Article

Serum lipids regulate dendritic cell CD1 expression and function

Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 05/2008; 125(3):289-301. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.02842.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play a vital role in stimulating naïve T cells. Treatment of human blood monocytes with the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 stimulates them to develop into immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in vitro. DCs generated by this pathway have a high capacity to prime and activate resting T cells and prominently express CD1 antigen-presenting molecules on the cell surface. The presence of human serum during the differentiation of iDCs from monocytes inhibits the expression of CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, but not CD1d. Correspondingly, T cells that are restricted by CD1c showed poor responses to DCs that were generated in the presence of human serum, while the responses of CD1d-restricted T cells were enhanced. We chemically fractionated human serum to isolate the bioactive factors that modulate surface expression of CD1 proteins during monocyte to DC differentiation. The human serum components that affected CD1 expression partitioned with polar organic soluble fractions. Lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin were identified as lipids present in normal human serum that potently modulate CD1 expression. Control of CD1 expression was mediated at the level of gene transcription and correlated with activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear hormone receptors. These findings indicate that the ability of human DCs to present lipid antigens to T cells through expression of CD1 molecules is sensitively regulated by lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin in serum, which are ligands that can activate PPAR transcription factors.

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    • "Further experiments are warranted to identify the PPARg activators. Indeed, a recent paper suggested that lysophosphatidic acid and cardiolipin are abundant components of the human serum and that these lipid species might contribute to the activation of PPARg (Leslie et al, 2008). These results underscore the notion that, remarkably, DCs are actively participating in the production of several ligands of nuclear receptors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and represent a heterogeneous cell population. The existence of distinct DC subsets is due to their inherent plasticity and to the changing microenvironment modulating their immunological properties. Numerous signalling pathways have impacts on DCs. It appears that besides cytokines/chemokines, lipid mediators also have profound effects on the immunogenicity of DCs. Some of these lipid mediators exert an effect through nuclear hormone receptors. Interestingly, more recent findings suggest that DCs are able to convert precursors to active hormones, ligands for nuclear receptors. Some of these DC-derived lipids, in particular retinoic acid (RA), have a central function in shaping T-cell development and effector functions. In this review, we summarize and highlight the function of a set of nuclear receptors (PPARgamma, RA receptor, vitamin D receptor and glucocorticoid receptor) in DC biology. Defining the contribution of nuclear hormone receptor signalling in DCs can help one to understand the regulatory logic of lipid signalling and allow the exploitation of their potential for therapeutic intervention in various immunological diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · The EMBO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Doutoramento em Ciências Biomédicas
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    ABSTRACT: In den letzten Jahren ist die Zahl immunsupprimierter Patienten aufgrund des stetigen Fortschritts in der Medizin stark angestiegen. Die bei diesen Patienten wegen ihrer hohen Mortalität gefürchtete, durch A. fumigatus ausgelöste invasive Aspergillose (IA) hat trotz der Anwendung verbesserter Antimykotika zugenommen. Die beiden Medikamente Mycophenolat (MPA) und Everolimus (RAD) werden zur Immunsuppression verwendet. Sie wirken durch die Inhibition von B- und T-Zellen. Allerdings wurde auch der direkte Einfluss auf DCs beschrieben. Diese Entdeckung ist insofern von Relevanz, als DCs eine wichtige regulatorische Rolle bei der Abwehr von Erregern, so auch von Pilzen, spielen und als Bindeglied zwischen dem angeborenen und erworbenen Immunsystem fungieren. DCs sind außerdem in den vergangenen Jahren in den Fokus der Wissenschaft geraten, da sie möglicherweise als Impfstoffe gegen verschiedenste Krankheiten, darunter auch die IA, eingesetzt werden können. Da die IA vor allem Patienten mit geschwächtem Immunsystem trifft, ist es von Bedeutung, die Wirkung von Immunsuppressiva auf DCs besser zu verstehen. In dieser Arbeit wurde der Einfluss von MPA und RAD auf die Entwicklung, die Reifung und die Immunantwort von aus Monozyten differenzierten DCs (moDCs) nach Kontakt mit A. fumigatus untersucht. Hierzu wurden die Medikamente zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten der DC-Entwicklung hinzugefügt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass vor allem der Entwicklungsprozess der DCs beeinträchtigt wird. Neben einer verminderten Zytokinexpression von DCs nach Kontakt mit A. fumigatus wurde auch eine Veränderung der Oberflächenmarkerstruktur sowohl bei unreifen DCs (iDC) als auch bei reifen DCs (mDC) festgestellt. Des Weiteren wurde die Fähigkeit von DCs zur Phagozytose durch die Medikamente vermindert. Beide Substanzen, vor allem aber RAD, zeigten zudem eine starke Zytotoxizität gegenüber den Zellen. Es konnte in dieser Arbeit deutlich gemacht werden, dass sowohl MPA als auch RAD die Entwicklung und Reifung von moDCs beeinflussen, was zu einer Beeinträchtigung ihrer Immunantwort gegen A. fumigatus führt. Over the past years, there has been an increasing amount of immunosuppressed patients due to substantial progress in medical research. Despite the development of more effective antifungal agents, those patients often suffer from invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and Everolimus (RAD) are both immunosuppressive agents. They act through the inhibition of B- and T-cells. However, the direct influence on DCs has also been described which is important as DCs play an important role in pathogen defence and by linking innate and acquired immunity. In addition DCs have moved to the focus of science as they could also be used as vaccines against different diseases including IA. As IA mostly occurs in immunosuppressed patients, more comprehension about the impact of immunosuppressive agents on the functionality of DCs is needed. Here, the impact of MPA and RAD on the differentiation, maturation and immunresponse of human monocyte derived DCs (moDC) during interaction with A. fumigatus was investigated. MPA and RAD were added during different times of DC development. Both medicaments showed an influence on DC differentiation. Beside a reduced expression of cytokines after interaction with A. fumigatus, a decreased expression of surface markers was shown for immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDC). Furthermore, the phagocytotic capacity of iDCs was reduced. In addition, MPA and even more RAD showed high cytotoxic effects on DCs. In conclusion, a direct impact of MPA and RAD on the differentiation and maturation of moDCs and their immune response to A. fumigatus could be shown.
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