Ethanolic extract of Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) potentiates bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells

Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Bone (Impact Factor: 3.97). 06/2008; 43(3):567-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.018
Source: PubMed


Aceaea racemosa (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh, AR) extracts have been widely used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Recent evidences suggest AR extracts are also effective in protecting against postmenopausal bone loss. To determine whether AR has any direct anabolic effect on osteoblasts, we investigated the ethanolic extract of AR on bone nodule formation in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. AR did not stimulate osteoblast proliferation. Rather, at high doses of 1000 ng/mL for 48 h, AR suppressed (7.2+/-0.9% vs. control) osteoblast proliferation. At 500 ng/mL, a significant increase in bone nodule formation was seen with Von Kossa staining. Using quantitative PCR analysis, AR was shown to enhance the gene expression of runx2 and osteocalcin. Co-treatment with ICI 182,780, the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, abolished the stimulatory effect of AR on runx2 and osteocalcin gene induction, as well as on bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. This is a first report of the direct effect of AR on enhancement of bone nodule formation in osteoblasts, and this action was mediated via an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. The results provide a scientific rationale at the molecular level for the claim that AR can offer effective prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

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    • "been reported to be effective for bone metabolism based on the results obtained using MC3T3-E1 cell models from compounds and extract of plant herbs, such as Icariin (Zhao et al., 2010), Fructus psoraleae (Song et al., 2009), Actaea racemosa (Chan et al., 2008), safflower seeds (Kim et al., 2008), Ulmus davidiana planch (Kang et al., 2006), Drynaria fortunei (Jeong et al., 2004), Drynariae Rhizoma (Jeong et al., 2005) and Soybean isoflavones (Suh et al., 2003). Recently, plants used in folk medicine have been accepted as one of the main sources of drug discovery and development. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the stimulative effects of ethanol extract on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell were examined by in vitro assays, including cell proliferative CCK-8 assay, cell cycle analysis assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell proliferation results showed that the ethanol extract from Polygonum orientale L. stimulated cell proliferation significantly at 0.1 to 100 g/ml and the proportion S-phase of cells increased from 20.97 to 25.05% in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. At the same time, ethanol extracts increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 cells (significant at 1 to 100 g/ml). These results indicated that the herb Polygonum orientale L. could directly stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. These results preliminarily explored the pharmacological mechanism of Polygonum orientale L. to promote the curing of bone rheumatism and various fractures.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to elucidate a probable new estrogen receptor that might be the target for active substances from C. racemosa, as well as to advance on the knowledge of the selective modulation of estrogen receptors, which has already been evidenced by experimental pharmacology.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), the main active components of Panax notoginseng, on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. A total of 72 six-month-old female rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated group and five ovariectomized (OVX) groups: OVX with distilled water (5 ml/kg/day, p.o.), OVX with graded doses of PNS (75, 150, 300 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and OVX with nilestriol (1 mg/kg/week, p.o.). Animals were sacrificed after a 13-week treatment course. Compared with the OVX group, PNS administration prevented OVX-induced decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae and total femur, and significantly increased bone structural biomechanical properties. Improvements of BMD and biomechanical properties were accompanied by the beneficial changes of PNS on trabecular microarchitecture in the tibial metaphysis. PNS at the highest dose significantly prevent decrease in trabecular bone volume over bone total volume, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, connectivity density, and increase in trabecular separation and structure model index in OVX rats. The bone-modulating effects of PNS may be due to the increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, as was evidenced by the elevated level of serum alkaline phosphatase and decreased level of urinary deoxypyridinoline. PNS treatment is able to enhance BMD, bone strength, and prevent the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture without hyperplastic effect on uterus. Therefore, PNS might be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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