Assessment of Citrate Concentrations in Citrus Fruit-Based Juices and Beverages: Implications for Management of Hypocitraturic Nephrolithiasis

ArticleinJournal of endourology / Endourological Society 22(6):1359-66 · July 2008with75 Reads
DOI: 10.1089/end.2008.0069 · Source: PubMed
Dietary intake of citrate in the form of citrus juices (eg, lemonade, orange juice) will enhance urinary citrate excretion, a valuable benefit for patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. While information on citrate concentrations in select citrus juices is available, data on citrate concentrations of commercially available beverages (juice and otherwise) are limited. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), we report citrate concentrations of several beverages to help guide dietary recommendations aimed at increasing urinary citrate excretion and correcting hypocitraturia. Citrate concentrations of a squeezed lemon, several fruit juices, and common beverages were measured using 1H NMR. Spectra for each sample were obtained in duplicate; citrate peak was identified, measured, and quantified and compared with the citrate concentration in the juice of 1 medium lemon. Quantitative analysis revealed the highest concentration of citrate was in grapefruit juice (64.7 mmol/L), followed in decreasing concentrations by lemon juice (47.66 mmol/L), orange juice (47.36 mmol/L), pineapple juice (41.57 mmol/L), reconstituted lemonade (38.65 mmol/L), lemonade flavored Crystal Light (38.39 mmol/L), ready to consume not from concentrate lemonade (38.24 mmol/L), cranberry juice (19.87 mmol/L), lemon-flavored Gatorade (19.82 mmol/L), homemade lemonade (17.42 mmol/L), Mountain Dew (8.84 mmol/L), and Diet 7Up (7.98 mmol/L), respectively. According to 1H NMR, all of the tested "natural" citrus juices have high concentrations of citrate (38.3-67.4 mmol/L), with grapefruit juice having the highest concentration of the beverages chosen. Lemonade flavored Crystal Light had the highest concentration of citrate in the nonjuice category of tested beverages. In patients with mild to moderate hypocitraturia, dietary supplementation with citrus-based juices may be an effective alternative to medical management while not requiring large serving sizes. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.
    • "Increased vitamin C as a result of adding K fertilizer is of great agricultural and nutritional values. Vitamin C is very much necessary for human health because of its unique functioning including increased immunity versus influenza and decreased accumulation of calcium oxalate in the kidneys (Haleblian et al., 2008). The results indicate that K fertilization at 1500 g tree −1 produced the highest amounts of vitamin C, which is another indication that 1500 g potassium tree −1 is definitely the optimum rate for citrus production in such areas; because many fruit parameters had the most optimum response at such amount of K (Quinones et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of optimum rates of potassium (K) for high citrus production with great qualitative traits is of both agricultural and economical significance, particularly when performing long–term experiments. A five–year field experiment was conducted in the Citrus Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran in a silty clay loam. The objectives were to: 1) to apply different rates of K fertilizer and determine the optimum rates for citrus high production, and 2) to evaluate the effects of K fertilization on the fruit quantitative and qualitative traits for the production of tasty and great quality fruits for fresh or long consumption. Fifteen–year citrus trees were fertilized with five rates of potassium at control, 750, 1500, 2250 and 3000 g tree−1 on the basis of a completely randomized block design in five replicates. Fruit parameters were determined. Potassium significantly increased fruit yield and qualitative traits at the optimum amount of 1500 g tree−1.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010
    • "Citrate, a water-soluble organic acid, is an intermediary metabolite of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and regulates the metabolism of almost all living organisms (Lawrence et al. 2004). Citrate is present at high levels in fruit and vegetable juices, such as grapefruit, citrus, and tomato juices (Haleblian et al. 2008; Jensen et al. 2002; Yilmaz et al. 2008). Interestingly, it has been reported that intake of these juices may reduce the risk of cancer (Giovannucci 1999; Manners 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma. Recent studies have reported that the intake of citrate-containing juices may reduce the risk of cancer. Thus, we investigated the effects of citrate on UVB-irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells. B16 cells had more evident apoptotic features with the combination of citrate/UVB than by citrate or UVB alone; cell death of HaCaT human keratinocytes was not observed with citrate/UVB. Western blot analysis demonstrated that citrate/UVB led to phosphorylation of the stress signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, citrate/UVB caused activation of caspase-9/-3 as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Correspondingly, cell cycle analysis showed that citrate/UVB clearly increased the sub-G0/G1 phase, which indicated apoptotic cell death of B16 cells. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of citrate enhanced the apoptotic cell death of melanoma cells under UVB irradiation. From these results, we suggest that citrate might reduce the risk of developing melanoma induced by UVB.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009
    • ") Presl.] [99] Niao shi [= mixture of Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr., Abrus cantoniensis Hance, Pyrrosia petiole L., Smilax glabra Roxb.] [100] Mexico Randia echinocarpa Sesse & Moc. [101]; Raphanus sativus L. [102] Morocco Trigonella foenum graecum L. [103]; Herniaria hirsuta L. [32] Iran Nigella sativa L. [104] Others Rubia tinctorum L. [105]; Rosa canina L. [54] Punica granatum L. (pomegranate juice) [58] Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. (lemon juice) [55] As pointed out previously, citrate is a known inhibitor of calciumbased stones. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney stone formation or urolithiasis is a complex process that results from a succession of several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention within the kidneys. Epidemiological data have shown that calcium oxalate is the predominant mineral in a majority of kidney stones. Among the treatments used are extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even improved and besides the high cost that imposes, compelling data now suggest that exposure to shock waves in therapeutic doses may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and an increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and the possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Furthermore, in spite of substantial progress in the study of the biological and physical manifestations of kidney stones, there is no satisfactory drug to use in clinical therapy. Data from IN VITRO, IN VIVO and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either an alternative or an adjunctive therapy in the management of urolithiasis. The present review therefore critically evaluates the potential usefulness of herbal medicines in the management of urolithiasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009
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