Celiac disease: From gluten to autoimmunity
Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.Autoimmunity Reviews (Impact Factor: 7.93). 07/2008; 7(8):644-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.05.006
Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy and nontropical sprue, is a prevalent autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins of rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The immune response in celiac disease involves the adaptive, as well as the innate, and is characterized by the presence of anti-gluten and anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies, lymphocytic infiltration in the epithelial membrane and the lamina propria, and expression of multiple cytokines and other signaling proteins. The disease leads to inflammation, villous atrophy, and crypt hyperplasia in the small intestine. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, celiac disease is associated with various extra-intestinal complications, including bone and skin disease, anemia, endocrine disorders, and neurologic deficits. Gluten-free diet is currently the only effective mode of treatment for celiac disease, but better understanding of the mechanism of the disease is likely to add other choices for therapy in the future.
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- "The inflammatory response is triggered by the gluten fraction, present in wheat, a staple food which belongs to the Poaceae family, but also in closely phylogenetically related cereals such as rye and barley, which have a common ancestral origin in the grass family. Oats, more distantly related to wheat, could also trigger the typical symptoms, although its harmful role is actually a term of debate and celiac patients are advised to avoid its consumption[4,5]. It is also possible to find gluten in the durum wheat, primarily used in the manufacture of pasta products, and in more ancient and less frequently consumed species, such as spelt, whose market is booming with the increasing demand of organic and natural products. "
ABSTRACT: Electrochemical genosensors have undergone an enormous development in the last decades, but only very few have achieved a quantification of target content in highly processed food samples. The detection of allergens, and particularly gluten, is challenging because legislation establishes a threshold of 20 ppm for labeling as gluten-free but most genosensors expresses the results in DNA concentration or DNA copies. This paper describes the first attempt to correlate the genosensor response and the wheat content in real samples, even in the case of highly processed food samples. A sandwich-based format, comprising a capture probe immobilized onto the screen-printed gold electrode, and a signaling probe functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), both hybridizing with the target was used. The hybridization event was electrochemically monitored by adding an anti-FITC peroxidase (antiFITC-HRP) and its substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. Binary model mixtures, as a reference material, and real samples have been analyzed. DNA from food was extracted and a fragment encoding the immunodominant peptide of α2-gliadin amplified by a tailored PCR. The sensor was able to selectively detect toxic cereals for celiac patients, such as different varieties of wheat, barley, rye and oats, from non-toxic plants. As low as 0.001% (10 mg/kg) of wheat flour in an inert matrix was reliably detected, which directly compete with the current method of choice for DNA detection, the real-time PCR. A good correlation with the official immunoassay was found in highly processed food samples.
- "In addition to immunosuppressive and proinflammatory properties, selected mycotoxins affect Th1/Th2 polarization, as observed in IBD (Baumgart and Carding 2007, Briani et al. 2008). When administered to monogastric animals, DON elicits a specific immune response which is manifested by increased Th2 activity and a drop in Th1 activity (Li et al. 2005), as found in allergies (Luft et al. 2008, Maresca and Fantini 2010). "
Dataset: 2012 ZEN and DON cattle herds
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- "High-quality cassava flour is one of the major processed by-products from cassava root. It is gluten-free flour and beneficial in the treatment of coeliac patients (Biagi et al., 2009; Briani, Samaroo, & Alaedini, 2008). Cassava flour has high carbohydrate (CHO) content and is a source of high caloric food. "
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of storage conditions: cool (15 ± 1°C, 90% relative humidity (RH)), ambient (23 ± 2°C, 60% RH) and higher (38 ± 2°C, 60% RH) on changes in physicochemical quality attributes of two cassava flour cultivars (TME 419 and UMUCASS 36) packaged in paper bags and stored for 12 weeks. Physicochemical and microbial qualities were studied at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Moisture content decreased from 12.0% to 7.1% and 9.8% to 6.8% in cultivars ‘TME 419’ and ‘UMUCASS 36’, respectively. Carotenoid content was higher in cultivar (cv.) ‘UMUCASS 36’ (2.5 ± 0.10 mg/g) compare to cv. ‘TME 419’ (1.8 ± 0.11 mg/g). Colour indices of the cassava flour were significantly influenced by storage duration. A slight decrease in microbial load from 5.4 to 4.8 log CFU/g was observed, with increase in temperature from 15°C to 38°C at the end of storage. The ambient storage condition best maintained nutritional and physicochemical quality.
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