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Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada

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  • Institute for ethnobotany and zoopharmacognosy

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Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae).
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems
of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada
Cheryl Lans & Nancy Turner & Tonya Khan
Received: 15 May 2008 / Accepted: 27 May 2008 / Published online: 19 June 2008
#
Springer-Verlag 2008
Abstract Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented
and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary
medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in
British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted
with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic
medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with
selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments.
This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in
cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia
vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus × limon (L.), Juniperus
communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula
officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae),
and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the
plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated
with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and
Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae),
Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./
Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
(Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria
r ecutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum
vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae),
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae),
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus
L. (Scrophulariaceae).
Introduction
Many organic farmers and concerned pet owners use low-
cost medicinal plants for animal health care. The se practices
are called ethnoveterinary medicines. This paper focuses on
the medicinal plants used for flea and ear problems of cats
and dogs in British Columbia. Pet owners value organic
flea treatments for their pets because the standard drugs
(imidacloprid, fipronil, avermectins like selamectin derived
from the soil bacterium Stre ptomyces avermitilis and
permethrins/pyrethroids which are synthetic analogues of
pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and
Chrysanthemum cocineum flowers) can be harmful to other
non-target species and leave persistent residues (Snyder et
al. 2007; Po wer and Sudakin 2007; Macan et al. 2006; Rust
2005). Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea), C. canis (dog flea),
and Pulex simulans (small mammal flea) are found in the
geographical region. The most prevalent flea on dogs and
cats is C. felis
and is responsible for a slight majority of
dermatological cases, including flea allergy dermatitis,
reported to veterinarians and can account for one-third of
a veterinarians workload (McTier et al. 2000 ). Fleas can
also be a vector of bacterioses (Bartonella sp., rickettsiosis)
and are the intermedi ate hos t for filarid and ces tod e
parasites and viroses (Merck Veterinary Manual 2006;
Mehlhorn et al. 2005).
Feline otoacariasis is found in British Columbia and is
characterized by otitis externa associated with Otodectes
cynotis infestation. In a small number of clinical cases of
external otitis, the otomycosis is due to saprophytic
keratolytic fungi. Holistic treatments are possible alterna-
Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898
DOI 10.1007/s00436-008-1073-6
C. Lans (*)
P.O. Box 72045, Sasamat,
Vancouver, BC V6R4P2, Canada
e-mail: cher2lans@netscape.net
N. Turner
School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria,
Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
T. Khan
DVM,
Vancouver, BC, Canada
tives to ototoxic antibacterial and antifungal agents which
cannot be used if the ear drum is perforated (Pai and Platt
1995).
Materials and methods
Data collection
Ethnoveterinary data for British Columbia were collected for
food and companion animals over a 6-month period in 2003.
The research area included the most populated parts of the
province, south Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland, and
the Thompson/Okanagan region of the Interior. A purposive
sample of 60 participants was created from membership lists
of organic farmers, animal breeders and trainers, naturopaths,
farm womens networks, meat processors, holistic veterinar-
ians, and other specialists in alternative medicine for animals.
Of these, nine holistic veterinarians, ten herbalists, two
naturopaths, five dog trainers, breeders, and pet shop owners,
and six organic farmers with pets provided the information in
this paper. The veterinarians who participated in the research
were all small animal practitioners and all used standardized
products.
Two visits were made to each farm or respondent, with
interview s conducted on the first visit to identify the
ethnoveterinary remedies known to and/or used by the
individual. The data were compiled into a draft format,
which was then posted to the relevant address and followed
up with phone or email interviews or another visit to
confirm the accuracy of the data and obtain further details.
When available, voucher specimens of plants established as
remedies were collected by two student ethnobotanists and
two herbalists, processed, and deposited in the University
of Victoria herbarium.
The plant-based remedies were evaluated for safety and
efficacy with a non-experimental method, prior to including
them in the final document. Published research on
pharmacology and ethnom edicine available on the Internet
such as PubMed and Science Direct were searched to
identify the plants known chemical compounds and
clinically tested physiological effects. These data were
incorporated with information on reported folk uses of the
plants and their preparation and administration in North
America, Asia, and Europe. More details on these methods
have already been published (Lans et al. 2007). The non-
experimental validation of the plants is provided in the
Discussion section of this paper.
Validation workshop
A participatory workshop held over 5 days in October, 2003
involved group discussions of the previously recorded
ethnoveterinary remedies. It was hosted by the first author
and a German ethnoveterinary consultant (Dr. Evelyn
Mathias). Each animal/livestock species was discussed in a
morning or afternoon session so that participants could come
to the session related to their expertise. For the pet session,
one ethnobotanist, one holistic veterinarian, and two herbal-
ists were present; they collectively reviewed the previously
prepared summary on pets based on earlier one-on-one
interviews. The medicinal plants that were considered valid
and safe at the workshop sessions were included in a practical
manual on Ethnoveterinary Medicine in B.C. (TAHCC
2004), a copy of which was given to each participant.
Results
The six plants and trees used to repel fleas and flies are
presented in Table 1. Table 2 lists the 14 plants used for ear
problems in pets in BC. More details of the plant
administration and preparation are given below.
Treatment for flea problems
Pets with fleas were soaked with an infusion made with
450 g (two cups) of packed lemon balm (Melissa officinalis),
240 ml (one cup) of boiling water, and 960 ml (four cups) of
warm water steeped for 30 min. The animalscoatwas
saturated thoroughly with the strained infusion and allowed
to air dry. This treatment was used at the first sign of fleas
and repeated twice a week. Diatomaceous earth was also
sprinkled on the pets skin for fleas.
Table 1 Ethnoveterinary remedies used to treat fleas and flies on pets in BC
Scientific name Common name Plant part used Use
Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) Mugwort Aerial parts Flies
Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.) [medica × aurantifolia] (Rutaceae) Lemon Peel Fleas
Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae) Juniper Oil Fleas
Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae) Lavender Stems Fleas
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) Lemon balm Aerial parts Fleas
Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae) Cedar Tree planted nearby Fleas
890 Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898
A spritzer of lemon skin (Citrus sp.) was made with a
strained decoction of chopped or grated or whole lem on
skins or other citrus peels in 240 ml (one cup) of water. The
decoction was sprayed on the pet to repel fleas , 24 h after
its creation. Fresh crushed lavender (Lavandula officinalis)
stems were put in the p ets bedding to repel fleas. Fleas
were also deterred by growing cedar trees (Thuja plicata)in
the environment. Another flea repellent spray used for
bedding and the pets environment was made with one to
five drops (0.25 ml) of essential oil of juniper (Juniperus
communis) in a spray bottle with water. This oil should not
be ingested by the pets.
Fly repellent
A mugwort spray (Artemisia vulgaris) was used to repel
flies [one-fourth cup fresh herb56 g (chopped or crushed)
or 14 g (1 tbsp) dried mugwort and 250 ml (1 cup) of water,
blended for 2 min, strained, and put in a spritzer]. For each
250 ml (cup) of water, up to 60 ml (one-fourth cup) of fresh
herb or 14 g (1 tbsp) of dried herb was added. This spray
had a shelf life of 2 days.
Treatment for ear infections
For ear infections, pets were given a purchased chamomile
(Matricaria recutita) product. Alternatively, five drops
(0.25 ml) of cooled chamomile tea (made with purchased
tea bags) were put in the ear (not directly in the ear canal),
massaged and then the dog was allowed to shake out the
excess liquid. Pets were also given a purchased product
containing lobelia (Lobelia inflata ), calendula (Calendula
officinalis), and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia), and
three to five drops (0.25 ml) were put in the ear once a
week for 2 weeks then once a month or less as needed.
Other owners used a drying solution made of 480 ml
rubbing alcohol, 55 g powdered boric acid, and 16 drops
gentian violet1% solution (shaken and bottled). A syringe
was used to carefully squirt the liquid into the ear (not
directly into canal). One tablespoon (20 ml) vinegar was
added if there was a yeast infection. This treatment was
done outside to avoid stai ning. Dogs were treated twice
daily for 1 to 2 weeks then once a week for 1 to 2 weeks
then once a month or less as needed.
Other pets were treated with six cloves of garlic and
50 ml (one-fourth cup) olive oil. This combination was
brought almost to a boil and then left to stand for 5 min. An
eye dropper was used to put one to three drops (1 drop=
0.05 ml) of the strained liquid in base of the ear canal once
a day. Other pets were given commercial eardrops made of
garlic and mullein flower (Verbascum thapsus) when they
no longer responded to anti biotics. Six to 12 drops (0.3
0.6 ml) were placed on the inside of the outer ear so that it
could seep down to the base of the ear canal. This was used
once a week for 2 weeks then once a month or less as
needed. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), tea tree oil (M.
alternifolia), helichrysum (Helichrysum angustifolium),
oregano (Origanum sp.), and thyme (Thymus sp.) were
ingredients in a purchased gel capsule which was admin-
istered to other pets.
Treatment for ear mites
The pets ear was swabbed with given castor oil (Ricinus
communis) on a cotton ball, once a day for a week. Another
preparation was made of 100 g each of V. thapsus dried
leaves and flowers, Berberis aquifolium, rhizome and dried
root, and Achillea millifolium dried aerial parts. Fifty grams
of Glycyrrhiza glabra
, dried root, and three large dried
cloves of Allium sativum were added. The dried herbs were
Table 2 Treatments for ear problems in pets in British Columbia
Scientific name Common name Plant part used Use
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) Yarrow Aerial parts Ear problems
Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) Garlic Cloves Ear infections
Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae) Oregon grape Rhizome, dried roots Ear mites
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Calendula Flowers Ear infections
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) Liquorice Root Ear problems
Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae) Helichrysum Flowers Ear infections
Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae) Lobelia Aerial parts Ear infections
Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) Chamomile Flowers Ear infections
Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae) Tea tree Oil Ear infections
Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae) Oregano Aerial parts Ear infections
Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Castor Oil Ear mites
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Clove Bud Ear infections
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) Thyme Aerial parts Ear infections
Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) Mullein Flowers, leaves Mites, ear infections
Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898 891
Table 3 Non-experimental validation of plants used for ear and flea problems in pets in British Columbia
Medicinal plant Validation information Reference
Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) Ethnoveterinary useflies Tonk et al. (2006)
Leaves of Artemisia annua were extracted in petroleum ether by
different methods of extraction. The crude extract obtained was
tested against third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi. The
Soxhlet and reflux extraction methods showed 100% mortality at
200 ppm after 48 h. The LC50 (20 ppm) value of crude extract
obtained by Soxhlet extraction was more effective than the reflux
extraction (35 ppm) method after 72 h
Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro
sp.) [medica × aurantifolia]
(Rutaceae)
Ethnoveterinary usefleas Cetin et al. (2006), Cordova et al.
(2002)The pine processionary moth (PPM): Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni
Tams. (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae): a Mediterranean area
insect was used in a study of essential oils extracted from aerial
parts of Origanum onites L. and fruit peels of Citrus aurantium L.
Three doses (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) were tested against the fourth
and fifth instar larvae of the moth. The LD50 and LD90 values
were 0.288% and 0.926% for O. onites , 0.530% and 2.306% for C.
aurantium, respectively
Juniperus communis L. var.
depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae)
Ethnoveterinary usefleas Prajapati et al. (2005), Fraga
(2006)Essential oils extracted from ten medicinal plants were evaluated for
larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent, and repellent
activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi,
Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oil of
Juniperus macropoda were highly effective as both larvicidal and
ovicidal agents. The essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis was
repellent towards the three mosquito species. The antimicrobial
activity of several sesquiterpenes found in the essential oil of
Juniperus thurifera has been examined
Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae) Ethnoveterinary usefleas Jaenson et al. (2006), Papachristos
et al. (2004)Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-
propanediol, had weak repellent activities on Ixodes ricinus (L.)
(Acari, Ixodidae) nymphs
The insecticidal activity of the essential oils isolated from Lavandula
hybrida, Rosmarinus officinalis, and
Eucalyptus globulus collected
at different seasons (and their main constituents) was determined on
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) adults. All essential oils tested
exhibited strong activity against A. obtectus adults, with varying
LC50 values depending on insect sex and the composition of the
essential oils. Only linalyl and terpinyl acetate were not insecticidal,
the other components showed insecticidal activity against both male
and female adults, with LC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 47.1 mg l
(-1) air
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) Ethnoveterinary usefleas Pavela (2005), Mencherini et al.
(2007)Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with
LD50 < or =0.05 μL/larvae against larvae of the plant pest
Spodoptera littoralis. Major constituent rosmarinic acid and Melissa
officinalis dried stem and leaf extracts (EtOH-H
2
O (1,1) and n-
BuOH): had bacteriostatic effects against Gram-positive bacteria; S.
aureus and S. epidermidis, by rosmarinic acid (MIC 0.12 mg/ml) and
against B. spizizenii by both of the extracts (MIC 0.5 mg/ml). Against
Gram-negative bacteria, P. a e r u g i n o sa , E. coli, the yeast C. albicans,
and a mold A. niger, the MICs were greater than 2.0 mg/ml. No
antimicrobial effect was observed for rosmarinic acid at lower
concentrations (5250 μg/ml) in previous work
Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don
(Cupressaceae)
Ethnoveterinary use fleas Pavela (2005)
Thuja occidentalis essential oils had insecticidal activity (fumigation
or topical application) against plant pest larvae Spodoptera littoralis
892 Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898
Table 3 (continued)
Medicinal plant Validation information Reference
Achillea millefolium L.
(Asteraceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear problems Sosa et al. (2001 ), Gomez et al.
(1999)The germacrane derivative isolated from Achillea pannonica Scheele
significantly inhibited ear edema in a dose-dependent manner, with
an ID(50) of 0.40 μmol/cm(2): (61%) higher than that induced by
an equimolar dose of indomethacin (43%) within 24 h; the
reduction induced by hydrocortisone (0.10 μmol/cm(2)) was 68%.
A chloroform extract from Achillea and its componentsterols
stigmasterol and sitosterol were concluded to be more effective as
topical antiinflammatory agents in acute than in chronic process and
their action was influenced by the inhibition of neutrophil migration
into inflamed tissue
Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) Ethnoveterinary useear infections Sarrell et al. (2003), Pai and Platt
(1995)171 children (5 to 18 years) with otalgia and clinical findings
associated with middle-ear infection were studied in a double-blind
trial in an outpatient community clinic. The children were randomly
assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear
Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin.
NHED (contents, Allium sativum, Verbascum thapsus, Calendula
flores, Hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive
oil). There were no significant between-group differences. Patients
who were given ear drops alone had a better response than patients
who were given ear drops together with amoxicillin. Results were
better in the NHED group than in the controls
Garlic extracts were tested in an in vitro study against Aspergillus
fungi which are the most common cause of external otitis. Aqueous
garlic extract (AGE) and concentrated garlic oil (CGO) along with
various commercial garlic supplements and pharmaceutical
prescriptions were used. AGE and especially CGO had antifungal
activity and showed similar or better inhibitory effects than the
pharmaceutical preparations and demonstrated similar minimum
inhibitory concentrations
Berberis aquifolium Pursh./
Mahonia aquifolium
(Berberidaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear mites Slobodnikova et al. (2004), Luo et
al. (1998), Iauk et al. (2007)The crude extract of Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. stem bark and
its two main protoberberine alkaloids, berberine and jatrorrhizine,
were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against 20 strains
of coagulase-negative staphylococci and 20 strains of Propioni
bacterium acnes isolated from skin lesions of patients with a severe
form of acne, and 20 strains of Candida sp. isolated from chronic
vulvovaginal candidoses. The results indicated a rational basis for the
traditional use of Mahonia aquifolium for localized skin and mucosal
infection therapy. The methanolic extract of B. aetnensis showed
good activity against C. albicans, C. krusei,andC. tropicalis but not
against C. parapsilosis (MICN 64 mg/l). The antifungal activity was
similar to that observed for berberine against C. albicans and
C.
krusei but better against C. tropicalis. The alkaloidal fraction had
weaker activity than the extract. Berbamine and hydrastine had no
antifungal activity
Calendula officinalis L.
(Asteraceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections Khan et al. (1996), Ukiya et al.
(2006)30 adult patients took part in an 8-week double-blind placebo
controlled trial on marigold therapy (Tagetes erecta): with or
without protective pad in the treatment of hyperkeratotic plantar
lesions. Marigold therapy was effective in reducing corn and callus
width, length, and the level of pain
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) Ethnoveterinary useear problems Sato et al. (2000), Ferguson et al.
(2006)When the hot water extract and the methanol extract of 29 plant
samples were measured for their antifungal activity against
Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898 893
Table 3 (continued)
Medicinal plant Validation information Reference
Arthrinium sacchari M001 and Chaetomium funicola M002 strains,
Glycyrrhiza glabra showed high activity. The CHCl3-soluble
fractions from G. glabra showed antifungal activity with minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 62.5 and 125 μg/ml
against the two fungi. A licorice preparation made from the
commercially available oil-based extract of G. glabra showed a low
MIC of 25 μg/ml against five tested strains of filamentous fungi,
but not against Aspergillus fumigatus M008, in a blended tea.
Glycyrrhiza uralensis potentiates the expression of the
immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 by human PBMCs, inhibits
cytochrome P450, induces apoptosis in leukemic cells, and has
antioxidant and antibacterial activity
Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.)
G. Don. (Asteraceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections Drewes et al. (2006), Appendino
et al. (2007), Tundis et al. (2005)The hexane extract of fresh air-dried leaves of Helichrysum tenax
contains diterpenes, one of which was highly active (3.1 and
3.6 μg/ml) against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis,
respectively. Arzanol from Helichrysum italicum (a synonym of
Helichrysum angustifolium) has antiinflammatory and anti-HIV
activity. Helichrysum italicum has antibacterial activity on
Micrococcus luteus and antifungal activity on the phytopathogene
fungus Pythium ultimum
Lobelia inflata L.
(Campanulaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections Philipov et al. (1998)
Three new piperidine alkaloids were isolated from stems, leaves, and
flowers of Lobelia laxiflora L. The residues obtained from the
ethanol extracts from the stems, leaves, and flowers had
antiinflammatory activity
Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) Ethnoveterinary useear infections Trovato et al. (2000)
Aqueous, ethanolic, and petroleum ether extracts of Matricaria
recutita L. were used, and antimycotic activity was found in vitro on
strains of Candida albicans isolated from clinical samples obtained
in the course of acute vaginitis
Melaleuca alternifolia L.
(Myrtaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections Caldefie-Chezet et al. (2006),
Weseler et al. (
2002), Ferrini et
al. (2006)
Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel essential oil (TTO) and its major
component terpinen-4-ol were examined against a large number of
clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to establish their
antistaphylococcal activities. TTO and terpinen-4-ol were
bactericidal against a large number of S. aureus isolates and
suggests the possible application of these agents for topical
treatment of staphylococcal infections. The results suggest that this
tea tree oil may have application as a topical agent for the control of
superficial staphylococcal infections, including activity against
organisms resistant to antibiotics which can be used, or are specific,
for topical use
Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae) Ethnoveterinary useear infections Bozin et al. (2006)
The essential oils of Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L.
exhibited very strong free radical scavenging activity. The essential
oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging
activity, although it did not reach 50% of neutralization (IC(50)).
The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains
and six fungi. The most effective antibacterial activity was
expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant
strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli
Ricinus communis L.
(Euphorbiaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear mites Bigi et al. (2004), Upasani et al.
(2003)The toxic activity of fractions of leaf extracts of Ricinus communis
and isolated active compounds in the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens
rubropilosa Forel and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus
894 Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898
soaked in 1 1/2 l olive oil for 1 month. Pets were given five
to ten drops (0.250.5 ml) in each ear with a dropper, twice
a day for 2 to 4 weeks.
Discussion
The non-exp erimental validation of the plants is presented
in Table 3, in alphabetical order of the plant s scientific
names. As stated previously this validation process was
undertaken during the preparation of the draft manual of
remedies and continued after the workshop when the final
version of the manual was prepared.
A. vulgaris contains linalool, thymol, p-cymene, terpi-
nen-4-ol, and carvone which are insecticidal compounds
that compared effectively with dichlorvos (Park et al. 2008;
Duke 2008). Lavandula sp., contains linalool, while
Lavandula angustifolia contains the insecticidal compounds
linalool and cuminaldehyde (Park et al. 2008; Duke 2008).
M. officinalis contains linalool (Duke 2008).
Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D.
Don) Spach, has many components in its essential oil with
lethal effects on I. scapularis tick nymphs, X. cheopis flea
adults, and A. aegypti adults (nootkatone, carvacrol,
valencene-1 3-ol, and valencen e-13-aldehyde), and these
are potential novel vector control agents (Panella et al.
2005; Die trich et al. 2006). Nootkatone, from Alaska
yellow cedar, was most effective against ny mphal I.
scapularis with an observed LC50 value of 0.0029%.
Adult X. cheopis was most susceptible to the natural
grapefruit extract of nootkatone with a recorded LC50
value of 0.0029%. Some of the same chemicals found in
Alaska yellow cedar (3-carene, terpinen-4-ol, valencene,
and nootkatone) are found in members of the citrus family
(Citrus mitis, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, Citrus aurantii-
folia, Citrus reticulate, and Citrus aurantium; Panella et al.
2005). Western juniper steam distilled oil (Junip erus
Table 3 (continued)
Medicinal plant Validation information Reference
gongylophorus (Singer) Moller was shown. The main compounds
responsible for activity against the fungus and ant in leaf extracts of
Ricinus communis were found to be fatty acids for the former and
ricinine for the ants. The aqueous leaf extract of Ricinus communis
showed insecticidal activity against Callosobruchus chinensis L
(Coleoptera, Bruchidae) (bean weevil) possibly due to flavonoids
quercetin and kaempferol
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. &
L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections Betoni et al. (2006)
This study verified the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs
and eight plant extractsincluding clove ( Syzygium aromaticum)
and garlic (Allium sativum): against Staphylococcus aureus strains.
In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were
confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove
presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs,
while garlic showed limited synergistic capacity
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) Ethnoveterinary useear infections Hersch-Martinez et al. (2005),
Bonjar (2004)Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil showed high and broad
antibacterial activity against prevalent pathogenic bacteria 189
Gram () and 135 Gram (+) strains in Mexico that were isolated
from severely infected pediatric patients. In vitro anticandidal
activity of the methanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated
at a 20-mg/ml concentration against clotrimazole-resistant Candida
albicans. Thymus vulgaris had a MIC of 0.62 mg/ml
Verbascum thapsus L.
(Scrophulariaceae)
Ethnoveterinary useear infections, mites Serkedjieva (2000)
The lyophilized infusion from the flowers of Verbascum thapsiforme
Schrad. showed antiviral activity in in vitro studies against several
influenza viruses type A and B as well as herpes simplex virus type
1. The combined application of the plant preparation FVI and three
amantadine derivatives resulted in a marked enhancement of the
inhibitory effect of FVI on the reproduction of influenza virus A/
chicken/Germany/27, strain Weybridge (H7N7) in cell cultures of
chicken embryo fibroblasts. The infusion contains flavonoids,
iridoids, phenolic acids, saponins, amino acids, and free sugars
Parasitol Res (2008) 103:889898 895
occidentalis) (Hook) had activity against adult A. aegypti.
Adult X. cheopis and nymphal I. scapularis (Dolan et al.
2007). Juniperus oxycedrus essential oil had insecticidal
activity against the larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera:
Sciaridae; Park et al. 2008).
There has been relevant research conducted on many of
the plants used for the ear problems discussed in this paper.
Garlic is useful for the holistic treatment of ear problems
since it has antimicrobial and other beneficial properties and
antifungal activity against the genus Asper gillus (Pai and
Platt 1995). Other options for ear problems include plants
with acaricidal properties such as the dried flower heads of
chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla. These flower heads
were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi
Delafond (Parasitiformes, Psoroptidae), one agent responsi-
ble for otoacariasis in domestic animals (Macchioni et al.
2004). The extract showed highly significant acaricidal
activity when compared with controls over 72 h (Macchioni
et al. 2004). The castor oil used for ear mites may be
effective according to Scherk-Nixon et al. (1997) because the
oil either forces the mite out of the ear canal or is suffocated.
Conclusion
Nootkatone, a com poun d prese nt in citrus f ruits , has
repellent activity against fleas (Panella et a l. 2005).
Terpinen-4-ol found in citrus fruits, Artem isia salsoloides,
J. communis fruit, and Lavandula × hybrida has insecticidal
activity (Duke 2008; Cetin et al. 2007; Priestley et al.
2006). Members of the Cupressaceae family incense cedar
Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin and Port-Orford-cedar,
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) have activity
against Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) (Siphonaptera,
Pulic idae) and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari,
Ixodidae). T. plicata is a member of this plant family and
has shown insecticidal activity; however, no studies could
be found that established its specific effectiveness as a
pulicide. Our research points to the importance of plant
biodiversitycedar trees were planted in home environ-
ments of respondents and fresh lavender, citrus, lemon
balm, and mugwort were used in order to control fleas and
flies on pets. J. communis c ould also be gro wn. M.
officinalis contai ns at least 27 c ompo unds th at hav e
insecticidal and acaricidal activity (Duke 2008). Carvacrol
was suggested as a potential new flea control agent (Panella
et al. 2005); this compound is present in many commonly
used herbs including M. officinalis (Duke 2008; Askari and
Sefidkon 2004). Carvacrol is also found in two herbs used
to treat ear problems, Origanum vulgare and Thymus
vulgaris (Duke 2008).
Many spec ies of bacteria are developing resistan ce
against antibiotics. Therefore, the development of holistic
antiseptics and antimicrobial agents such as Echinacea
purpurea and M. alternifolia is increasingly important
(Weckesser et al. 2007). The acaricidal properties of
decoctions, infusions, and macerates of dried flower heads
of chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. were proven in
vitro against the otoacariasis-causing mite Psoroptes cuni-
culi Delafond (Parasitiformes, Psoroptidae). A decoction of
10% gave 100% activity at 1, 2, and 3 days (Macc hioni et
al. 2004). Eugenia caryophyllata (synonym S. aromaticum)
essential oil showed acaricidal activity against the mange
mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Fichi et al. 2007). L. inflata has
historically been used for ear problems, but no studies of its
efficacy could be found and there are reports that it affects
the nervous system of mammals (plant constituent lobeline
acts specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine
receptors; Dussourd 2003; Subarnas et al. 1993).
Acknowledgment The research in British Columbia was funded by
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
(SSHRC) Grant # 820-2002-1008.
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... It has also been reported in the region for asthma, sore throat, and inflammation [65]. It is also reported to have anti-lice and flea activity and used for earache [99]. Pharmacological evaluation has consistently established antiviral activities of V. thapsus [92][93][94]. ...
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Gelişmemiş ya da az gelişmiş ülkelerdeki insanların yaşam şartlarını, törelerini, vd. inceleyen bilim alanı "etnoloji" olarak; sanayi devrimi sonucu gelişmiş ülkelerin sanatsal ve yaşamsal faaliyetleri ile ilgili sanayi devrimi öncesindeki gelenek göreneklerinin incelenmesi ise "folklor" olarak tanımlanmaktadır. İnsan toplulukları, bazı meslekleri, halkın kendine özgü uygulama şekilleri, gelenek, görenek ve inançları ile icra etmektelerdir ki buna da "o mesleğin folkloru" denilmektedir. Günümüzde bilim insanları toplum kurallarının, bu şekilde ikiye bölünerek ifade edilmesi yerine, tek bir bilim altında, yani etnolojinin konusu olarak değerlendirmektedirler. Bu bağlamda insan topluluklarının, hayvanlarına bakım ve sağaltım amacıyla, kültürleri ve inanışları çerçevesinde yaptıkları uygulamalar "etnoveteriner hekimlik uygulamaları" olarak adlandırılmaktadır. EVH, hayvan sağlığını korumak, hayvan gönencini ve hayvan hastalıklarının tedavisini sağlamak amacıyla, insanların, hayvan sağlığı ile ilgili sahip olduğu bilgi, beceri, metot, uygulama ve inançları doğrultusunda yaptıkları uygulamaları kapsamaktadır. Bu uygulamaların, "halk şifacıları" olarak da bilinen bitki bilimciler, sihri-dini uygulamaları kullanan kişiler vb. tarafından yapıldığı ve bu kişilerin çoğunlukla topluluk içerisinde yaşayan kadınlar olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Tarihsel sürece bakıldığında, tıbbi uygulamaların erkek egemen bir işleyişi olduğu, tedavi amacıyla büyüsel yöntemlerden başlayıp günümüzdeki halk hekimliğine kadar giden uygulama süreçlerinde, bilge kadınlardan hekim kraliçelere ve hatta cadı olarak adlandırılan kişilere dönüştüğü görülmektedir. Türk toplumlarında, ailelerin kurulmasında, toplulukların yönetilmesinde ya da mesleki alanlarda, kadın ve erkek arasında bir iş bölümü olduğu görülmekte ve kadınların bu iş bölümü içerisinde oldukça önemli rol üstlendiği görülmektedir. Şamanlardaki sağaltıcılardan günümüze kadar gelen süreçte, kadın olgusunun, halk hekimliği uygulamalarında karşımıza çıktığını söylemek mümkündür. Türk topluluklarında "Şaman, Emci, Ebe, Otacı" gibi kavramlar kadınların halk hekimliğinin sosyal yapısı içerisindeki yerlerini temsil etmektedir. Dünyada ve Ülkemizde kırsal alanlarda, toprakla temaslarının daha fazla olması ve özellikle ev yakınında bakılan hayvanlarla daha çok ilgilenmeleri sonucunda, kadınlar etnoveteriner hekimliğe oldukça önemli katkılar sunmaktadırlar. Topluluklarda yaşayan genç erkeklerin, zaman içerisinde, artan sayıda uzun süreli seyahatlere çıkmaları neticesinde, kadınların hayvanlar ile daha çok ilgilenmeleri ve tarımsal faaliyetlerden daha fazla sorumlu olmalarına sebep olmuştur. Kadınların vermiş olduğu emekleri ile birlikte kazandıkları bilgi birikimleri, bitkilerle olan ilişkileri, çeşitli yerel bitkilerin kullanımı sonucu yaptıkları ilaçlar göz önüne alındığında, etnoveteriner hekimliği içerisinde bitki bilimci yanları da ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu, ilaç hammaddelerinin kadınlar tarafından tespit edilerek, bir sonraki nesile aktarılmasına ve bu sayede modern dönemin yeni ilaçların geliştirilmesine de ilham kaynağı olmaktadır. Tüm bunlar göz önüne alındığında, kadınların tarım ve hayvancılık içerisindeki geleneksel uygulamaları ve bilgileri, araştırma geliştirme açısından çok kıymetli ve dikkate alınması gereken bir öneme sahiptir. Kadınlarda, erkeklere kıyasla, annelik içgüdüsünün yoğunlaştırdığı merhamet duygusu, hayvanları hayatta tutma çabalarını arttırmakta, bu sayede etnoveteriner hekimliğe olan katkılarını arttırmaktadır. Bu çalışma, kadınların etnoveteriner hekimlik uygulamaları içerisindeki rollerini ve önemlerini vurgulamak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Known as “Ethnology”, the field of science that examines the living conditions, customs, etc. of people who live in underdeveloped or developed countries; the examination of the traditions before the industrial revolution related to the artistic and living activities of the developed countries as a result of the industrial revolution is to be described as “folklore”. Human communities do some professions make with a specific form of activities, traditions and belief of communities, so that is called “the folklore of that profession. Today, scientists consider the rules of society as the subject of a single science, namely ethnology, instead of expressing them by dividing them into two. Human communities’, activities with their culture and belief for care and treatment to their animals, are named “ethnoveterinary medicine”. EVM covers their practices in line with people who have knowledge, skill, method, application and belief about animal health care to protect animal health, animal welfare and treatment of animal diseases. These applications are made by botanists, people who use magic-religious practices, etc., who are known as “folk healers”. It is seen that these people are mostly women living in society. When viewed to historical periods, that medical practice is male-dominated, in the application processes starting from magical methods for treatment and going up to today’s folk medicine, it is seen, from wise women to physician queens and even turn into known people as a witch. In Turkish communities, in establishing families, in the management of society or professional areas, work-sharing between woman and man is seen, and women are assuming a most important role in this work sharing. The process coming from shaman healers until today, it is possible to say that the phenomenon of women appears to us in the folk medicine applications. In Turkish communities, a concept such as“Shaman, Emci, Ebe, Otacı” represents their place in the social structure of folk medicine of women. In the world and our country, in rural areas, results of their more contact with soil and especially their more concern with animals kept near the house, women make very important contributions to ethnoveterinary medicine. Over time, due to the increase in the travel time of young men living in communities, an increasing number for a long time to travel, women are more interested in animals and take more responsibility in agricultural activities. Considering their knowledge, relation with plants, and drugs made by using the various local herbs, gained by women with their labour, it occurs that their botanist side in ethnoveterinary medicine. This is a source of inspiration, drug raw materials by being detected by women and passed on to the next generation, and in this way is a source of inspires the development of new drugs of the modern age. Considering all these, women’s traditional practices and knowledge in agriculture and animal husbandry have precious and important importance in research and development. In women compared with men, intensified by a sense of compassion of mother instinct increases their efforts to keep animals alive. In this way, it is increasing they are a contribution to ethnoveterinary medicine. This work is prepared to emphasize women’s roles and their importance in ethnoveterinary medicine practices.
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