Article

Acute corrosion of the oral mucosa in a dog due to ingestion of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles (Harmonia axyridis : Coccinellidae)

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Abstract

A six-year old mixed-breed dog presented with severe trauma to the oral mucosa suggestive of chemical burn. Sixteen Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) were removed from the oral cavity, which revealed trauma consistent with chemical burn. The beetles had become embedded in mucosa covering the hard palate and required manual removal. A diagnosis of beetle induced chemical burn was warranted and consistent with the nature of the chemical constituents of H. axyridis hemolymph.

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... Nowadays, H. axyridis has established populations in at least 59 countries outside its native range, including New Zealand (Camacho-Cervantes et al. 2017), and is considered as one of the most invasive alien species (IAS). Negative impacts of H. axyridis include the decline of native ladybird species (Brown and Roy 2017), toxicity to both humans and their pets (Goetz 2008, Stocks andLindsey 2008), interference with wine production (Pickering et al. 2004), and acting as a household invader (Koch and Galvan 2008). Harmonia axyridis represents a well-established model species of global importance which is suitable for studies on invasion ecology and interactions with natural enemies (Haelewaters et al. 2017, Ceryngier et al. 2018). ...
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... Methoxypyrazines or alkaloids released from reflex blood may have been responsible for chemical burns on the oral mucosa of a dog that had 16 H. axyridis beetles lodged in its mouth (Stocks and Lindsey 2008). Humans can develop allergic reactions to airborne volatiles emanating from dead H. axyridis accumulating in wall voids, attics and other inaccessible places in houses (Nakazawa et al. 2007). ...
Chapter
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We review the chemical ecology of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis from the perspective of its invasiveness and the deleterious effects it exerts in the regions it has colonised. We outline the nature and quantification of its chemical defence, and discuss the protection this provides against natural enemies, particularly intraguild predators. We consider the role of infochemicals in location of prey, intraspecific communication and intraguild interactions. We also discuss the role of prey allelochemicals in relation to H. axyridis extreme dietary generalism. Harmonia axyridis poses a number of practical problems for human health and well-being, including ''ladybug taint'' wine contamination and problems resulting from large aggregations overwintering in buildings. We consider chemical insights into these issues and, in particular, how attractants and repellents might help manage H. axyridis populations through a push–pull strategy. We conclude by discussing future perspectives for research.
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Oral pathology is considered present when a departure from normal occurs that is sufficient to cause signs or symptoms. This chapter covers conditions of oral cavity other than dental lesions, congenital and developmental issues, traumatic lesions, and tumors/cysts. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) replicates primarily in the oropharynx, and it is likely that it has a role in chronic gingivostomatitis and caudal mucositis. Hematological disorders have oral symptoms, such as anemia due to blood loss, shock or an iron deficiency causing pale mucous membranes that are slow to heal. Located at the back of the pharynx on either side, the tonsils will often not be visible in their crypts, though the presence of everted tonsils is a frequent observation in brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome (BAOS). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be impacted by trauma, skeletal abnormalities, dysplasia, inflammation, and tumors. Hypercementosis is an increase in the deposition of cementum customarily along the root surface of the tooth.
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Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is native for Asia. In last decades this species is spreading all over the world. Recently it appeared in some regions of the Caucasus and south of European Russia. The list of 48 localities of this species in the region and the map are presented. In 2002–2011 individual specimens were found in Adygea and south-west of Krasnodar Region (Russia), in eastern Georgia, and in Abkhazia. In 2012 an established population was found in Sochi (Russia). It confirmed that previous findings were not accidental, and the species has established. Then the ladybird was found in Crimea, Rostov and Stavropol regions, Dagestan (Russia), in Abkhazia and Tbilisi (Georgia). In this paper H. axyridis is recorded for Kabardino-Balkaria for the first time.
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Zootoxins are toxins of animal origin. Animals may be poisonous if they accumulate toxic compounds in their tissues, resulting in toxic exposure for those who would dare to attempt to eat them. Venomous animals possess specialized glands that produce venom, which the animals deliver to their victim via specialized venom apparatuses. The effects of zootoxins on reproduction and development are an open area for research, as previous studies have largely focused on the effects of domoic acid, scorpions, and snakes. Some mechanisms by which zootoxins have been shown to adversely affect reproduction and development include alteration of fetal neuronal migration and proliferation (domoic acid), stimulation of uterine contractions (scorpion venoms), and induction of fetal malformations (snake venoms). The reproductive and/or developmental effects of zootoxins from ciguatera, jellyfish, insects, and spiders have also been studied, but further research on the effects of zootoxins on reproduction and development is needed.
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Ian C Stocks. Curriculum vitae 2016
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We review the chemical ecology of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis from the perspective of its invasiveness and the deleterious effects it exerts in the regions it has colonised. We outline the nature and quantification of its chemical defence, and discuss the protection this provides against natural enemies, particularly intraguild predators. We consider the role of infochemicals in location of prey, intraspecific communication and intraguild interactions. We also discuss the role of prey allelochemicals in relation to H. axyridis extreme dietary generalism. Harmonia axyridis poses a number of practical problems for human health and well-being, including “ladybug taint” wine contamination and problems resulting from large aggregations overwintering in buildings. We consider chemical insights into these issues and, in particular, how attractants and repellents might help manage H. axyridis populations through a push–pull strategy. We conclude by discussing future perspectives for research. KeywordsChemical defence–Coccinellidae–Foraging–Semiochemicals–Ladybug wine taint–Push–pull strategy
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Research on the defensive chemistry of insects during the last decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on non-volatile compounds. The isolation and structure determination of defensive chemicals, of glandular and non-glandular origins, are first discussed, followed by an overview of the synthesis and biological/pharmacological activities of some of them. Biosynthesis has been largely omitted since this topic has been addressed in a recent review. During the period covered, beetles (e.g., coccinellids and chrysomelids) and ants have undoubtedly been the most prolific producers of repellent and/or toxic compounds. This survey also shows that alkaloids are the most frequently encountered defensive compounds in insects.
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Case records of 21 horses that had acute illness after eating baled alfalfa hay containing dead striped blister beetles were reviewed. Tissue sections from 14 of the horses were examined; sections from two normal horses and several others with unrelated diseases were used for comparison. Clinical illness was characterized by abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter. Laboratory findings were hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypocalcemia, hematuria and low urine specific gravity. Major morphologic changes were sloughing of the stratified squamous epithelium of the stomach, hemorrhage and ulceration in the urinary bladder, enterocolitis and myocardial necrosis. Five horses with experimental poisoning had lesions and clinical signs similar to those of the natural disease. Acute disturbance of both the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and the stomach and bladder lesions, were regarded as sufficiently suggestive of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis, but no pathognomonic lesions were found. Therefore, striped blister beetles should be sought in hay fed to affected horses if blister beetle poisoning is suspected.
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Multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis) have been used as a biological control agent against crop-destroying aphids in the United States. Outside their natural habitat, H. axyridis seeks refuge in homes during fall and winter, leading to patient complaints and symptoms of rhinitis, wheezing, and urticaria on exposure to the beetles. To gain a better understanding of the character and spectrum of allergic disease provoked by exposure to home-infesting lady beetles. Eight patients with allergic symptoms suspected of being caused by H. axyridis and consistent with an IgE-mediated process were identified and interviewed. A whole-body extract from H. axyridis was prepared. Western blots using the patients' serum identified specific IgE antibodies in the extract. Through a novel technique, immunohistochemical analysis using beetle sections overlayed with patient serum was performed. A random survey of allergists from across the United States was also performed to evaluate experience with cases of lady beetle allergy. Western blots revealed IgE binding to 5 proteins with molecular weights of approximately 8.6, 21, 28, 31, and 75 kDa. Specific IgE bound to proteins localized in the beetle's mouth and leg areas. The allergist survey revealed positive responses in North Central, Mid-Atlantic and New England states. In 8 patients with allergic symptoms on exposure to high levels of lady beetles, specific IgE bound to proteins from H. axyridis. There was also an increased frequency of suspected cases of lady beetle allergy in endemic areas.
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Only 9 adult cases of immediate-hypersensitivity reaction to ladybugs, also known as Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis), have been documented in the literature. These patients have all shown symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma from exposure to ladybugs. To describe the first pediatric patients with severe allergic facial angioedema requiring emergency department management after exposure to ladybugs. Evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to ladybugs was documented by positive skin prick test reactions, correlating with exposure history. Two cases in preschool boys had similar features, although they were evaluated and tested by 2 different allergists. Both patients developed severe facial or periocular angioedema with no significant respiratory involvement after exposure to ladybugs outside their infested homes. Both patients required an emergency department visit for treatment. Allergy evaluation using ladybug extract for skin prick testing showed markedly positive reactions in both patients. There were no further episodes after environmental control measures were instituted. Although allergic respiratory or cutaneous reactions to ladybugs are uncommon, a high index of suspicion from exposure history and confirmatory skin testing can be conclusive for the diagnosis.
Facial angioedema in children due to ladybug (Harmonia axyridis) contact: 2 case reports
  • R S Davis
  • M L Vanderwalker
  • P S Hutcheson
  • R G Slavin
Davis, R.S., Vanderwalker, M.L., Hutcheson, P.S., Slavin, R.G., 2006. Facial angioedema in children due to ladybug (Harmonia axyridis) contact: 2 case reports. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 97 (4), 440-442.
Insect chemical defense
  • P Laurent
  • J.-C Braekman
  • D Daloze
Laurent, P., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., 2005. Insect chemical defense. Top. Curr. Chem. 240, 167-229.