Urinary Bladder Function and Somatic Sensitivity in Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)−/− Mice

Department of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, D415A Given Research Building, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.34). 07/2008; 36(1-3):175-87. DOI: 10.1007/s12031-008-9100-8
Source: PubMed


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide widely distributed in neural pathways that regulate micturition. VIP is also an endogenous anti-inflammatory agent that has been suggested for the development of therapies for inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we examined urinary bladder function and hindpaw and pelvic sensitivity in VIP(-/-) and littermate wildtype (WT) controls. We demonstrated increased bladder mass and fewer but larger urine spots on filter paper in VIP(-/-) mice. Using cystometry in conscious, unrestrained mice, VIP(-/-) mice exhibited increased void volumes and shorter intercontraction intervals with continuous intravesical infusion of saline. No differences in transepithelial resistance or water permeability were demonstrated between VIP(-/-) and WT mice; however, an increase in urea permeability was demonstrated in VIP(-/-) mice. With the induction of bladder inflammation by acute administration of cyclophosphamide, an exaggerated or prolonged bladder hyperreflexia and hindpaw and pelvic sensitivity were demonstrated in VIP(-/-) mice. The changes in bladder hyperreflexia and somatic sensitivity in VIP(-/-) mice may reflect increased expression of neurotrophins and/or proinflammatory cytokines in the urinary bladder. Thus, these changes may further regulate the neural control of micturition.

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Available from: Karen Braas, Jul 21, 2014
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    • "In the MPG, local application of PACAP or maxadilan, a PAC 1 -selective agonist or VIP, decreased the AHP, and increased neuronal excitability in a subpopulation of neurons (Tompkins et al., 2010). Consistent with facilitatory effects of PACAP and VIP in micturition reflexes, PACAP null mice (May and Vizzard, 2010) and VIP null mice (Studeny et al., 2008) exhibit hyporeflexia (i.e., increased bladder capacity, voided volumes and longer intercontraction intervals). Current research also supports the suggestion that PACAP and VIP are regulators of bladder physiology at the level of the urothelium through ATP release (Girard et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although often overshadowed by the motor dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), autonomic dysfunction including urinary bladder and bowel dysfunctions are often associated with PD and may precede motoric changes; such autonomic dysfunction may permit early detection and intervention. Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in PD patients and result in significant morbidity. This studies focus on nonmotor symptoms in PD using a transgenic mouse model with overexpression of human α-synuclein (hSNCA), the peptide found in high concentrations in Lewy body neuronal inclusions, the histopathologic hallmark of PD. We examined changes in the physiological, molecular, chemical, and electrical properties of neuronal pathways controlling urinary bladder function in transgenic mice. The results of these studies reveal that autonomic dysfunction (i.e., urinary bladder) can precede motor dysfunction. In addition, mice with hSNCA overexpression in relevant neuronal populations is associated with alterations in expression of neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory molecules (PACAP, VIP, substance P, and neuronal NOS) within neuronal pathways regulating bladder function as well as with increased NGF expression in the urinary bladder. Changes in the electrical and synaptic properties of neurons in the major pelvic ganglia that provide postganglionic innervation to urogenital tissues were not changed as determined with intracellular recording. The urinary bladder dysfunction observed in transgenic mice likely reflects changes in peripheral (i.e., afferent) and/or central micturition pathways or changes in the urinary bladder. SYN-OE mice provide an opportunity to examine early events underlying the molecular and cellular plasticity of autonomic nervous system pathways underlying synucleinopathies.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Developmental Neurobiology
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    • "In addition, hypersensitivity to somatic stimuli has been observed in subjects with BPS/IC (Fitzgerald et al., 2005; Ness, 2005). A number of reports have demonstrated referred somatic hypersensitivity in animal models of urinary bladder inflammation including CYP (Guerios et al., 2008; Studeny et al., 2008). In previous studies (Cheppudira et al., 2009), we demonstrated a reduction in hind paw sensitivity in rats treated with CYP (4 h) and a reduction in CYP-induced urinary bladder hyperreflexia when rats were also treated with a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that janus-activated kinases-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways contribute to increased voiding frequency and referred pain of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis in rats. Potential upstream chemical mediator(s) that may be activated by CYP-induced cystitis to stimulate JAK/STAT signaling are not known in detail. In these studies, members of the interleukin (IL)-6 family of cytokines including, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), IL-6, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and associated receptors, IL-6 receptor (R) α, LIFR, and gp130 were examined in the urinary bladder in control and CYP-treated rats. Cytokine and receptor transcript and protein expression and distribution were determined in urinary bladder after CYP-induced cystitis using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Acute (4 h; 150 mg/kg; i.p.), intermediate (48 h; 150 mg/kg; i.p.), or chronic (75 mg/kg; i.p., once every 3 days for 10 days) cystitis was induced in adult, female Wistar rats with CYP treatment. Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01) CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor) dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR, and gp130 mRNA expression. Western blotting demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.01) increases in IL-6, LIF, and gp130 protein expression in whole urinary bladder with CYP treatment. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR) in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be potential upstream chemical mediators that activate JAK/STAT signaling in urinary bladder pathways.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    • "In addition, neuronal staining was not observed when whole mounts were treated only with primary or secondary antiserum. No VIP immunolabeling was seen in MPG neurons from VIP knockout mice (Studeny et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The major pelvic ganglia (MPG) contain both parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons and provide much of the autonomic innervation to urogenital organs and components of the lower bowel. Whereas many parasympathetic neurons were found to express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), no MPG neurons exhibited immunoreactivity for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). However, in 3-day cultured MPGs, numerous PACAP-IR cells and nerve fibers were present, and transcript levels for PACAP increased significantly. In 3-day cultured MPGs, PACAP immunoreactivity was seen in cells that were also immunoreactive for VIP or neuronal nitric oxide synthase, but not tyrosine hydroxylase, indicating that PACAP expression occurred preferentially in MPG parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. Transcript levels for the VPAC2, but not VPAC1 or PAC1 receptor, also increased significantly following 3 days in culture. Transcript levels of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), a marker of cellular injury, were increased 64-fold in 3-day explants, and ATF-3-IR nuclei were evident in both TH-IR and nNOS-IR neurons as well as in non-neuronal cells. In sum, these results demonstrate that, although only the parasympathetic neurons in explant cultured MPGs increase expression of PACAP, both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons in the cultured MPG whole-mount increase expression of ATF-3.
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