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Antifungal activity of the Lemon grass oil and citral against Candida spp



Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis). This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.
BJID 2008; 12 (February)
Received on 22 September 2007; revised 28 January 2008.
Address for correspondence: Dr. Cristiane de Bona da Silva. Universidade
Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Curso de Farmácia,
Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Av. Roraima, 1000, prédio 26,
Santa Maria/RS. Zip code: 97105-900. Brazil. Phone: + 55 55 3220-
8452; Fax: + 55 55 3220-9371. E-mail: This
research was supported by CNPq.
The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;12(1):63-66.
© 2008 by The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Contexto
Publishing. All rights reserved.
Antifungal Activity of the Lemongrass Oil and Citral Against Candida spp.
Cristiane de Bona da Silva
, Sílvia S. Guterres
, Vanessa Weisheimer
and Elfrides E.S.Schapoval
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas Pos-Graduation program in Pharmaceuthical Sciences, Pharmaceutical School,
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS;
CPharmaceutical School, Department of Pharmaceutical Industry, Federal
University of Santa Maria; Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms
include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many
reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo
antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated
the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata,
C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis). This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro
activity against Candida spp.
Key-Words: lemongrass oil, citral, antifungal activity, Candida spp.
Cutaneous fungal infections are common diseases in
humans, and can also be caused by dermatophytic fungi and
some yeasts. Superficial candidiasis is a common infection of
the skin, oral cavity and esophagus, and vagina, although
most infections occur in patients debilitated or who are
immunocompromised. Candida albicans is responsible for
many of these infections, but occasionally other members
of the genus are associated, and generally infect the skin,
nails, or mucous membranes [1-4]. In vulvovaginal
candidiasis, C. albicans affects 85-95% of women, and C.
glabrata affects 10-20% [5]; C. tropicalis and C. krusei can
also be associated with these infections [5,6]. Moreover, the
specie C. parapsilosis is related to onychomicoses caused
by Candida [6].
The conventional treatment of fungal disease is limited,
and part of the reason is due to the limited spectrum of the
currently antifungal drugs, and the expensive treatment,
particularly due to the need of prolonged therapy. Thus, new
drugs and alternative therapies are necessary, including
natural products.
Essential oils of aromatic plants species are used in
industries for the production of soaps, perfumes and toiletries.
Many of them are also used in traditional medicine for various
purposes. Investigations concerning the evaluation of the
biological activities of essential oils of some medicinal plants
have revealed that some of them exhibited antibacterial,
antifungal and insecticidal properties [7]. Because of the
antimicrobial properties showed by essential oils, the
aromatherapy has been used for treatment of serious skin
diseases, in special, superficial mycoses [8].
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (Gramineae) is an herb
worldwide known as lemongrass. The tea made from its leaves
is popularly used in Brazil as antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-
inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic and sedative [9]. The volatile
oil obtained from fresh leaves of this plant is widely used by
the perfumes and cosmetics industries [10].
Lemongrass oil is characterized for monoterpenes
compounds, and citral is the major component, present at
levels of, approximately, 65-85%. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-
octadienal) is the name given to a natural mixture of two
isomeric acyclic monoterpene aldehydes: geranial (trans-citral,
citral A) and neral (cis-citral, citral B) (Figure 1). In addition to
citral, the lemongrass oil consists of small quantities of
geraniol, geranylacetate and monoterpene olefins, such as
myrcene [10].
Figure 1. Chemical structure of the citral.
Studies on the antimicrobial, especially antibacterial and
antifungal, activity of lemongrass oil and its components were
reported [11-15]. The antiviral activity of this oil against Herpes
simplex virus-1 was also demonstrated [16].
In this work, in order to estimate the possibility of using
lemongrass oil as an antifungal agent for skin diseases
(cutaneous candidiasis and dermatomycosis), the antifungal
activity of this oil and its main component, citral, against
Candida species was studied.
Material and Methods
Lemongrass Oil and Citral
The lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) was
BJID 2008; 12 (February)
commercially obtained (Destilaria Maripá, Brazil) and the citral
(assigned purity of 95%) was supplied by Sigma-Aldrich
(Darmstadt, Germany). The percentage of citral (neral and
geranial) in the lemongrass oil was 76%, assayed by gas
Antifungal Assay
The antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral
against yeasts was determined using the disk diffusion method
[13]. Eight strains of Candida species were used: Candida
albicans ATCC 10231, Candida albicans ATCC 18804,
Candida albicans CI-I (clinical isolate), Candida albicans
CI-II, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida glabrata ATCC
2001, Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 and Candida parapsilosis
ATCC 22019. The cultures of Candida spp. were cultivated
on Sabouraud dextrose 4% agar (SDA) at 25ºC for 48 hours.
Suspensions of yeasts were prepared in saline solution of
25% ± 2% turbidity, obtained at 580 nm, using a suitable
spectrophotometer (Analyser Model 800, São Paulo, Brazil).
Seeded agar plates were prepared by pouring 20 mL of SDA
into each sterile plate. After solidification of medium, each
plate was overlaid with 5 mL of SDA, which was previously
inoculated with 1% (v/v) of the suspensions of yeasts.
Lemongrass oil and citral were applied on filter paper disks
(2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 μL/disk) of 6 mm in diameter. Nystatin solution
(0.3 mg/mL) was used as antifungal reference substance (20.0
μL/disk). These disks were placed on the surface of seeded
agar plates (one disk for plate). All plates were incubated at
35ºC ± 2ºC for 24 hours. The inhibition zone was determined
by measuring the diameter of the clear zone around each disk
with a paquimeter (Starret®, Itu, Brazil). Six disks were used
for each sample.
In this work, the antifungal activity against other Candida
species was also studied, and the results obtained showed the
important antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral. Candida
albicans is an important pathogen of human infections;
moreover, other species can be associated with some infections.
Different yeasts were tested and the antifungal activity of
lemongrass oil and its major component (citral) was evaluated
against Candida spp. Results from the antifungal activity are
summarized in Tables 1 and 2. They show that the lemongrass
oil and the citral exhibited action against all Candida spp.,
especially C. albicans species, with a partial inhibition when
a volume of 8.0 μL of each sample was employed (diameter
inhibition zone higher than 40 mm). On the other hand, C.
krusei was the more resistant specie, showing a diameter
inhibition zone minor than 20 mm using 8.0 μL of each sample.
In the present work, the citral concentration in lemongrass oil
Antifungal Activity of Lemongrass and Citral
Table 2. Diameter of inhibition zone of the citral against some Candida species (n = 6)
Table 1. Diameter of inhibition zone of the lemongrass oil against some Candida species (n = 6)
Test strain
Diameter of inhibition zone (mm)
Lemongrass oil (
μL) Nystatin solution
(0.3 mg/mL, 20.0
2.0 4.0 8.0
C. albicans ATCC 10231 18.6 27.4 > 40 18.8
C. albicans ATCC 18804 13.3 22.5 > 35 18.8
C. albicans CI-I 12.6 27.3 > 40 17.8
C. albicans CI-II 14.4 27.3 > 50 17.9
C. glabrata ATCC 2001 19.3 25.1 > 30 17.3
C. krusei ATCC 6258 12.3 14.4 19.6 15.4
C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 8.9 18.3 28.6 13.5
C. tropicalis ATCC 750 12.8 19.2 29.5 15.6
Test strain
Diameter of inhibition zone (mm)
Reference citral (
μL) Nystatin solution
(0.3 mg/mL, 20.0
2.0 4.0 8.0
C. albicans ATCC 10231 14.6 27.8 > 40 18.6
C. albicans ATCC 18804 12.5 20.6 > 35 18.8
C. albicans CI-I 14.8 20.3 > 40 17.8
C. albicans CI-II 14.5 26.1 > 35 18.5
C. glabrata ATCC 2001 18.8 22.5 > 30 17.3
C. krusei ATCC 6258 12.3 14.3 19.7 15.1
C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 9.0 18.1 27.5 14.0
C. tropicalis ATCC 750 12.4 22.2 32.6 18.1
BJID 2008; 12 (February)
was 76%, and the citral quantity expected in 2, 4 and 8 μL of
this oil was, approximately, 1.35, 2.70 and 5.41 mg, respectively.
Numerous essential oils have been tested for in vivo and
in vitro antimycotic activity and some demonstrated to be
potential antifungal agents. Their mechanism of action appears
to be predominantly on the fungal cell membrane, disrupting
its structure causing leakage and cell death; blocking the
membrane synthesis; inhibition of the spore germination,
fungal proliferation and cellular respiration [8]. Because of
high volatility and lipophilicity of the essential oils, they are
readily attached to penetrate into the cell membrane to exert
their biological effect [17].
The antifungal activity of lemongrass oil has been tested
against some species that induced human infections, including
dermatophyte species and C. albicans [11,12,18,19]. Onawunmi
(1989) reported that the MIC value obtained for citral against
C. albicans was 0.05% (v/v), and this value was similar to
those obtained in studies with lemongrass oil [11]. In addition,
the lemongrass oil (100 μg/mL) and citral (25-200 μg/mL)
inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, suggesting the
potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of cutaneous
candidiasis [19]. Additionally, pre-clinical studies were
conducted with ointments containing essential oils, including
lemongrass oil. The animals were infected with dermatophyte
fungi (T. rubrum and M. gypseum), and the results showed
the efficacy of this preparation [20].
The susceptibility of Candida spp. to antifungal agents
is not uniform, and several resistance mechanisms have been
related (changes in the cell wall or plasma membrane,
mutations, sequestration of the antifungal in organelle-like
vacuoles, or chromosomal changes). Candida krusei is
resistant to some triazoles [3], and these observations can
explain the minor efficacy showed by lemongrass oil and citral.
Nystatin is used as a reference substance, and in comparison
with that drug, the samples of the oil and citral showed higher
activity. In addition, using volumes of 4.0 and 8.0 μL of the
lemongrass oil and the reference citral it was observed
asymmetric diameter inhibition zones and lower growing around
these inhibition zones. These observations can be explained
by the evaporation of the essential oil and by different vapor
concentration into the agar layer. In a previous work carried out
in our laboratory, a total inhibition of the growing yeast was
observed using 20.0 μL of the lemongrass oil [13].
The antifungal activity presented by lemongrass oil and
citral were similar, and corroborates with literature, which
indicated significant association between the effect and the
presence of citral in lemongrass oil [11,12,21]. Literature points
that citral acts as a fungicidal agent because it is able to form
a charge transfer complex with an electron donor of fungal
cells, resulting in fungal death [22].
These results demonstrated the potentiality of using the
lemongrass oil instead of the citral in pharmaceuticals
preparations, because of its similar antifungal activity, the
minor cost and toxicity. Citral is a widely used fragrance and
flavor material with a strong lemon-like odor. It is reported to
be sensitizer and irritant [23,24]. Opdyke (1976) reported that
three aldehydes (cinnamic aldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde and
citral) were shown to be sensitizers in a human maximization
test; however, essential oils that contain significant amounts
of each material did not induce sensitization [25].
It was observed very good effectiveness and broad-
spectrum activity against Candida species. In our researches,
topic formulations containing this oil were developed and
evaluated [26], and subsequent clinical studies are necessary.
Besides, in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to
assess skin irritation.
The authors are grateful to Professor Maria L. Scroferneker
of the Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/UFRGS for
providing the species. This research was supported by CNPq.
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Antifungal Activity of Lemongrass and Citral
... Silva et al. (2008) estudaram a atividade antifúngica do óleo de citronela e citral e constataram potencial in vitro contra espécies de Candida, incluindo C. albicans. Os autores verificaram halos de inibição de diâmetros de 9 a >40mm, a depender da quantidade utilizada do composto.Zore et al. (2011) avaliaram o potencial anti-Candida de seis terpenoides(linalol, citral, eugenol, citronelol, benzoato de benzila e acetato de linalol), os quais demonstraram boa atividade contra Candida spp, sendo o linalol e citral os mais eficazes, inibindo todos os isolados de C.albicans e não albicans (C. ...
... Enquanto Lima et al. (2012) e Leite et al. (2014) demonstram que esse composto não age na parede ou membrana celular, Catrath et al. (2019) afirmam que o mesmo agiu na membrana celular de C. tropicallis. Autores relatam que o citral atua como um agente fungicida porque é capaz de formar um complexo de transferência de carga com a célula fúngica, resultando em morte fúngica(Silva et al., 2008).Zhou et al. (2014) avaliaram a atividade antifúngica de três compostos voláteis: citral, octanal e -terpineol contra Geotrichum citri-aurantii. A atividade antifúngica do citral foi atribuída à ação na membrana celular e consequente perda de componentes celulares(Zhou;. ...
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Candidose bucal é uma infecção fúngica frequente em pacientes imunosuprimidos. Estudos demonstram atividade de compostos oriundos de óleos essenciais contra microrganismos envolvidos. Essa pesquisa realizou uma revisão de literatura sobre a ação antimicrobiana do citral em espécies de interesse para a Odontologia. Realizou-se uma busca nas seguintes bases de dados: Pubmed, Science direct, Scielo, Lilacs e Cochrane. Foram incluídos artigos dos últimos 15 anos que investigaram o efeito antimicrobiano e antifúngico do citral em espécies de interesse da Odontologia, assim como seu mecanismo de ação e toxicidade. Foram incluídos onze artigos científicos para a presente revisão. Dentre as espécies estudadas, o citral demonstrou ter atividade contra Candida spp e bactérias como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptoccocus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. Seu mecanismo de ação não foi determinado, e um dos estudos relatou baixa citotoxicidade. Conclui-se que o citral possui atividade antimicrobiana e antifúngica em espécies causadoras de doenças bucais.
... Citral is a crucial monoterpenoid compound found in essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), Litsea cubeba, and lemon wormwood [1][2][3]. It is the third most abundant essential oil after orange/citrus and mentha oil. ...
... The citral conversion is determined by using Eqs. (1)(2). ...
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Citral is an oxygenated–monoterpenoid found as a major component in lemongrass essential oil (> 68%) in its isomeric forms of geranial (E−) and neral (Z−). For the value addition of this low-value essential oil, a novel catalytic process has been developed for transformation of citral to enantiospecific (+)-citronellal using 12% Ni–HT-530. The different amounts of Ni were doped through hydrothermal process and calcined at varying temperatures (490, 530, and 570 °C). The performance of composite prepared through hydrothermal process was compared with the wet impregnation method. The composite of hydrothermal process followed by calcination at 530 °C was highly potential for selective conversion of citral to (+)-citronellal. The effects of variables such as reaction time, temperature, hydrogen-pressure, and catalyst-dosage on citral conversion to (+)-citronellal were examined. The citral conversion (99%) was attained with 95% selectivity to citronellal in a ratio of catalyst to citral (1:6) under 110 psi H2 pressure at 90 °C for 90 min using 12% Ni–HT-530. Furthermore, the direct conversion of citral in lemongrass oil was studied at above optimized condition. The result indicated that the synthesized catalyst is equally effective in transforming citral in lemongrass oil to organoleptically superior (+)-citronellal with 93% selectivity. The selective conversion of citral to (+)-citronellal not only increases the fragrance value of the essential oil, but also increases the scope for various industrial applications like fine chemical synthesis and pharmaceutical applications. Graphical Abstract
... In GC-MS analysis of Lemongrass oil, it was found that the major peaks were at the retention times 10.29 and 10.775 representing Neral and Geranial respectively. Thus Neral and Geranial being the isomers of Citral, comprises the role as the major constituent of the Lemongrass oil confirming to the literature [17][18][19]. The other major components present were Limonene (2.7%), isocamphene (5.1%), endo isocamphene (5.3%), p-cymene (2.4%), citronellol (1.73%) and linalyl acetate (1.35%). ...
... 25 Additionally, LEO components can destroy bacterial membranes and kill them by weakening the connections between lipid bilayers. 26,27 The objectives of the present study are: to develop a cosmetic emulsion based on different concentrations of synthetic preservative and essential oils, applied as natural preservatives; to evaluate and subsequently, compare their stability and antimicrobial activity. ...
... In this milieu, the synergistic fungicidal activity of CTAC was investigated in combination with certain phytochemicals against C. albicans. The phytocompounds investigated, viz., thymol [53], citral [54], coumarin [22], eugenol [55], and borneol [56],were selected by considering the available literature pertaining to their activity against Candida species. First, the MICs of the investigated phytocompounds (thymol, citral, coumarin, eugenol, and borneol) were found to be 128, 128, 1024, 256, and 512 μg/mL, respectively. ...
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The increased incidence of healthcare-related Candida infection has necessitated the use of effective disinfectants/antiseptics in healthcare settings as a preventive measure to decontaminate the hospital environment and stop the persistent colonization of the offending pathogens. Quanternary ammonium surfactants (QASs), with their promising antimicrobial efficacy, are considered as intriguing and appealing candidates for disinfectants. From this perspective, the present study investigated the antifungal efficacy and action mechanism of the QAS cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) against three clinically important Candida species: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. CTAC exhibited phenomenal antifungal activity against all tested Candida spp., with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) between 2 and 8 µg/mL. The time–kill kinetics of CTAC (at 2XMIC) demonstrated that an exposure time of 2 h was required to kill 99.9% of the inoculums in all tested strains. An important observation was that CTAC treatment did not influence intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), signifying that its phenomenal anticandidal efficacy was not mediated via oxidative stress. In addition, sorbitol supplementation increased CTAC’s MIC values against all tested Candida strains by three times (8–32 μg/mL), indicating that CTAC’s possible antifungal activity involves fungus cell membrane destruction. Interestingly, the increased fluorescence intensity of CTAC-treated cells in both propidium iodide (PI) and DAPI staining assays indicated the impairment of cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane integrity by CTAC, respectively. Additionally, CTAC at MIC and 2XMIC was sufficient (>80%) to disrupt the mature biofilms of all tested spp., and it inhibited the yeast-to-hyphae transition at sub-MIC in C. albicans. Finally, the non-hemolytic activity of CTAC (upto 32 µg/mL) in human blood cells and HBECs signified its non-toxic nature at the investigated concentrations. Furthermore, thymol and citral, two phytocompounds, together with CTAC, showed synergistic fungicidal effectiveness against C. albicans planktonic cells. Altogether, the data of the present study appreciably broaden our understanding of the antifungal action mechanism of CTAC and support its future translation as a potential disinfectant against Candida-associated healthcare infections.
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... The highest inhibition effect was shown in Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) by well diffusion method to reach maximum inhibition 23 mm and 16 mm respectively for the plant essential oil (Table 1). The expected mechanism of lemongrass oil's antibacterial effects on tested Grampositive bacteria, is due to citral, the main active constituent of the oil, that act as a potent antimicrobial component (Silva et al. 2008). However, more significant susceptibility was shown toward the Gram-positive bacteria than in Gram-negative bacteria, as the zones of inhibition were larger in the first species than the latent microorganism which could be due to the resistance mechanisms which might differ from each kind to result in alteration in C. citratus oil effects toward the different bacterial groups. ...
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Hasan ZYM, Al-Halbosiy MMF, Al-Lihaibi RK, Al-Nauimi EH. 2022. Short Communication: Antimicrobial of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) volatile oil and cytotoxic effects against L20B and MCF-7cell lines. Biodiversitas 23: 5298-5301. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) has been used in different countries in folk remedies for coughs, malaria, pneumonia, and others for many years. The development of bacterial resistance to available antibiotics has obligated finding for new agents to serve as potent antibacterial drugs. The present investigation deals with the effect of volatile lemongrass oil cultivated in Iraq, on different bacterial species and evaluates the cytotoxic activity of the extracted oil on L20B and MCF-7cell cancer cell lines. The plant samples were collected from the college of science /Baghdad University /scientific garden and classified as C. citratus L. by the plant herbarium at the same college. The volatile plant oil was extracted from fresh leaves at the laboratory of the plant biotechnology department of Biotechnology Research Center at Al-Nahrain university/Iraq. With the aid of the Clevenger apparatus, a hydro-distillation method was employed to quantify the lemon grass’s volatile oil. The extracted essential oil and the plant crud maceration were screened for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholera) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) using the well-diffusion method and disc diffusion method. The biological survey also included the cytotoxic effect of oil subjected to the anticancer activity in vitro on two cancer cell lines; L20B mouse cell line that expresses the genes for human cellular receptors for polioviruses, and the second line was the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. As a result of this screening study, it was shown that the plant seemed to be rich in essential oil content. The Iraqi cultivated plant produced 1.5%v/w essential oil. The volatile oil affected both Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains in comparison to the crud plant extract among the selected bacterial cultures, the highest antibacterial activity was recorded against the Gram-positive strain S. aureus by well diffusion method. Besides, the plant oil showed an inhibitory effect on L20B cell line with a percent inhibitory growth rate reaching 47.1% at 1.125 ?l/mL of the oil concentration. While for the other cell line, MCF-7 cell line, the inhibitory growth rate percentage appeared for almost all concentrations in comparison with control after 24 hours, and even at a concentration of 0.3125?l/mL, the inhibitory growth rate percentage reached up to 86%. This study was conducted to high lightened the benefits of this plant as little study had been done for an Iraqi cultivated plant and the results showed the potent biological effects of the plant especially the volatile oil as an antimicrobial and as a potent cancer inhibitory agent.
... Although several studies have reported compounds with potent activity against C. albicans mycelial, hyphal and biofilm growth (27,28,40), this is the first report showing a ROS-independent impact on vacuoles, mitochondria and MTs (Fig. 9) at sublethal EOC concentrations. Given the high concentration of EOCs required for C. albicans lethality, their use at low fractional MIC to inhibit C. albicans virulence presents an interesting area for future study. ...
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Candida albicans is a normal resident on and in the human body that can cause relatively benign infections. However, when our immune system is severely compromised (e.g., cancer chemotherapy patients) or underdeveloped (e.g., newborns), this fungus can become a deadly pathogen, infecting the bloodstream and organs.
... Incorporation of LGO has been gaining research attention due to its favourable properties such as safety, biocompatibility and antimicrobial features. LGO, a lemon-like aroma, is characterised by potential active compounds comprising monoterpenes, among which citral exists as the major component at a level of 65%-85% as a mixture of isomeric forms including geranial (α-citral) and neral (β-citral) (da Silva Cde et al., 2008;Tajidin, 2012;Dutta et al., 2017;Munda et al., 2019). Previous studies reported the antifungal ability of Alg/LGO emulsion composite against Penicillium spp (Cofelice et al., 2021;Kawhena et al., 2021), Botrytis cinerea (Riquelme et al., 2017;Gago et al., 2019;Kawhena et al., 2021), Rhizopus spp. ...
This study investigated the antifungal features of sodium alginate (Alg) 1% combined with lemongrass essential oil (LGO) 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% as a Pickering emulsion coating to control Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, identified as citrus fruit pathogens. Cellulose nanofibers 0.24%, 42.55 ± 9.34 nm, were selected as a stabilizer. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the droplet size and morphology and chemical interaction of emulsified coating, respectively. The effective dosage of lemongrass oil (0.75%) may enhance the antifungal action confirmed with a series of in vitro tests on spore germination by 88.28% (P. digitatum) and 91.94% (P. italicum), germ tube elongation by 89.28% (P. digitatum) and 90.13% (P. italicum), and membrane integrity by 41.67% (P. digitatum) and 63% (P. italicum). Additionally, the incorporation of LGO Pickering emulsion improved the beneficial properties of Alg‐based coating film, including light transmission at UV and visible light wavelengths and hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the interior microstructure of the coating film. Pickering emulsion‐based coatings described in this study may have potential applications for active packaging, particularly for citrus fruit commodities.
Antifungal activities were examined and compared for some 40 kinds of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, alcohols, phenolic compounds, ether compounds and hydrocarbons from essential oils and for some related compounds, using seven fungi.
The spectrum of Candida and other yeast infections is wide, from skin or nail infections to disseminated candidiasis. The yeasts involved in human pathology are few, compared with the whole fungal kingdom. These yeasts have different biologic patterns but share the feature to be mainly opportunistic agents: their pathogenic power is only expressed when risk factors are present. Among them, Candida albicans remains the most frequent although non albicans species are more and more reported, especially in disseminated infections. The diagnosis relies on the microbiological analysis of clinical samples but the interpretation of a positive culture should be part of an overall analysis that integrates clinical symptoms and risk factors. Indeed, C. albicans lives as a benign commensal on digestive and vaginal mucosa; its presence does not necessarily indicate a disease. Treatment of localized yeast infections is based on the suppression of risk factors and the use of topic antifungal agents. In case of well-documented reoccurrences, systemic antifungal drugs may be proposed. For disseminated infections, a systemic antifungal agent is mandatory; in such cases, the associated mortality remains high, close to 50%, despite the recent development of new antifungal molecules.
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. é uma gramínea, conhecida popularmente como capim-cidró, capim-cheiroso, erva-cidreira, entre outros, e, em inglês, "lemon grass". A população utiliza o chá ou abafado, preparado a partir de suas folhas, como calmante, digestivo, estomáquico, em dores de cabeça, antiespasmódico, entre outras aplicações. Devido às propriedades antimicrobianas apresentadas pelo óleo volátil de capim-cidró, este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica do óleo volátil, extratos aquosos e hidroetanólico, obtidos a partir das folhas frescas e secas da planta. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar, frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Candida albicans ATCC 10231, empregando- se como padrões cloranfenicol e nistatina. Além destes, padrões de citral e limoneno também foram ensaiados. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o óleo volátil apresenta atividade frente aos microrganismos testados, em especial Candida albicans. Unitermos: • Cymbopogon citratus • Óleo volátil • Atividade antimicrobiana • Candida albicans • Citral
Lemon grass oil was extracted by steam distillation of wilted leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) cultivated in Thailand. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of this oil and citral against 35 clinical isolates of 4 dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum) were determined by agar dilution method. It was found that the MIC and MLC of lemon grass oil were higher than those of citral. The most resistant strain was M. gypseum followed by T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum, respectively. The mode of action of lemon grass oil and citral were proven to be fungicidal. The comparative study of the efficacy of cream containing four different concentrations (1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%) of lemon grass oil was performed in vitro by hole diffusion assay. The 2.5% lemon grass oil was demonstrated to be the minimum concentration for preparation of an antifungal cream for subsequent clinical study.
Citral showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. Media composition and inoculum size had no observable effect on activity but alkaline pH increased citral activity. The growth rates of Escherichia coli cultures were reduced at concentrations of citral ≥0·01% v/v while concentrations ≥0·03% v/v produced rapid reduction in viable cells followed by limited regrowth. In a non-growth medium, 0·08% and 0·1% v/v showed rapid bactericidal effects. Citral may therefore be of preservative use in addition to its other uses in the food, soap and cosmetic industries.
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils in the gaseous state was evaluated in a closed system using an airtight box. The gaseous activity was expressed by a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) per unit space that allowed no microbial growth after incubation. The MID values of seven oils determined against bacteria and fungi revealed that most oils were more active against filamentous fungi than against bacteria or yeasts. Gaseous essential oils inhibited three stages of the life cycle of filamentous fungi: germination of a conidium, elongation of vegetative mycelium, and sporulation of reproductive mycelium. Perilla and thyme oils exhibited therapeutic efficacy against experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs and gaseous citron oil extended the survival time of mice exposed to fatal candidiasis.
Currently there is a limited amount of effective conventional antifungal drug therapy and developing resistance to the most common agents poses a real threat. Ongoing research seeks for new, effective, and safe antifungal agents and many natural products including essential oils are being tested. This paper discusses the prevalence of superficial mycoses and how research-based information on the antifungal activity of selected essential oils can be used to produce long lasting and effective results in a range of situations. Three case examples serve to place the information in a practical context.