneva et al. 2020). On the other hand, it has been shown that using standardized size-adjusted data, individuals can be compared regardless their sex (Carson 2006, Martínez-Abadías et al. 2009, Cvrček et al. 2021). ...
Article
Analyses of osteological non-metric traits and frontal sinuses in the noble Sporck and Swéerts-Sporck families have already shown that the degree of similarity between individuals reflects their documented family relationships. The aim of this study was to verify whether these are also reflected by cranial dimensions, the variability of which, according to some previous studies, is also influenced by genetic factors. The sample comprises eight adult individuals from the 17th – 20th centuries, in whom 36 cranial dimensions were measured. To remove the possible effect of sexual dimorphism on the similarity of individuals, 26 indices of the evaluated dimensions were calculated, and all measured dimensions were adjusted to size. The degree of similarity between individuals was calculated based on all three datasets. In all cases, a positive relationship between the degree of relatedness and biodistance was evident, even in the unadjusted measured dimensions, despite their significant sexual dimorphism. In addition, there was a greater degree of similarity between biologically related compared to unrelated individuals in all three datasets. This suggests that genetics could affect craniometric traits regardless of sex, although the possible influence of other factors on the results is also discussed.
... The use of CT scans to measure craniometric parameters for sexual dimorphism of researchers obtained similar results on different population groups. [4][5][6][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Of 16 parameters studied, a total of nine parameters showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism (P ≤ 0.05). ...
... Overall, our findings of various parameters were relatively higher than those found in the previously mentioned studies. Concerning with the imaging of FM, the present study detected that the studied Libyan population's parameters were larger compared to other ethnic groups [2,5,10,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Foramen Magnum (FM) is the largest foramen of the skull and located in the most inferior portion of the cranium fossa as a part of the occipital bone. It's traversed by vital structures like medulla oblongata. There are dimensional differences between males and females which appeared larger in males.
... Among skull elements, facial bones are the first to be destroyed, while the neurocranium (skull cap or vault) is usually recovered in good condition. In forensic anthropology several studies have been conducted on the foramen magnum (Uysal et al. 2005;Gapert et al. 2009;Ukoha et al. 2011), nasal (Joy et al. 2009Oladipo et al. 2009) and orbital regions (Lidstone 2011;Jain et al. 2015) of the human skull. In spite of providing low classification accuracies regardless of the population, these anatomical regions are investigated abundantly in forensic anthropological studies. ...
Article
Background: Sex estimation of fragmentary remains is a critical problem which is further aggravated by the changing pattern of sexual dimorphism due to temporal/secular changes. Previously cranial chord variables were examined only to deduce cranial abnormalities and hominin evolution. In forensic anthropological literature to date, no studies have examined the importance of cranial chord variables in sex determination and neither have secular changes been reported in those measurements to date. Aim: The present study aims to examine the sexual dimorphism and temporal changes in chord measurements in the Indian population and to provide updated sex discriminant formulae. Subjects and methods: A total of 483 (contemporary: n = 158; sub-recent: n = 325) adult crania (18–70 years) from two temporally distinct North Indian populations were included in the study. Seven chord variables were measured and data were subjected to discriminant function analysis using SPSS 16.00. Results: Analysis of the data using the t-test demonstrated significant sexual and population variations over time. Univariate discriminant analysis revealed the glabella-bregma chord as the best variable in both populations (78.5 and 74.5% accuracy in the contemporary and sub-recent populations, respectively). Using multivariate analysis classification accuracy reached 86.1% in the contemporary sample. Conclusion: It is concluded that Indian crania are going through secular changes as the contemporary population has larger chord dimensions than their predecessors and chord variables can be applied for sex estimation in the Indian population.
... Forensic podiatry a novel research branch of anthropometry involving human identification of the foot through understanding and measurement of the morphological shapes and dimensions is of great application during calamity or disaster as well as our day to day life. Sex, age, stature, and ancestry/ethnicity are considered the pillars of identity or primary characteristics determined to establish the biological profile of an individual and one of the principal biological traits to be established from skeletal remains is the sex of the individual [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sex, age, stature, and ancestry are considered the pillars of identity and primary characteristics determined to establish the biological profile of an individual. Forensic podiatry being a novel research branch of anthropometry involving human identification of the foot through understanding and measurement of the morphological shapes and dimensions has great application for physical identity during calamity or disasters like plane crash, and earth quakes terror, crime scenes, demographic identity of determining individuals peculiar to a unique population when collating census data occasioned in times of controversies due the individuality and infinite morphological variation of the human foot.
... sexual dimorphism of the cranial base? visual differences between F/M resistant structures pre-pubertal maturation AIG 12, M, 48 y., Simon collection, ©A.B.INTRODUCTIONHoshi, 1962Walrath et al., 2004Burdan et al., 2012Naderi et al., 2005Petaros et al., 2015Gapert et al., 2009b Gapert et al., 2009cHolland, 1986cranial base: previous studiesINTRODUCTIONAIG 12, M, 48 y., Simon collection, ©A.B. cranial base: previous studies lack of standard terminology for landmarks subjectivity of visual traits small sample size lack of advanced statistical analyses rare in European populations few utilization of 3D tools MATERIAL TEMPORAL OCCIPITAL mastoid process mastoid triangles bony labyrinth foramen magnum occipital condyles basilar part SKELETAL ELEMENTS CONSIDERED Osipov et al., 2013 ©A.B ©A.B MATERIAL CORPUS OF STUDY n=140 101 adults -39 subadults LISBON SAMPLE (MUNHAC) -from 3 cemeteries in Lisbon -born in Portugal and died in Lisbon -death between 1891-1970 -lower and middle socio-economic class Indiv. 1584, M, 11 y., ©A.B. ...
Presentation
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Establishing the biological profile of human skeletal remains recovered in a forensic context is a key step for an investigation process and one of the fundamental responsibilities of the forensic anthropologist. In order to assess the sex of a skeleton, forensic anthropologist can commonly base their analysis on the most dimorphic element between females and males: os coxae. Nevertheless, in front of incomplete skeletons, absent or fragmented os coxae, or taphonomically altered bones, efficiency and reliability of the sex estimation may be jeopardised. To address these complex but frequent cases, this research aims to develop an alternative sexing method by investigating sexual dimorphism of another anatomical region known to be both sexually discriminant and less likely to be damaged, due to a resistant architecture: the cranial base (i.e. occipital and temporal bones). Our on-going doctoral research is carried out on a large European skeletal corpus composed of 611 individuals of known age and sex (537 adults and 74 subadults), coming from 7 documented skeletal collections. To increase objectivity, a metrical approach combining both traditional tools and new imaging techniques (surface scanning and tomodensitometry) will be developed. Here, we present preliminary results obtained in a Portuguese sample of this corpus. A set of 73 metrical variables have been collected with a sliding caliper on the cranial base of 140 individuals of the Luis Lopes collection (101 adults and 39 subadults), curated in Lisbon, MUNHAC. To ensure repeatability of the protocol, an intraclass correlation coefficient has been calculated for each variable. Statistical tests have been executed to evaluate metrical differences between females and males for each variable, separately within the adults and subadults. Further discriminant function analyses will be necessary to unravel the degree of sexual dimorphism existing on occipital and temporal metrical traits, including bony labyrinth, on both adults and subadults.
... Most of these studies focus on the testing or creation of age-at-death and sex estimation methods, since this collection includes individuals with known sex and age-at-death (e.g. Day and Pitcher Wilmott 1975;Gapert et al. 2009;Hassett 2011;Steel 1962). The collection was also used by Walker (1995) to examine and discuss possible biases when performing age-at-death and sex estimations. ...
Thesis
The aim of this thesis is to study the influence of status on the prevalence of non-specific stress in post-medieval London. This is researched by comparing the prevalence of two non-specific stress markers in and between two high-status populations (Chelsea Old Church and St. Bride’s Fleet Street) and two low-status populations (St. Bride’s Lower Churchyard and Cross Bones burial ground) from post-medieval London. The non-specific stress markers that were used in the comparisons were the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia and growth (through mean femur length). The high-status and low-status populations were compared on their own as well as together, combining Chelsea Old Church and St. Bride’s Fleet Street into one high-status population and St. Bride’s Lower Churchyard and Cross Bones burial ground into one lowstatus population. The four populations, as well as the aggregated populations, were divided into several age groups and by biological sex for (statistical) comparison. In the results it was found that over all, the high-status population of post-medieval London had less (severe) non-specific stress, but that when the populations were studied separately and divided into groups, the results became more nuanced. It was shown that the population from St. Bride’s Fleet Street experienced the least (severe) non-specific stress, the population from Cross Bones burial ground experienced the most (severe) nonspecific stress and the populations from Chelsea Old Church and St. Bride’s Lower Churchyard experienced a similar amount (and severity) of stress.
... Overall, our findings of various parameters were relatively higher than those found in the previously mentioned studies. Concerning with the imaging of FM, the present study detected that the studied Libyan population's parameters were larger compared to other ethnic groups [2,5,10,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. [14]. ...
... The area under the curve is above 0.5 which suggests that there is a relation between the dimensions and sex but this relation must be taken along with other evidence to confirm sex precisely. Gapert et al. have also done a similar study in British ethnic group using discriminant function and regression analysis and predicted a sexing accuracy of 70.3% [25]. Edwards et al. in 2013 analyzed the CT scans of 250 adults from Swiss ethnic group to determine the value of foramen magnum dimensions in sexing crania. ...
Article
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is properly cited. Purpose. The structural integrity of foramen magnum is usually preserved in fire accidents and explosions due to its resistant nature and secluded anatomical position and this study attempts to determine its sexing potential. Methods. The sagittal and transverse diameters and area of foramen magnum of seventy-two skulls (41 male and 31 female) from south Indian population were measured. The analysis was done using Student's t-test, linear correlation, histogram, Q-Q plot, and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) to obtain a model for sex determination. The predicted probabilities of BLR were analysed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Result. BLR analysis and ROC curve revealed that the predictability of the dimensions in sexing the crania was 69.6% for sagittal diameter, 66.4% for transverse diameter, and 70.3% for area of foramen. Conclusion. The sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum dimensions is established. However, due to considerable overlapping of male and female values, it is unwise to singularly rely on the foramen measurements. However, considering the high sex predictability percentage of its dimensions in the present study and the studies preceding it, the foramen measurements can be used to supplement other sexing evidence available so as to precisely ascertain the sex of the skeleton.
... The occiput has been widely used in sex estimation in forensic anthropology. Some studies demonstrated the efficacy of the size of foramen magnum or occipital condyles for sexing [7][8][9][10], while others questioned the universal value of metrical analyses for sex estimation [11][12][13][14]. In fact, many studies lacked blinded testing, cross-validation procedures or statistically reliable results [15,16]. ...
Article
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Objectives To investigate three-dimensional morphological variation of the occipital bone between sexes and among populations, to determine how ancestry, sex and size account for occipital shape variation and to describe the exact forms by which the differences are expressed. Methods CT data for 214 modern crania of Asian, African and European ancestry were compared using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics, including principal component analysis, Hotelling’s T ² test, multivariate regression, ANOVA, and MANCOVA. Results Sex differences in average occipital morphology are only observed in Europeans, with males exhibiting a pronounced inion. Significant ancestral differences are observed among all samples and are shared by males and females. Asian and African crania have smaller biasterionic breadths and flatter clivus angles compared to Europeans. Asian and European crania are similar in their nuchal and occipital plane proportions, nuchal and occipital angles, and lower inion positions compared to Africans. Centroid size significantly differs between sexes and among populations. The overall allometry, while significant, explains little of the shape variation. Larger occipital bones were associated with a more curved occipital plane, a pronounced inion, a narrower biasterionic breadth, a more flexed clivus, and a lower and relatively smaller foramen magnum. Conclusions Although significant shape differences were observed among populations, it is not recommended to use occipital morphology in sex or population estimation as both factors explained little of the observed variance. Other factors, relating to function and the environment, are suggested to be greater contributors to occipital variation. For the same reason, it is also not recommended to use the occiput in phylogenetic studies.
... Günay and Altinkök (2000) stated that the foramen magnum area is bigger in males than in females (909.91 ± 126.02 mm 2 and 819.01 ± 117.24 mm 2 , respectively), and the difference is statistically significant. In another study by Gapert et al. (2009), it was mentioned that the shape of the foramen magnum is an important dimorphic feature. Apart from the area and direct measurements of the foramen magnum (Choudhary et al. 2020), an index applied using the width and height, and the effectiveness of the ratio between the sexes were studied in certain breeds of sheep. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate and record data on the morphometrical parameters of the skull and mandible in Sharri sheep. We have evaluated 34 skulls (24 females and 10 males) of Sharri sheep ( Ovis aries ), a local breed of sheep from Northern Macedonia. Fifty-one measurements were evaluated in total: 37 parameters on the skull and 14 parameters on the mandible. The results of the study show that, in general, the morphology and morphometric parameters of the skull and mandible, of Sharri sheep are similar to those of other sheep breeds with few differences. The mean skull length (SL), skull height (SH), distance between two supraorbital foramina (DBTSF), orbital length (OL), mandible length (ML) and Sharri sheep diastema (D) were 247.47 ± 13.12 mm, 104.71±6.21 mm, 50.73 ± 3.44 mm, 41.21 ± 1.99 mm, 185.91±13.33 mm and 45.81 ± 3.73 mm, respectively. The results also show that out of 51 parameters, only 13 show a statistically significant difference between females and males, particularly the distance of akrokranion to opisthion (AO), articular surface length of mandibular condyle (ASL) and anterior limit of the mandibular foramen to cranial border of ramus mandible (RBMFRMRM). The findings of this study are important in many aspects: morphologically, morphometrically and especially clinically, during surgical interventions in the head region. With a lack of information in current literature on the investigated parameters in this sheep breed, the present data are a solid basis for further studies in comparative anatomy with other ruminants and in other areas such as zooarchaeology and animal welfare.
... The reliability of the sex estimate from the latero-lateral diameter was just 56%. Our results are similar to those studies conducted in Europe [2,20,23]. In these studies, the overall performances vary between 55 and 68% of correct predictions and the anteroposterior diameter is the variable which presents the best predictive power of sex. ...
... There is little difference between the skulls of male and female until puberty. The gender differences in the human cranium are unique to each population and may be influenced by genetic, environmental and socio-economic factors (Gapert et al., 2009). Radiological morphometric evaluation of the basilar region of skull provides an easy method of sex determination; the computed tomography (CT) scans being a preferred diagnostic modality for this purpose (Rai et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Foramen magnum is one of the several apertures in the base of the skull, through which medulla oblongata and other vital structures are transmitted. Knowledge on the normal anatomy of the base of the skull, especially the foramen magnum and its associated structures, is important to correlate its morphometric features with relevant clinical practices and may be in sex determination. Some anatomical features and gender differences in the human cranium are unique to each population and may be influenced by genetic, environmental and socio-demographic factors. In the present study morphometry of foramen magnum and its variation with sex and age was evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter (APD), transverse diameter (TD), and the area of foramen magnum (AFM) of each CT scan images of individuals who had head computed tomography scan at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, were measured by using institutional picture archiving and communication system workstation through institutional MedWeb. The overall APD of FM was 34.55 ± 3.21mm, TD was 28.48 ± 3.03mm and AFM was 814.77 ± 126.52mm 2 in the present study. The mean of measurements of all the three evaluated parameters of foramen magnum was larger in males and the differences were statistically significant at P ˂ 0.05 between sexes. However, no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference was detected in all the measured parameters among different age groups. In conclusion, the result of our study has reinforced the idea of likelihood of determining sex by evaluating the morphology of foramen magnum when essential.
... It was seen that FM dimensions tested using digital SMV were 69.73% accurate in differentiating sex and 68.92% and 70.54% in male and female determination, respectively. The results were following the Gapert et al. [17] (70.3%), Texeira et al. (70%), and Suazo et al. [18] (66.5%). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In explosions, mass disasters, and warfare, human remains are got in fragmented states. Only strong bones that resist fracture can be used for personal identification in forensics. The foramen magnum (FM) dimension at the base of the skull is one such region that can be used for sex discrimination using radiographs. Aim and Objectives: To test evaluate sexual dimorphism in FM morphometric measurements and shape using digital submentovertex (SMV) radiograph among the Sri Ganganagar population. Materials and Methods: 100 digital SMV radiographs (50 males and 50 females) were randomly selected from the daily radiographic record of the patients with an age range of 25 to 65 years who visited the OPD and require SMV radiographs for diagnosis. The selected SMV radiographs were assessed for FM dimensions (longitudinal and transverse diameters, circumference, area, and FM index). Also, one particular shape was assigned to FM based on the radiographic image according to Chethan et al. classification. All the measurements were performed by two maxillofacial radiologists independently, and the data thus obtained were subjected to discriminant analysis for the evaluation of sexual dimorphism. Results: Values of four parameters out of five (transverse diameter, circumference, area, and foramen index) were found statistically significantly higher in males. The most common morphology of FM was an egg shape (50%), whereas round (3%) was the least common morphology. Circumference FM was the best indicator of gender determination followed by area, transverse diameter. and foramen index. The SMV radiographs for FM showed an overall accuracy of 69.73% in sex determination. Conclusion: The study showed that SMV radiographic FM morphometric measurements can be used for sex determination among the Sri Ganganagar population.
... Interestingly, the prediction percentages for a combination of foramen magnum variables from our study show similar levels of prediction when compared to studies of other populations. Gabert et al. [19] in his study on skeletons from the 18 th and 19 th century found sex determination accuracy of 68.8% with univariate functions and 70.3% with multivariate functions from the foramen magnum. According to the study conducted by Raghavendra Babu et al. [20] on dry skulls of Indian population, found that the sex estimation rate with TD was 65.4%, with AP diameter was 86.5% and with different formulation of area the estimation rate was as high as 81.6% and 82.2%. ...
Article
Background: sex identification by morphological assessment of various bones of the skeleton had been one of the oldest approaches in forensic anthropology and medico-legal cases. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum in determining the feasibility of sex determination using computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: The data for our study was obtained from 100 patients having CT scan of the head and neck region (Siemens Somatom 256 slice CT scanner) with 1mm contiguous axial scans using bone window settings (2000 HU with 400 HU in centre), scan time of one second and exposure parameters 140 kVp and 70mA. The different measurements taken include the antero-posterior (AP) diameter, transverse diameter and area of the foramen magnum. Results: There were 50 males and 50 females with the age range of 18 to 75 years. Males have a higher average value than females in all of the parameters measured on foramen magnum. By using Student's T-test, all the measured parameters showed significant difference between the sexes (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The expression of sexual dimorphism in the foramen magnum region shows significant difference between the sexes, therefore this area of the skull should be considered a useful area in the identification of sex.
... Although Vol-3 showed the highest discriminatory power, its practical value is questionable due to its low precision. Vol-1 showed good accuracy and precision, but this volume encompasses not only the mastoid process but also some parts of surrounding regions including the foramen magnum, which itself shows significant sexual dimorphism (Uysal et al. 2005;Gapert et al. 2009;Madadin et al. 2017;Singh et al. 2017). Vol-2 might be the best choice for practical use, given its high precision (1.95%; Table 4) and good accuracy (70.6%, ...
Article
Full-text available
3D analysis of skeletal volumes has become an important field in digital anthropology studies. The volume of the mastoid process has been proposed to display significant sexual dimorphism, but it has a complex shape and to date no study has quantified the full mastoid volume for sex estimation purposes. In this study we compared three different ways to isolate the volume of the mastoid process from digital 3D models of dry crania, and then evaluated the performance of the three different volume definitions for sex estimation purposes. A total of 170 crania (86 male, 84 females) excavated from five medieval Croatian sites were CT-scanned and used to produce 3D stereolitographic models. The three different isolation techniques were based on various anatomical landmarks and planes, as well as the anatomy of the mastoid process itself. Measurements of the three different mastoid volumes yielded different accuracies and precisions. Interestingly, anatomical structures were sometimes more useful than classical landmarks as demarcators of mastoid volume. For all three volume definitions, male mastoid volumes were significantly larger than female volumes, in both relative and absolute numbers. Sex estimation based on mastoid volume showed a slightly higher precision and better accuracy (71% correct classifications) than visual scoring techniques (67%) and linear distance measurements (69%) of the mastoid process. Sex estimation based on cranial size performed even better (78%), and multifactorial analysis (cranium size + mastoid volume) reached up to 81% accuracy. These results show that measurements of the mastoid volume represent a promising metric to be used in multifactorial approaches for sex estimation of human remains.
... The occiput has been widely used in sex estimation in forensic anthropology. Some studies demonstrated the efficacy of the size of foramen magnum or occipital condyles for sexing [7][8][9][10], while others questioned the universal value of metrical analyses for sex estimation [11][12][13][14]. In fact, many studies lacked blinded testing, cross-validation procedures or statistically reliable results [15,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate three-dimensional morphological variation of the occipital bone between sexes and among populations, to determine how ancestry, sex and size account for occipital shape variation and to describe the exact forms by which the differences are expressed. Methods CT data for 214 modern crania of Asian, African and European ancestry were compared using 3D geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics, including principal compo- nent analysis, Hotelling’s T2 test, multivariate regression, ANOVA, and MANCOVA. Results Sex differences in average occipital morphology are only observed in Europeans, with males exhibiting a pronounced inion. Significant ancestral differences are observed among all samples and are shared by males and females. Asian and African crania have smaller biasterionic breadths and flatter clivus angles compared to Europeans. Asian and European crania are similar in their nuchal and occipital plane proportions, nuchal and occipital angles, and lower inion positions compared to Africans. Centroid size significantly differs between sexes and among populations. The overall allometry, while significant, explains little of the shape variation. Larger occipital bones were associated with a more curved occipital plane, a pronounced inion, a narrower biasterionic breadth, a more flexed clivus, and a lower and relatively smaller foramen magnum. Conclusions Although significant shape differences were observed among populations, it is not recom- mended to use occipital morphology in sex or population estimation as both factors explained little of the observed variance. Other factors, relating to function and theenvironment, are suggested to be greater contributors to occipital variation. For the same reason, it is also not recommended to use the occiput in phylogenetic studies.
... The shape and dimensions of the FM have a high degree of accuracy when analyzed by sex (11,27). Many studies have found that FM measurements are higher in healthy male than in healthy female population (6,12,14). ...
Article
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Aim: Chiari malformations are defined as a spectrum of abnormalities of the posterior brain, including the cerebellum, brainstem, skull base, and cervical cord. Although many theories have tried to explain the etiology of Chiari malformation, its cause is still unknown. This study aimed to examine foramen magnum morphometry and shape of Chiari malformation in comparison with a control group and to contribute to the literature on whether Chiari malformation affects foramen magnum morphometry. Material and methods: In this study, cranial magnetic resonance images of 71 people with Chiari malformation and 61 people as controls were examined. The anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, and area of the foramen magnum were measured, and the shape of the foramen magnum was determined. Results: In the Chiari malformation group, the anteroposterior diameter of the foramen magnum was 39.11 ± 4.29 mm, the transverse diameter was 34.25 ± 3.27 mm, and its area was 969.21 ± 199.57 mm2. These results were statistically higher in female patients in the Chiari malformation group than in the control group. No significant difference was found between male patients in the Chiari malformation group and those in the control group. Round-shaped foramen magnum was predominant in both groups, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In Chiari malformation, the foramen magnum is affected. This effect can be a factor that influences development of a malformation. As a result of a malformation, the foramen magnum may have expanded due to the pressure effect. More detailed and extensive research is needed to explain this phenomenon.
... Although Vol-3 showed the highest discriminatory power, its practical value is questionable due to its low precision. Vol-1 showed good accuracy and precision, but this volume encompasses not only the mastoid process but also some parts of surrounding regions including the foramen magnum, which itself shows significant sexual dimorphism (Gapert et al., 2009;Madadin et al., 2017;Singh et al., 2017;Uysal et al., 2005). ...
Preprint
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3D analysis of skeletal volumes has become an important field in digital anthropology studies. The volume of the mastoid process has been proposed to display significant sexual dimorphism, but it has a complex shape and to date no study has quantified the full mastoid volume for sex estimation purposes. In this study we compared three different ways to isolate the volume of the mastoid process from digital 3D models of dry crania, and then evaluated the performance of the three different volume definitions for sex estimation purposes. A total of 170 crania (86 male, 84 females) excavated from five medieval Croatian sites were CT-scanned and used to produce 3D stereolitographic models. The three different isolation techniques were based on various anatomical landmarks and planes, as well as the anatomy of the mastoid process itself. Measurements of the three different mastoid volumes yielded different accuracies and precisions. Interestingly, anatomical structures were sometimes more useful than classical landmarks as demarcators of mastoid volume. For all three volume definitions, male mastoid volumes were significantly larger than female volumes, in both relative and absolute numbers. Sex estimation based on mastoid volume showed a slightly higher precision and better accuracy (71 % correct classifications) than visual scoring techniques (67 %) and linear distance measurements (69 %) of the mastoid process. Sex estimation based on cranial size performed even better (78 %), and multifactorial analysis (skull size + mastoid volume) reached up to 81% accuracy. These results show that measurements of the mastoid volume represent a promising metric to be used in multifactorial approaches for sex estimation of human remains.
... Overall, our findings of various parameters were relatively higher than those found in the previously mentioned studies. Concerning with the imaging of FM, the present study detected that the studied Libyan population's parameters were larger compared to other ethnic groups [2,5,10,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Foramen Magnum (FM) is the largest foramen of the skull and located in the most inferior portion of the cranium fossa as a part of the occipital bone. It's traversed by vital structures like medulla oblongata. There are dimensional differences between males and females which appeared larger in males.
... Our results show that the position of the IT is not affected by sex or femoral side and can therefore be considered a consistent and reliable reference point. The 19th century skeletal population at St Bride's has previously been used to test the reliability of modern methods of sex determination such as the expression of sexual dimorphism in the foramen magnum(Gapert et al., 2009). Their study concluded that modern techniques of sex determination used in the forensic field today were equally valid in the St Bride's population, suggesting that skeletal elements are comparable to a modern-day population. ...
Article
Introduction During direct anterior approach hip arthroplasty, the innominate tubercle (IT) of the femur is used as a reference point for femoral neck osteotomy. A recent study found that IT dimensions are unaffected by femoral length, neck‐shaft angle, and neck length. This study investigated the position of the tubercle relative to femoral side, sex and femoral neck dimensions. Materials and Methods One hundred and ninety femora (ninety‐five pairs, complete with biographical data) from St. Bride's Church, London, were photographed with the apex of the tubercle marked. Using imaging software, axes were superimposed onto the image, allowing the X and Y co‐ordinates of the tubercle apex to be derived. Statistical analysis was carried out. Results The position of the tubercle did not vary significantly and did not correlate with femoral side (P>0.05). P values for variation of the X and Y coordinates were 0.351 and 0.996 in left and right femora, respectively. The tubercle position did not vary significantly with sex (P>0.05). P values for variation of the X and Y coordinates were 0.254 and 0.634 in males and females respectively. There was little variation between tubercle position and femoral neck dimensions: correlation coefficient ‐0.20 (x coordinate) and ‐0.12 (y coordinate). Conclusions The data showed that the position of the IT did not vary significantly with either sex or side and that, therefore, the tubercle can be considered a reliable surgical landmark during arthroplasty surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The predictability of gender was higher in female subjects than in male subjects. [28]. Accuracy obtained in the present study was lesser than that of the studies conducted by Uthman et al (81.8%) [16] and Ibrahim et al (90%) [18]. ...
Article
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Background: The morphometric analysis of foramen magnum (FM) plays a crucial role in forensics and paleontology in identifying the gender of the unknown skeletal fragments. However, the reliability of these parameters vary among populations and races. The present study was conducted to investigate the reliability of the four foramen magnum parameters ie, foramen magnum transverse diameter, foramen magnum sagittal diameter, foramen magnum area and foramen magnum circumference in this native population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects belonging to both genders aged between 20 – 50 years who were undergoing computed tomography (CT) examination of head and neck region were selected for the study. The study sample comprised of 30 males in group A and 30 females in group B. The measurements were obtained from reformatted axial sections using helical CT scan. The FM sagittal diameter (FMSD) and the FM transverse diameter (FMTD) were measured by the greatest anteroposterior dimension and the greatest width of the foramen. The circumference (FMC) and the area (FMA) were obtained after tracing the bony margin of the FM on the CT image using CT workstation. Results: Mean values of all four parameters were found to be significantly higher in males compared to female subjects (P <0.001). Further, the accuracy of sex determination analyzed using the discriminant equation was 70% for males and 80% for females with overall accuracy of 75%. The predictability of gender was higher in female subjects than in male subjects. Conclusion: The dimensions of the foramen magnum can be used in gender determination of skeletal fragments with considerable accuracy. The Helical CT scan plays a pivotal role in providing accurate dimensions of the foramen magnum that could be useful in forensic testing.
Article
with registrar of newspapers for India: DELENG/2008/30959) presents peer-reviewed survey and original research articles. Detailed reviews of newly published books relevant to future studies in the  eld are also included. Accessible to a broad range of scholars, each survey paper contains all necessary de nitions and explanations; a complete overview of the problem discussed; and a description of its importance and relationship to basic research on the subject. This publication also features authoritative contributions describing ongoing investigations and innovative solutions to unsolved problems. The journal serves as a valuable tool for helping Librarian, Students, faculties etc. deal effectively with the challenges of the  eld. It emphasizes articles and reports that are directly relevant to practice. Abstracting and Indexing information Indian Journal of Forensic Odontology (pISSN: 0974-505X, eISSN: 2455-2348, registered with registrar of newspapers for India: DELENG/2008/30959) presents peer-reviewed survey and original research articles. Detailed reviews of newly published books relevant to future studies in the  eld are also included. Accessible to a broad range of scholars, each survey paper contains all necessary de nitions and explanations; a complete overview of the problem discussed; and a description of its importance and relationship to basic research on the subject. This publication also features authoritative contributions describing ongoing investigations and innovative solutions to unsolved problems. The journal serves as a valuable tool for helping Librarian, Students, faculties etc. deal effectively with the challenges of the  eld. It emphasizes articles and reports that are directly relevant to practice. Subscription Information Institutional (1 year) INR5500/USD430 Payment method
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Background Foramen magnum (FM) attains an increasing interest regarding sex identification among different populations. Computed tomography (CT) is considered a reliable modality for FM examination for forensic purposes. Aim of the study The current study is aiming to investigate FM measurements and shape as a forensic tool for sex identification in a sample of Egyptian population using CT imaging technology. Subjects and Methods The study included cranial CT images of 200 adult Egyptian individuals (100 males, 100 females) using 320-row multi-detector CT scanner. Sagittal and transverse diameters, index, circumference and area of FM were obtained. FM area was measured automatically and also calculated according to Radinsky's and Teixeria's formulae. FM morphology was also reported. Results All FM measurements except FM index were significantly higher in males compared to females. There was no statistical correlation between FM measurements and age. The best overall sex prediction was reported for FM circumference and area measured automatically (67% each), followed by FM area calculated by Radinsky's and Teixeria's formulae (65.5% and 65% respectively), then FM transverse and sagittal diameters (63.5% and 60% respectively). The prediction was raised to 69% when FM circumference, area measured automatically and transverse diameter were combined. Hexagonal and irregular shapes were the most commonly reported shapes in males and females respectively with no statistical difference regarding shape distribution between males and females. Conclusions FM measurements are valid sex discriminators in the present Egyptian sample.
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Os cães são animais tidos como de companhia e é a espécie mais atendida por veterinários, seja exames de rotina, seja emergência. É comum, na clínica, a admissão de pacientes com traumas resultantes de acidentes. Com base nisso há uma enorme necessidade em se ter amplo conhecimento da anatomia desses animais para possibilitar uma intervenção médica eficaz. Para o trabalho foram utilizadas 22 costelas, 11 de cada antímero, com as quais foi realizada a biometria e logo após os ensaios mecânicos destrutivos para determinar sua resistência. Com os resultados obtidos é possível desenvolver materiais substitutivos que possam ser implantados por conta de fraturas
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Human remains collections can be found in museums, university departments, and even private collections across the UK. These collections pose many ethical challenges in their management and care, many unique to human remains, which can differ according to the type of holding institution, nature of the collection, and the way in which it is used or studied. These collections are often associated with legacies of poor ethical standards, particularly in terms of early collecting practices. This chapter will explore these factors and the challenges they pose. In the modern context of fluid socio-political and cultural change, museums and other holding institutions are faced with ever-changing external influences and must be able to respond in a dynamic and transparent way. This chapter will also discuss the ethical care and curation of human remains collections in UK museums and other repositories, with a focus on collections acquired and/or curated in England where reference to legislation concerning the care and management of collections is required. Finally, it will explore the concept of harm to communities, public and to science, that can be caused by a lack of transparency and poor decision and policy making with regard to human remains collections.
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Identification of skeletal relics is crucial for medicolegal purposes. Sex estimation is one of the critical parts providing the identification of skeletal relics. In forensic practice, sex estimation requires multidisciplinary studies of such as forensic medicine, anatomy, dentistry and radiology. Recently, radiological studies on this subject have been increasing with the developing technology. The objective of this study is to examine the usage of radiological dimensions of foramen magnum for sex estimation in human skulls by developing discriminant functions in Turkish population. We analyzed 600 (300 males and 300 females) Computerized Tomography (CT) images of Turkish individuals aged between 21-50. Four measurements were obtained from CT images. All measurements in males were significantly greater than in females, and they provided the higher sex classification accuracy. The area of the foramen magnum calculated by Radinsky's formula was the best measurement for sex estimation with a 75% accuracy rate. In conclusion, the CT images of foramen magnum show sexual dimorphism in our population. To use population specific data would be the most appropriate approach for sex estimation.
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A Medicina Legal tem grande importância no processo de identificação humana, principalmente quando os especialistas da área recebem para análise apenas a porção cefálica do corpo. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar o dimorfismo sexual e a predição da idade através de mensurações em ossos occipitais de crânios secos de adultos. Os autores estudaram uma amostra de 149 crânios secos, sendo 90 masculinos e 59 femininos, que pertenceram a indivíduos com idade acima de 20 anos, e com sexo e idade conhecidos com total segurança. Foram realizadas as seguintes mensurações: distância entre os forames condilares (ifc); distância entre o forame condilar direito e o básio (fcd-b); distância entre o forame condilar esquerdo e o básio (fce-b), além de uma área triangular formada por estas medidas lineares (atz). Todas as variáveis passaram por uma análise de variância a fim de se testar a existência de efeito do sexo, além de que sua normalidade residual foi avaliada pelos coeficientes de assimetria, de curtose e pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk. De acordo com a análise estatística, houve índice de acerto de 69,6% por regressão logística. Foram também verificadas estatísticas básicas como a média e intervalo de confiança através do teste t e também utilizado o método da regressão linear múltipla para a predição da idade, constatando que o modelo apresentou resultados significantes em duas variáveis. (p=0,0105). Os resultados permitiram a elaboração de metodologia estatística para o diagnóstico do sexo e idade em observações futuras.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological measurements of the foramen magnum (FM) and their relation to sex as well as to note variations in the shape of the FM. Cranial computerized tomographic images (CT) of 110 normal subjects (57 males - 53 females) between the ages of 18 and 80 years were examined in this study. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the FM were measured with a millimetric sliding caliper. Additionally, the area of the FM was also estimated. The statistical analysis for sex comparison was made using Student's t test. To determine the relationships between the studied parameters, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In addition, the frequency percentage ratios of the variable shape types of the FM were also determined. Our findings showed that the sagittal, transverse diameters and area of the FM were significantly greater in males than in females (P < 0.001). The statistical comparisons of the correlations between all measuring parameters showed significant associations (P < 0.01). According to the identity with the shape type, the FM was found to be oval in 8.1%, egg-shaped in 6.3%, round in 21.8%, tetragonal in 12.7%, pentagonal in 13.6%, hexagonal in 17.2%, irregular (A) in 10.9% and irregular (B) in 9.09%. It can be concluded that the sex differences in the dimensions of the FM and the variations in its shape are of diagnostic clinical and radiological importance.
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The second cervical vertebra can be used to estimate sex with 83% accuracy in unidentified human skeletal remains. Reported here are the necessary statistics, based on 8 dimensions taken from 400 second cervical vertebrae, for the computation of customized discriminant functions. Discriminant function equations developed using variables selected in a stepwise procedure are also presented here as an example of the usefulness of this bone in estimating sex.
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Sex and race variation of the occipital bone have been previously investigated, but particular examination of the effect of age and ancestry on sexual dimorphism has not been addressed. This paper examines morphological variation associated with sex and ancestry in the condylar region of the occipital bone and the effect of age and ancestry on the estimation of sex. Models previously published by Holland are also tested, and methodological problems are addressed. The results indicate that age does not have an effect on sexual dimorphism, but that whites exhibit greater, although not significantly, more sexual dimorphism than blacks. Significant sex and ancestry variation is present in the condylar region of the occipital bone, but neither sex nor ancestry could be estimated accurately using measurements of this anatomical region defined by Holland.
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Sex determination in unidentified skeletons is not always easily and correctly performed by a non-specialist without formal training in forensic anthropology. In explosions, warfare and other mass disasters like aircraft crashes, identification may be extremely complicated because of skeletal fragmentation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the area of the foramen magnum was a useful criterion for the sex determination in fragmented skulls. In a total of 219 skeletons (170 males and 39 females) the longest and the shortest diameter of the foramen magnum was measured; the area within was determined using the mean of the diameters as the radius for calculation. The mean of foramen magnum area was significantly different (909.91 +/- 126.02 mm2 in males, 819.01 +/- 117.24 mm2 in females homogeneous variance, Student's t-test: 4.11 P< 0.001). However, the correlation coefficient between the areas of foramen magnum and sex was 0.27. The results confirmed that the mean foramen magnum area in females is lower than in males. However, the area of foramen magnum is not a very useful indicator for sex identification and can be used only under some circumstances as a supportive finding.
Article
Discriminant functions for sex determination calculated from the Westerhus series were applied to temporaly and spatially different skeletal material. The misclassifications and the different methods of approximating the sectioning point were discussed.
Conference Paper
The adult human occipital bone offers opportunities to develop measurements that can aid in the identification of human remains, particularly as it tends to survive inhumation and physical insults more readily than many other bones of the skull. The occiput has a number of anatomical features, some of which have been evaluated for sex and ancestry differences including the occipital condyles and the foramen magnum. Using these features, ten measurements of the occipital region were chosen from past publications. In addition, the position of the hypoglossal canals offered an opportunity to develop two new measurements. Twenty skulls of unknown sex and ethnicity were obtained, their occipital regions examined, and a number of measurements performed. Twelve measurements were recorded to two decimal places using digital (Mitutoyo) sliding calipers. Parts A, B and C of this experiment examined intraobserver error, multiobserver error and variation between twenty skulls by using the coefficient of variation. This study aimed to define and evaluate measurements that may be used in identification of human cranial remains, and forms part of a wider study on sexual differences of the condylar region of the human occipital bone. These initial results indicate that while all measurements have the potential to prove useful, the bicondylar breadth, the distance between the external hypoglossal canals, the length of the foramen magnum and the width of the foramen magnum are the most clearly defined, and may offer greater potential in sex identification.
Article
Einhundertsiebenundneunzig Unterkiefer (109 mnnlich, 88 weiblich) der Altersgruppe 20–80 Jahre aus dem Rhein-Main-Neckargebiet wurden durch je 17 Meparameter charakterisiert.An dieser Trainingsgruppe (insgesamt 3743 Daten) wurden durch Diskriminanzanalyse die reprsentativen Mestrecken und die Diskriminanzfunktionen fr vollstndige Unterkiefer und fr Unterkieferfragmente hufiger Frakturtypen bestimmt. Am vorliegenden Untersuchungsgut war anhand des vollstndigen Unterkieferknochens eine zutreffende Geschlechtsbestimmung in 82,6% (mnnlich) und 79,5% (weiblich) mglich.Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen weiterhin eindeutig, da sich auch Unterkieferfragmente zur Geschlechtsbestimmung eignen. Die richtige Klassifikation erfolgte je nach Fragmenttyp in 72,5–81,7% (mnnlich) und in 71,6–79,5% (weiblich) der Flle.Seventeen measuring parameters were used to characterize 197 mandibles (109 males, 88 females) taken from the corpses of people 20–80 years of age from the Rhine-Main-Neckar area. The representative measuring parameters and discriminating functions of intact lower jaws and lower jaw fragments of most frequent fracture types were determined in this practice group by means of discriminating analysis. In the present research material it was possible to determine sex accurately from an intact lower jaw bone in 82.6% (m) and 79.5% (f) of the cases. Furthermore, our results show clearly that sex may even be determined from lower jaw fragments. The classification was correct, depending on the type of fragment, in 72.5%–81.7% (m) and 71.6%–79.5% (f) of the cases.
Article
The sagittal and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum were examined in 100 human skulls (74 male, 26 female). The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by other authors. Our findings show that the sagittal and transverse diameters are clearly different, as well as the total area of the foramen magnum, these parameters being larger in male skulls than in female.
Article
The cranial base can be used to determine the sex of fragmentary or deformed skulls. An initial study used nine measurements taken from 100 crania in the Terry Collection. The sample was divided equally by race and sex. Six regression models were formulated that predicted correctly the sex of the sample with 71-90% accuracy. In a separate test, a control sample of 20 skulls, also drawn from the Terry Collection but not involved with formulating the regression equations, was correctly classified with 70-85% accuracy.
Article
Seventeen measuring parameters were used to characterize 197 mandibles (109 males, 88 females) taken from the corpses of people 20-80 years of age from the Rhine-Main-Neckar area. The representative measuring parameters and discriminating functions of intact lower jaws and lower jaw fragments of most frequent fracture types were determined in this practice group by means of discriminating analysis. In the present research material it was possible to determine sex accurately from an intact lower jaw bone in 82.6% (m) and 79.5% (f) of the cases. Furthermore, our results show clearly that sex may even be determined from lower jaw fragments. The classification was correct, depending on the type of fragment, in 72.5%-81.7% (m) and 71.6%-79.5% (f) of the cases.
Article
Using multivariant discriminant function analysis, the sex of 232 Finnish crania of known sex was determined. Eight measurements were used to form two discriminant functions. In 80% of cases the sex determination by means of the discriminant functions was identical with the original information. The applicability of the sex discriminant function of Giles and Elliot ('63) for American white and Negro crania was also tested on the Finnish crania. An accuracy of only 65% was attained.
Article
The sex of unidentified skeletons is not always easily and correctly determined by the general medical examiner with no formal training in forensic anthropology. Sometimes the diagnostic procedure may be extremely complicated when handling fragmented bones. The present preliminary observations concern the evaluation of the size of the foramen magnum in 40 skulls (20 of each sex). Our results indicate that this method may be useful in the sexing of skeletal remains under the above-mentioned conditions as well as when an expert in forensic anthropology or a crime laboratory is not available.
Article
The articular surfaces and vertebral foramen area of the first cervical vertebra are sexually dimorphic and can be used to sex complete or fragmentary specimens. Eight measurements were taken from the articular regions (superior and inferior) of 100 first cervical vertebrae from Terry collection specimens housed at the Smithsonian Institution. Seven regression and seven discriminant function equations were created that predict sex with 77-85% and 75-85% accuracy, respectively. In separate control tests, measurements from 100 first cervical vertebrae from Hamann-Todd collection individuals (Cleveland Museum of Natural History) and from 34 archaeological specimens were used with the Terry equations. The control samples were sexed with 60-85% accuracy.
Article
The importance of the petrous portion for metric sex determination is a controversial subject in the archaeological and anthropological literature. To achieve a forensically suitable method for sex differentiation, 10 measuring distances were determined on recent forensic material in the form of 410 petrous portions, which had proved to be reliable in the preliminary examinations. The most important findings can be summarized as follows: the petrous portion revealed significant metric sex differences, in particular the width:height index (P < 0.001); the sex differences are age-dependent; differences in the measuring distances on the petrous portion can be observed with regard to their lateral location on either side of the skull; the discrimination analysis allows a correct classification of two-thirds of all petrous portions studied. To some extent, these findings contrast with those already published, but the discrepancies can be attributed primarily to the different composition of the samples used in the respective studies.
Article
This study aimed to examine sexual dimorphism in, and to produce a practical discriminant function for determining the sex of indigenous, Bantu-speaking, South African crania. The types of data to be used were a small number of traditional, or mathematically transformed three-dimensional, linear measurements, comparable to those in use by most physical and forensic anthropologists. The samples to be examined, separately and pooled, were of the Cape Nguni, Natal Nguni and Sotho subgroups. In addition, three local populations ('tribes'--Zulu, Xhosa and Southern Sotho) within these subgroups were also studied. Univariate male/female ratios indicate significant sexual dimorphism in the pooled South African crania. Canonical variates analysis of the pooled sample showed that facial width is the strongest discriminating morphometric variable; cranial length and basi-bregmatic height are the next most significant features. Eight measurements derived from the three-dimensional data were used to produce a series of discriminant functions for sex determination in the pooled sample, for which an accuracy of 77-80% was attained. Analysis of the calvaria and face, separately, has shown that the sex of damaged material can be diagnosed with a reasonable degree of accuracy (75-76%). The new functions for the pooled indigenous South African sample provide improved sex discrimination accuracy compared to those obtained by employing the commonly utilised statistics of Giles & Elliot (1963), even when a modified sectioning point is used. Functions calculated for the separate local populations gave variable and fairly low improvements in sexing accuracy. As the subdivisions at all levels are at present quite rapidly disappearing in South Africa, for most purposes it is now best to simply apply the pooled data functions for sexing crania.
Article
The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the value and accuracy of the measurements of the foramen magnum (FM) by using three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT). Cases were randomly selected among 100 patients (48 males, 52 females) who had temporal CT in the Radiology Department. Seven measurements of the foramen magnum on 3D images, modified from the nine lines previously defined by Giles and Elliot were made. Using Fisher's linear discriminant functions test, the length and width of right condyle and width of FM diameters were found to be statistically different in each sex (p < 0.001) with 81% accuracy. To our best knowledge, this is the first report studying 3DCT measurements of FM, resulting with a sex determination accuracy rate of 81%. CT/3DCT can be reliably used in further investigations to provide basis for anthropometric and forensic issues.
Article
In both diagnostic fields a two-stage strategy is recommended: to first use "field" methods that are quick and easy but more imprecise and then "laboratory" methods that are time consuming but more precise. In preparing skeletal work, individuality of a skeleton should be checked, traces of diseases sought and time since death assessed. For sexing non-adults, the field methods are tooth mineralisation, long bone length and a few morphological skull and pelvis characteristics, for adults it is the morphology of pelvis and skull, and for both age groups the advanced laboratory method is molecular biology. For ageing non-adults the methods are mineralisation of teeth, long bone length and epiphysis development. For ageing adults the advanced laboratory method is aspartic acid racemisation. Less accurate laboratory methods are cement ring counts and histology of bones and teeth. Quick morphological methods using the pubic symphysis and other traits in combinations follow. Finally, cranial sutures and tooth number give a quick and rough impression. For the selection of a method and the assessment of its value the stochastic error produced for the reference sample is the decisive criterion; it should also be used to assess the reliability of a single diagnosis. Prerequisites for all work with skeletons are not only a complete knowledge of the relevant biology as well as specific techniques but also initial detailed instructions and with forensic applications, personal experience.
Article
It has been generally accepted in skeletal sex determination that the use of metric methods is limited due to the population dependence of the multivariate algorithms. The aim of the study was to verify the applicability of software-based sex estimations outside the reference population group for which discriminant equations have been developed. We examined 98 skulls from recent forensic cases of known age, sex, and Caucasian ancestry from cranium collections in Frankfurt and Mainz (Germany) to determine the accuracy of sex determination using the statistical software solution Fordisc which derives its database and functions from the US American Forensic Database. In a comparison between metric analysis using Fordisc and morphological determination of sex, average accuracy for both sexes was 86 vs 94%, respectively, and males were identified more accurately than females. The ratio of the true test result rate to the false test result rate was not statistically different for the two methodological approaches at a significance level of 0.05 but was statistically different at a level of 0.10 (p=0.06). Possible explanations for this difference comprise different ancestry, age distribution, and socio-economic status compared to the Fordisc reference sample. It is likely that a discriminant function analysis on the basis of more similar European reference samples will lead to more valid and reliable sexing results. The use of Fordisc as a single method for the estimation of sex of recent skeletal remains in Europe cannot be recommended without additional morphological assessment and without a built-in software update based on modern European reference samples.
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