Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching is a useful tool to predict the response of rat ovarian cancer following hexaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy
Accurate dosimetry was shown to be critical to achieve effective photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study aimed to assess the reliability of in vivo protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence photobleaching as a predictive tool of the hexaminolevulinate PDT (HAL-PDT) response in a rat model of advanced ovarian cancer. Intraperitoneal 10(6) NuTu 19 cells were injected in 26 female rats Fisher 344. Peritoneal carcinomatosis was obtained 26 days post-tumor induction. Four hours post-intraperitoneal HAL (Photocure ASA, Oslo, Norway) injection, a laparoscopic procedure (D-light AutoFluorescence system, Karl Storz endoscope, Tuttlingen, Germany) and a fluorescence examination were made for 22 rats. The first group (LASER group, n=26) was illuminated with laser light using a 532 nm KTP laser (Laser Quantum, Stockport, UK) on 1 cm(2) surface at 45 J/cm(2). The second group (NO LASER group, n=26) served as controls. Biopsies were taken 24 hours after PDT. Semi-quantitative histology was performed and necrosis value was determined: 0--no necrosis to 4--full necrosis. Fluorescence was monitored before and after illumination on complete responders (NV=3-4; n=20) and non-responders (NV=0-2; n=6). High PpIX photobleaching corresponded with complete responders whereas low photobleaching corresponded with non-responders (P<0.05). A direct linear correlation was shown between photobleaching and necrosis (R(2)=0.89). In vivo PpIX fluorescence photobleaching is useful to predict the tissue response to HAL-PDT.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the inhibitory effects of photosensitizers loaded in hollow silica nanoparticles and conventional photosensitizers on HepG2 human hepatoma cell proliferation and determine the underlying mechanisms. Photosensitizers (conventional Photosan-II or nanoscale Photosan-II) were administered to in vitro cultured HepG2 hepatoma cells and treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with various levels of light exposure. To assess photosensitizers' effects, cell viability was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, apoptotic and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 evaluated by western blot. Finally, the in vivo effects of nanoscale and conventional photosensitizers on liver cancer were assessed in nude mice. Nanoscale Photosan-II significantly inhibited hepatoma cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and this effect was more pronounced with high laser doses. Moreover, nanoscale photosensitizers performed better than the conventional ones under the same experimental conditions (p < 0.05). Flow cytometry data demonstrated that laser-induced cell death was markedly increased after treatment with nanoscale Photosan-II in comparison with free Photosan-II (p < 0.05). Activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 levels were significantly higher in cells treated with Photosan-II loaded in silica nanoparticles than free Photosan-II (p < 0.05). Accordingly, treatment with nanoscale photosensitizers resulted in improved outcomes (tumor volume) in a mouse model of liver cancer, in comparison with conventional photosensitizers. Hollow silica nanoparticles containing photosensitizer more efficiently inhibited hepatoma cells than photosensitizer alone, through induction of apoptosis, both in vivo and in vitro.0Comments 4Citations
- "Recent progress in nanopharmaceutical research has proposed a few methods to tackle these problems  . Researchers have developed various types of nanoscale drug carriers to deliver photosensitizers, such as liposomes [4,5], polymer carriers , polyoxyethylene cremophor emulsions , and microspheres and nanoparticles . Although these carriers improve photosensitizer properties , their use necessarily involves processes to release the loaded drugs that decrease the rate at which tumor cells absorb photosensitizers, extending the period of time required to reach effective concentrations . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential. This literature review has the following objectives: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups. We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results. Acquisition of evidence A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer. Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies.0Comments 3Citations
- "The light is administered by intraprostatic laser fibres guided through a trasperineal ultrasound, although initially carried out transurethrally . A darkened room is required to prevent skin lesions. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is an active area of study that is motivated by the need to reliably predict treatment outcomes. Implicit dosimetric parameters, such as photosensitizer (PS) photobleaching, may indicate PDT efficacy and could establish a framework to provide patient-customized PDT. Here, tumor destruction and benzoporphryin-derivative (BPD) photobleaching are characterized by systematically varying BPD-light combinations to achieve fixed PDT doses (M * J * cm-2) in a three-dimensional (3D) model of micrometastatic ovarian cancer (OvCa). It is observed that the BPD-light parameters used to construct a given PDT dose significantly impact nodule viability and BPD photobleaching. As a result, PDT dose, when measured by the product of BPD concentration and fluence, does not reliably predict overall efficacy. A PDT dose metric that incorporates a term for BPD photobleaching more robustly predicts PDT efficacy at low concentrations of BPD. These results suggest that PDT dose metrics that are informed by implicit approaches to dosimetry could improve the reliability of PDT-based regimens and provide opportunities for patient-specific treatment planning.0Comments 3Citations
- "Indeed, PS photobleaching is a cost-effective implicit dosimetric parameter that has previously been useful in predicting PDT response. A study by Ascencio and colleagues demonstrated that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photobleaching correlated strongly with necrotic score after intraperitoneal hexaminolevulinate based PDT in rats. A previous study from our laboratory showed that BPD photobleaching linearly correlated with normalized viability of 3D ovarian cancer (OvCa) nodules treated with fixed concentrations of BPD. Building on the elegant work of others  , the present study demonstrates that a simple calculation of PDT dose, defined as the product of BPD concentration and delivered fluence, does not predict PDT outcome in 3D OvCa nodules treated with different concentrations of BPD. "