Transurethral ultrasound applicators with dynamic multi-sector control for prostate thermal therapy: In vivo evaluation under MR guidance

Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.
Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 2.64). 06/2008; 35(5):2081-93. DOI: 10.1118/1.2900131
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and performance of a multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate thermal therapy, with potential to provide dynamic angular and length control of heating under MR guidance without mechanical movement of the applicator. Test configurations were fabricated, incorporating a linear array of two multi-sectored tubular transducers (7.8-8.4 MHz, 3 mm OD, 6 mm length), with three 120 degrees independent active sectors per tube. A flexible delivery catheter facilitated water cooling (100 ml min(-1)) within an expandable urethral balloon (35 mm long x 10 mm diameter). An integrated positioning hub allows for rotating and translating the transducer assembly within the urethral balloon for final targeting prior to therapy delivery. Rotational beam plots indicate approximately 90 degrees-100 degrees acoustic output patterns from each 120 degrees transducer sector, negligible coupling between sectors, and acoustic efficiencies between 41% and 53%. Experiments were performed within in vivo canine prostate (n = 3), with real-time MR temperature monitoring in either the axial or coronal planes to facilitate control of the heating profiles and provide thermal dosimetry for performance assessment. Gross inspection of serial sections of treated prostate, exposed to TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) tissue viability stain, allowed for direct assessment of the extent of thermal coagulation. These devices created large contiguous thermal lesions (defined by 52 degrees C maximum temperature, t43 = 240 min thermal dose contours, and TTC tissue sections) that extended radially from the applicator toward the border of the prostate (approximately15 mm) during a short power application (approximately 8-16 W per active sector, 8-15 min), with approximately 200 degrees or 360 degrees sector coagulation demonstrated depending upon the activation scheme. Analysis of transient temperature profiles indicated progression of lethal temperature and thermal dose contours initially centered on each sector that coalesced within approximately 5 min to produce uniform and contiguous zones of thermal destruction between sectors, with smooth outer boundaries and continued radial propagation in time. The dimension of the coagulation zone along the applicator was well-defined by positioning and active array length. Although not as precise as rotating planar and curvilinear devices currently under development for MR-guided procedures, advantages of these multi-sectored transurethral applicators include a flexible delivery catheter and that mechanical manipulation of the device using rotational motors is not required during therapy. This multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound technology has demonstrated potential for relatively fast and reasonably conformal targeting of prostate volumes suitable for the minimally invasive treatment of BPH and cancer under MR guidance, with further development warranted.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers in the male population worldwide. Focal therapy for PC is now considered an emerging alternative to active surveillance for the management of low-risk PC, with the overall aim of treating only areas of cancer, minimizing lifetime morbidity without compromising life expectancy. One option within focal therapy, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), represents an innovative technique that may selectively ablate known the disease while preserving existing functions. In the last 10 years, the feasibility and the safety of US guided HIFU has been tested in a growing number of clinical studies. More recently, magnetic resonance imaging was combined with HIFU principle and was presented as a novel technique for focal ablation of PC. In this review we introduce the technology of Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) and the current status of clinical applications in the therapy of PC.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended to model thermal ablation, including the addition of temperature dependent attenuation, perfusion, and tissue damage. Pilot point control at the target boundaries was implemented to control power delivery to each transducer section, simulating an approach feasible for MR guided procedures. The computer model of thermal ablation was evaluated on representative patient anatomies to demonstrate the feasibility of using catheter-based ultrasound thermal ablation for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, and to assist in designing applicators and treatment delivery strategies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new MRI-guided therapy is being developed as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer utilizing high-intensity ultrasound energy to generate a precise region of thermal coagulation within the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the capability to produce a spatial heating pattern in the prostate that accurately matched the shape of a target region using transurethral ultrasound heating and active MR temperature feedback. Experiments were performed in a canine model (n = 9) in a 1.5 T MR imager using a prototype device comprising a single planar transducer operated under rotational control. The spatial temperature distribution, measured every 5 s with MR thermometry, was used to adjust the acoustic power and rotation rate in order to achieve a temperature of 55 degrees C along the outer boundary of the target region. The results demonstrated the capability to produce accurate spatial heating patterns within the prostate gland. An average temperature of 56.2 +/- 0.6 degrees C was measured along the outer boundary of the target region across all experiments in this study. The average spatial error between the target boundary and the 55 degrees C isotherm was 0.8 +/- 0.7 mm (-0.2 to 3.2 mm), and the overall treatment time was < or =20 min for all experiments. Excellent spatial agreement was observed between the temperature information acquired with MRI and the pattern of thermal damage measured on H&E-stained tissue sections. This study demonstrates the benefit of adaptive energy delivery using active MR temperature feedback, and an excellent capability to treat precise regions within the prostate gland with this technology.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Physics in Medicine and Biology
Show more