Prevalence of Outpatient Cancer Treatment in the United States: Estimates from the Medical Panel Expenditures Survey (MEPS)
Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA. Cancer Investigation
(Impact Factor: 2.22).
08/2008; 26(6):647-51. DOI: 10.1080/07357900801905519
Little is known regarding the prevalence of outpatient cancer treatment in the U.S. We analyzed nationally-representative data from the 2000-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the number of U.S. cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy annually. Each year, over 1.1 million individuals are estimated to receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer. Cancer patients younger than 65 receiving treatment who were uninsured were less likely to receive chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy/radiation therapy than were those with public or private insurance. These estimates may be useful for understanding the burden of cancer care and development of programs for cancer survivors.
Available from: jco.ascopubs.org
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Previous analyses have found that insurance status is a strong predictor of survival among patients with colorectal cancer aged 18 to 64 years. We investigated whether differences in comorbidity level may account in part for the association between insurance status and survival. METHODS: We used 2003 to 2005 data from the National Cancer Data Base, a national hospital-based cancer registry, to examine the relationship between baseline characteristics and overall survival at 1 year among 64,304 white and black patients with colorectal cancer. In race-specific analyses, we used Cox proportional hazards models to assess 1-year survival by insurance status, controlling first for age, stage, facility type, and neighborhood education level and income, and then further controlling for comorbidity level. RESULTS; Comorbidity level was lowest among those with private insurance, higher for those who were uninsured or insured by Medicaid, and highest for those insured by Medicare. Survival at 1 year was significantly poorer for patients without private insurance, even after adjusting for important covariates. In these multivariate models, risk of death at 1 year was approximately 50% to 90% higher for white and black patients without private insurance. Further adjustment for number of comorbidities had only a modest impact on the association between insurance status and survival. In multivariate analyses, patients with > or = three comorbid conditions had approximately 40% to 50% higher risk of death at 1 year. CONCLUSION Among white and black patients aged 18 to 64 years, differences in comorbidity level do not account for the association between insurance status and survival in patients with colorectal cancer.
Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There has not been a comprehensive analysis of how aggregate cancer costs have changed over time. The authors present 1) updated estimates of the prevalence and total cost of cancer for select payers and how these have changed over the past 2 decades; and 2) for each payer, the distribution of payments by type of service over time to assess whether there have been shifts in cancer treatment settings.
Pooled data from the 2001 through 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 1987 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey were used for the analysis. The authors used an econometric approach to estimate cancer-attributable medical expenditures by payer and type of service.
In 1987, the total medical cost of cancer (in 2007 US dollars) was $24.7 billion. Private payers financed the largest share of the total (42%), followed by Medicare (33%), out of pocket (17%), other public (7%), and Medicaid (1%). Between 1987 and the 2001 to 2005 period, the total medical cost of cancer increased to $48.1 billion. In 2001 to 2005, the shares of cancer costs were: private insurance (50%), Medicare (34%), out of pocket (8%), other public (5%), and Medicaid (3%). The share of total cancer costs that resulted from inpatient admissions fell from 64.4% in 1987 to 27.5% in 2001 to 2005.
The authors identified 3 trends in the total costs of cancer: 1) the medical costs of cancer have nearly doubled; 2) cancer costs have shifted away from the inpatient setting; and 3) the share of these costs paid for by private insurance and Medicaid have increased.
Available from: Lilia Ganova-Raeva
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transmission of bloodborne pathogens due to breaches in infection control is becoming increasingly recognized as greater emphasis is placed on reducing health care-associated infections. Two women, aged 60 and 77 years, were diagnosed with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; both received chemotherapy at the same physician's office. Due to suspicion of health care-associated HBV transmission, a multidisciplinary team initiated an investigation of the hematology-oncology office practice.
We performed an onsite inspection and environmental assessment, staff interviews, records review, and observation of staff practices. Patients who visited the office practice between January 1, 2006 and March 3, 2009 were advised to seek testing for bloodborne pathogens. Patients and medical providers were interviewed. Specimens from HBV-infected patients were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for HBV DNA testing and phylogenic analysis.
Multiple breaches in infection control were identified, including deficient policies and procedures, improper hand hygiene, medication preparation in a blood processing area, common-use saline bags, and reuse of single-dose vials. The office practice was closed, and the physician's license was suspended. Out of 2,700 patients notified, test results were available for 1,394 (51.6%). Twenty-nine outbreak-associated HBV cases were identified. Specimens from 11 case-patients demonstrated 99.9%-100% nucleotide identity on phylogenetic analysis.
Systematic breaches in infection control led to ongoing transmission of HBV infection among patients undergoing invasive procedures at the office practice. This investigation underscores the need for improved regulatory oversight of outpatient health care settings, improved infection control and injection safety education for health care providers, and the development of mechanisms for ongoing communication and cooperation among public health agencies.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.