Wild Type -Synuclein Is Degraded by Chaperone-mediated Autophagy and Macroautophagy in Neuronal Cells

ArticleinJournal of Biological Chemistry 283(35):23542-56 · July 2008with7 Reads
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M801992200 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Alpha-synuclein (ASYN) is crucial in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis. Increased levels of wild type (WT) ASYN expression are sufficient to cause PD in humans. The manner of post-transcriptional regulation of ASYN levels is controversial. Previously, we had shown that WT ASYN can be degraded by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in isolated liver lysosomes. Whether this occurs in a cellular and, in particular, in a neuronal cell context is unclear. Using a mutant ASYN form that lacks the CMA recognition motif and RNA interference against the rate-limiting step in the CMA pathway, Lamp2a, we show here that CMA is indeed involved in WT ASYN degradation in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, and in primary cortical and midbrain neurons. However, the extent of involvement varies between cell types, potentially because of differences in compensatory mechanisms. CMA inhibition leads to an accumulation of soluble high molecular weight and detergent-insoluble species of ASYN, suggesting that CMA dysfunction may play a role in the generation of such aberrant species in PD. ASYN and Lamp2a are developmentally regulated in parallel in cortical neuron cultures and in vivo in the central nervous system, and they physically interact as indicated by co-immunoprecipitation. In contrast to previous reports, inhibition of macroautophagy, but not the proteasome, also leads to WT ASYN accumulation, suggesting that this lysosomal pathway is also involved in normal ASYN turnover. These results indicate that CMA and macroautophagy are important pathways for WT ASYN degradation in neurons and underline the importance of CMA as degradation machinery in the nervous system.
    • "In PD and other malconformation brain diseases, where pathology is associated with abnormal protein folding and aggregate accumulation, autophagy is activated [16, 17] to compensate for the often compromised proteasomal function. While α-SNC is taken up by both macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy, modified or aggregated forms of α-SNC have also been found to partially inhibit the very same pathways [16][17][18][19][20][21]. There is also mounting evidence that lysosomal function is compromised in PD and other brain diseases [22]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Secretion of proteopathic α-synuclein (α-SNC) species from neurons is a suspected driving force in the propagation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have previously implicated exophagy, the exocytosis of autophagosomes, as a dominant mechanism of α-SNC secretion in differentiated PC12 or SH-SY5Y nerve cells. Here we have examined the regulation of exophagy associated with different forms of nerve cell stress relevant to PD. Results We identify cJUN-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity as pivotal in the secretory fate of autophagosomes containing α-SNC. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic (shRNA) knockdown of JNK2 or JNK3 decreases α-SNC secretion in differentiated PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively. Conversely, expression of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)-JNK2 and -JNK3 constructs augment secretion. The transcriptional activity of cJUN was not required for the observed effects. We establish a causal relationship between increased α-SNC release by exophagy and JNK activation subsequent to lysosomal fusion deficiency (overexpression of Lewy body-localized protein p25α or bafilomycin A1). JNK activation following neuronal ER or oxidative stress was not correlated with exophagy, but of note, we demonstrate that reciprocal signaling between microglia and neurons modulates α-SNC secretion. NADPH oxidase activity of microglia cell lines was upregulated by direct co-culture with α-SNC-expressing PC12 neurons or by passive transfer of nerve cell-conditioned medium. Conversely, inflammatory factors secreted from activated microglia increased JNK activation and α-SNC secretion several-fold in PC12 cells. While we do not identify these factors, we extend our observations by showing that exposure of neurons in monoculture to TNFα, a classical pro-inflammatory mediator of activated microglia, is sufficient to increase α-SNC secretion in a mechanism dependent on JNK2 or JNK3. In continuation hereof, we show that also IFNβ and TGFβ increase the release of α-SNC from PC12 neurons. Conclusions We implicate stress kinases of the JNK family in the regulation of exophagy and release of α-SNC following endogenous or exogenous stimulation. In a wider scope, our results imply that microglia not only inflict bystander damage to neurons in late phases of inflammatory brain disease but may also be active mediators of disease propagation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "However, LAMP2A-defective cells were more sensitive to stressors such as H 2 0 2 or paraquat, suggesting that, even though protein turnover was maintained in this cellular system, the selectivity of CMA was necessary as part of the cellular response to stress (Massey et al., 2006). In addition, LAMP2A down-regulation in neuronal cells led also to a similar up-regulation of macroautophagy (Vogiatzi et al., 2008), which in some instances may lead to cell death (Xilouri et al., 2009 ). Thus, a direct consequence of the age-dependent "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major lysosomal proteolytic pathways essential for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis are macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and microautophagy. What differentiates CMA from the other types of autophagy is the fact that it does not involve vesicle formation; the unique feature of this pathway is the selective targeting of substrate proteins containing a CMA-targeting motif and the direct translocation into the lysosomal lumen, through the aid of chaperones/co-chaperones localized both at the cytosol and the lysosomes. CMA operates at basal conditions in most mammalian cell models analyzed so far, but it is mostly activated in response to stressors, such as trophic deprivation or oxidative stress. The activity of CMA has been shown to decline with age and such decline, correlating with accumulation of damaged/oxidized/aggregated proteins, may contribute to tissue dysfunction and, possibly, neurodegeneration. Herein, we review the recent knowledge regarding the molecular components, regulation and physiology of the CMA pathway, the contribution of impaired CMA activity to poor cellular homeostasis and inefficient response to stress during aging, and discuss the therapeutic opportunities offered by the restoration of CMA-dependent proteolysis in age-associated degenerative diseases.
    Article · Jul 2016
    • "95 VKKDQ 99 ), and is thus recognized by Hsc70 to facilitate its degradation via the CMA pathway (Dice, 1990; Cuervo et al., 2004 ). Although mutant and dopamine-modified forms of α-synuclein can also bind to LAMP-2A, these proteins fail to translocate across the lysosomal membrane and remain bound to LAMP-2A (Martinez-Vicente et al., 2008; Vogiatzi et al., 2008). Mutant α-synuclein has been shown to inhibit CMA due to its high binding affinity for LAMP-2A compared to wildtype α-synuclein (Cuervo et al., 2004 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in most organisms, indicating that nutrient and energy regulatory mechanisms impact aging. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration is age; thus, the antiaging effects of CR might attenuate progressive cell death and avert the aggregation of abnormal proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. CR is a potent inducer of autophagy, a tightly regulated intracellular process that facilitates recycling of abnormal protein aggregates and damaged organelles into bioenergetic and biosynthetic materials to maintain homeostasis. Thus, dysregulated autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction, abnormal protein accumulation, proteotoxicity and subsequently the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the targeted and precision-controlled activation of autophagy represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions that delay aging by modulating specific stages of autophagy might be beneficial against premature aging, neurodegeneration and its associated ailments. However, the dynamic and often compensatory cross-talk that exists between the protein degradation pathways makes clinical translational approaches challenging. Here we review the primary autophagy pathways in the context of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on compensatory mechanisms and pathway failure. By critically assessing each underlying molecular machinery, we reveal their impact on aging and unmask the role of caloric restriction in changing cellular fate by delayed aging through stimulation of autophagy. This may point towards novel and better targeted interventions that exploit the autophagic machinery in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
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