Using Culture-Centered Qualitative Formative Research to Design Broadcast Messages for HIV Prevention for African American Adolescents
The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify "competing narratives" that support healthy behavior despite the dominance of messages that favor risk-taking behavior. The method is illustrated using qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 124 adolescents. Analysis focuses on two barriers to sexual risk reduction: (a) social pressure for early initiation of sexual intercourse and (b) perceptions that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. We demonstrate how competing narratives identified in the analysis can be featured in radio and television messages advocating healthy behavior by modeling risk-reducing negotiation skills.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is dramatically higher among Blacks than among Whites. Overlapping (concurrent) sexual partnerships promote HIV transmission. The authors describe their process for developing a radio campaign (Escape the Web) to raise awareness among 18-34-year-old Black adults of the effect of concurrency on HIV transmission in the rural South. Radio is a powerful channel for the delivery of narrative-style health messages. Through six focus groups (n = 51) and 42 intercept interviews, the authors explored attitudes toward concurrency and solicited feedback on sample messages. Men were advised to (a) end concurrent partnerships and not to begin new ones; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. The narrative portrayed risky behaviors that trigger initiation of casual partnerships. Women were advised to (a) end partnerships in which they are not their partner's only partner; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. Messages for all advised better modeling for children.0Comments 0Citations
- "Formative research for systematic message development and design generally falls into two categories: (a) preproduction , where information about the health behavior, audience characteristics, potential messages and potential channels for the campaign are examined; and (b) production, where potential messages and channels are pre-tested with target audience members to assess their responses (Noar et al., 2009; Shafer, Cates, Diehl, & Hartmann, 2011). Formative research processes for developing HIV prevention messages have been previously reported (Andrasik et al., 2012; Horner et al., 2008; Uhrig, Eroglu, Bann, Wasserman, & Guenther-Grey, 2010; Wright, Fortune, Juzang, & Bull, 2011). Most recently, Andrasik and colleagues outlined the development of a media campaign that directly targeted participation in sexual networks (Andrasik et al., 2012) and included extensive discussion of preproduction research. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Young women are increasingly diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The aim of this study was to test various types of mass media and their associations with interpersonal communication about sex and HIV or AIDS among female college students, stratified by race. The study used a nonexperimental cross-sectional design and an electronic survey. The sample consisted of female college students (N = 776) at a 4-year public university in the southeast. We found that the race of college women influenced their preferred media source for reception of information about sex and HIV/AIDS, which subsequently either motivated or was insignificant to communication with parents and/or partners.0Comments 0Citations
- "In addition, understanding gender and racial differences of message receptivity will allow for appropriate customization of HIV prevention messages that promote interpersonal communication. Empirically based media prevention interventions using efficacious communication techniques may have the greatest potential for reducing HIV incidence (Horner et al., 2008; Jones & Lacroix, 2012; Major & Coleman, 2012; Medina & Rios, 2011; Romer et al., 2009; Sznitman, Stanton, et al., 2011;). Younger-aged women are influenced significantly by mass media (J. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research suggests that lesbians turn to the Internet for information regarding their sexual health. However, limited research has examined the availability of online sexual health resources for this population. This study evaluated the volume, scope, and readability of sexual health information available to lesbians on the Internet. The top three Nielsen-rated search engines were used to identify websites generated using the search term "lesbian sexual health." A content analysis was conducted of 25 unique, functioning websites (46 webpages total) and Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid grade levels were calculated. Nearly one third of the websites were located outside the United States; two were U.S. government sites. Although most sites provided information about sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS (52% to 72%), fewer provided information about safer sex practices (12% to 56%), reproductive cancers (24% to 36%), intimate partner violence (16%), family planning issues (0% to 12%), or other preventive health practices, such as mammograms and gynecological exams (4% to 44%) for lesbians. Readability of websites was much higher than recommended for health materials. Lesbians are in need of comprehensive and reliable sexual health information on the Internet. In particular, sexual health messages written in plain language are needed to encourage safer sex and other preventive practices among lesbians.0Comments 1Citation
- "Health communication campaigns have been effective in raising the general population's awareness of hypertension risk, increasing physical activity, improving smoking cessation rates, increasing seatbelt use, and promoting HIV/AIDS prevention (Berkley-Patton, Goggin, Liston, Bradley-Ewing, & Neville, 2009; O'Connor, Warttig, Conner, & Lawton, 2009; Yap, Hemmings, & Davis, 2009 ). The effectiveness of communication about HIV/AIDS prevention has also been explored among specific populations, including gay men, injection drug users, African American adolescents, and rural African Americans (Horner et al., 2008; Kelly et al., 1992; Myrick, 1999). However, limited research has explored HIV, STI, or sexual health messages developed for the lesbian community. "