Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV/AIDS patients

HIV/AIDS Division, Infectious Diseases FJ Muñiz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.46). 07/2008; 6(3):351-63. DOI: 10.1586/14787210.6.3.351
Source: PubMed


Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Disseminated infection due to MAC appeared later in the natural history of HIV disease and was an independent predictor of mortality in patients before the extended use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The use of combination schemes, including three or four antimicrobial agents followed by secondary prophylaxis and HAARTs, improved the survival and reduced mortality rates. However, subjects who ignore their serological status for HIV, or who are not receiving or do not tolerate HAART, are at high risk of developing disseminated MAC disease. In addition, patients who show a good immunological and virological response to HAART can develop episodes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with MAC, including supurative lymphadenitis and subcutaneous or soft-tissue abscesses. In this article, we describe the epidemiological, clinical, immunological, therapeutic and preventive aspects of MAC infection in HIV-seropositive patients in the pre- and post-HAART era.

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Available from: Marcelo E Corti, Sep 19, 2014
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    • "Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health challenge globally , estimations indicating that roughly one third of the world's population has been infected with M. tuberculosis, with 1.5 million associated deaths occurring annually [61]. The genus Mycobacterium includes highly pathogenic species such as the etiological agent of TB, M. tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium leprae (responsible for leprosy), but also opportunistic pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium, which can affect immunocompromised individuals [62]. Similarly to other pathogenic bacteria, Mycobacterium species can modulate expression of miR-155 upon infection [63] [64] [65] [66] [67]. "
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    • "This advancement has now attracted the interest of researcher to dissect the role of miRNAs in most deadly infectious human diseases like Tuberculosis. The genus Mycobacterium includes highly pathogenic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis (causing tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium leprae (causing leprosy) but also opportunists such as M. avium, which can also cause disseminated infections in immuno-compromised persons such as AIDS patients [11]. Despite advances in modern medicine and diagnostics, TB remains a major challenge to global public health in the 21st century. "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, naturally abundant, small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. Due to involvement in a broad range of biological processes and diseases, miRNAs are now commanding considerable attention. Although much of the focus has been on the role of miRNAs in different types of cancer, recent evidence also points to a critical role of miRNAs in infectious disease, including those of bacterial origin. Now, miRNAs research is exploring rapidly as a new thrust area of biomedical research with relevance to deadly bacterial diseases like Tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The purpose of this review is to highlight the current developments in area of miRNAs regulation in Mycobacterial diseases; and how this might influence the diagnosis, understanding of disease biology, control and management in the future.
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