Article

Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV/AIDS patients

HIV/AIDS Division, Infectious Diseases FJ Muñiz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.46). 07/2008; 6(3):351-63. DOI: 10.1586/14787210.6.3.351
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Disseminated infection due to MAC appeared later in the natural history of HIV disease and was an independent predictor of mortality in patients before the extended use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The use of combination schemes, including three or four antimicrobial agents followed by secondary prophylaxis and HAARTs, improved the survival and reduced mortality rates. However, subjects who ignore their serological status for HIV, or who are not receiving or do not tolerate HAART, are at high risk of developing disseminated MAC disease. In addition, patients who show a good immunological and virological response to HAART can develop episodes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with MAC, including supurative lymphadenitis and subcutaneous or soft-tissue abscesses. In this article, we describe the epidemiological, clinical, immunological, therapeutic and preventive aspects of MAC infection in HIV-seropositive patients in the pre- and post-HAART era.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Marcelo E Corti, Sep 19, 2014
  • Source
    • "Tuberculosis surprisingly, an increased understanding of the roles of miRNAs in major infectious human diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) is now attracting researchers' attention. The genus Mycobacterium includes highly pathogenic species such as the agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Mycobacterium leprae, respectively, but also opportunist pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium, which can also cause disseminated infections in immune-compromised people including AIDS patients [4]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease. Upon infection, host cells rapidly change their transcriptional programs, including miRNA expression, as a response against the invading microorganism. Not surprisingly, pathogens can also alter the host miRNA profile to their own benefit, which is of major importance to scientists addressing high morbidity and mortality infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the miRNAs regulation of the host response against mycobacterial infections, providing new insights into host-pathogen interactions. Understanding these findings and its implications could reveal new opportunities for designing better diagnostic tools, therapies and more effective vaccines.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • Source
    • "Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health challenge globally , estimations indicating that roughly one third of the world's population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, with 1.5 million associated deaths occurring annually [61]. The genus Mycobacterium includes highly pathogenic species such as the etiological agent of TB, M. tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae (responsible for leprosy), but also opportunistic pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium, which can affect immunocompromised individuals [62]. Similarly to other pathogenic bacteria, Mycobacterium species can modulate expression of miR-155 upon infection [63] [64] [65] [66] [67]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with a central role in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression, that have been implicated in a wide-range of biological processes. Regulation of miRNA expression is increasingly recognized as a crucial part of the host response to infection by bacterial pathogens, as well as a novel molecular strategy exploited by bacteria to manipulate host cell pathways. Here, we review the current knowledge of bacterial pathogens that modulate host microRNA expression, focusing on mammalian host cells, and the implications of microRNAs (miRNA) regulation on the outcome of infection. The emerging role of commensal bacteria, as part of the gut microbiota, on host miRNA expression in the presence or absence of bacterial pathogens is also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · FEBS Letters
  • Source
    • "This advancement has now attracted the interest of researcher to dissect the role of miRNAs in most deadly infectious human diseases like Tuberculosis. The genus Mycobacterium includes highly pathogenic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis (causing tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium leprae (causing leprosy) but also opportunists such as M. avium, which can also cause disseminated infections in immuno-compromised persons such as AIDS patients [11]. Despite advances in modern medicine and diagnostics, TB remains a major challenge to global public health in the 21st century. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, naturally abundant, small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. Due to involvement in a broad range of biological processes and diseases, miRNAs are now commanding considerable attention. Although much of the focus has been on the role of miRNAs in different types of cancer, recent evidence also points to a critical role of miRNAs in infectious disease, including those of bacterial origin. Now, miRNAs research is exploring rapidly as a new thrust area of biomedical research with relevance to deadly bacterial diseases like Tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The purpose of this review is to highlight the current developments in area of miRNAs regulation in Mycobacterial diseases; and how this might influence the diagnosis, understanding of disease biology, control and management in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Science
Show more