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Wagner G, Koch K, Schachtzabel C, Reichenbach JR, Sauer H, Schlösser RG. Enhanced rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation during cognitive control is related to orbitofrontal volume reduction in unipolar depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 33: 199-208

Department of Psychiatry, University of Jena, Ersatztext Jena, Germany.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.86). 06/2008; 33(3):199-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), enhanced activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) during conflict resolution has been demonstrated with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which suggests dysregulation of the affective compartment of the ACC associated with error monitoring and cognitive control. Moreover, several previous studies have reported disrupted structural integrity in limbic brain areas and the orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. However, the relation between structural and functional alterations remains unclear. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate whether structural brain aberrations in terms of grey matter decreases directly in the medial frontal regions or in anatomically closely connected areas might be related to our previously reported functional alterations.
A sample of 16 female, drug-free patients with an acute episode of MDD and 16 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T(1)-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained in the same session.
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed grey matter decreases in the orbitofrontal and subgenual cortex, in the hippocampus-amygdala complex and in the middle frontal gyrus. The relative hyperactivation of the rACC in terms of inability to deactivate this region during the Stroop Color-Word Test showed an inverse correlation with grey matter reduction in the orbitofrontal cortex.
The present study provides strong evidence for an association between structural alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex and disturbed functional activation in the emotional compartment of the ACC in patients with MDD during cognitive control.

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Available from: Gerd Wagner, Mar 23, 2015
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    • "Indeed, both structural and functional alterations of the fronto-limbic network have been noted in MDD. For example, structural deficits in the frontal cortex (Ma et al., 2012; Salvadore et al., 2011; Scheuerecker et al., 2010; Wagner et al., 2008), ACC (Salvadore et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2007; Wagner et al., 2008) and hippocampus (Arnone et al., 2013; Wagner et al., 2008; Zou et al., 2010) have been reported in MDD. Meanwhile, decreased frontal cortex function and increased limbic system activity have been revealed by functional findings (for a review, see Wang et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The fronto-limbic network is implicated in the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. However, no studies are designed to assess directly the abnormalities of regional activity and network homogeneity of this network in major depressive disorder. A total of 44 drug-naive major depressive disorder patients and 44 healthy controls participated in the study, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and network homogeneity methods were employed to analyze the data. Compared with the controls, the patients exhibited reduced fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the right middle frontal gyrus (orbital part) and decreased network homogeneity in the left middle frontal gyrus. There was no correlation between abnormal fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations/network homogeneity and clinical variables. Our findings suggest that decreased regional activity and network homogeneity in the frontal cortex may be the key impairment of the fronto-limbic network in major depressive disorder, and thus highlight the importance of the fronto-limbic network in the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
    • "As the rACC and caudate are considered part of the brain's default mode network (DMN), the authors suggest that the inability to deactivate this network during cognitive processing is related to structural deficits in the rectal gyrus. Thus, a dysbalance of the orbitofrontal-cingulate network in controlling maladaptive affective responses during cognitive processing is strongly related to structural lesions within this network (Wagner et al., 2008). As the current meta-analysis showed similar functional disturbances in another part of the DMN, i.e., the PCC, the findings suggest that a vulnerability to suicidal behavior is associated with disturbances in an orbitofrontal-cingulate network, characterized by the interrelated inability to control maladaptive responses during cognitive processing and a reduced volume of the rectal gyrus. "

    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · European Psychiatry
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    • "As the rACC and caudate are considered part of the brain's default mode network (DMN), the authors suggest that the inability to deactivate this network during cognitive processing is related to structural deficits in the rectal gyrus. Thus, a dysbalance of the orbitofrontal-cingulate network in controlling maladaptive affective responses during cognitive processing is strongly related to structural lesions within this network (Wagner et al., 2008). As the current meta-analysis showed similar functional disturbances in another part of the DMN, i.e., the PCC, the findings suggest that a vulnerability to suicidal behavior is associated with disturbances in an orbitofrontal-cingulate network, characterized by the interrelated inability to control maladaptive responses during cognitive processing and a reduced volume of the rectal gyrus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We conducted meta-analyses of functional and structural neuroimaging studies comparing adolescent and adult individuals with a history of suicidal behavior and a psychiatric disorder to psychiatric controls in order to objectify changes in brain structure and function in association with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging studies published up to July 2013 investigating structural or functional brain correlates of suicidal behavior were identified through computerized and manual literature searches. Activation foci from 12 studies encompassing 475 individuals, i.e., 213 suicide attempters and 262 psychiatric controls were subjected to meta-analytical study using anatomic or activation likelihood estimation (ALE). Result: Activation likelihood estimation revealed structural deficits and functional changes in association with a history of suicidal behavior. Structural findings included reduced volumes of the rectal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Functional differences between study groups included an increased reactivity of the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. Discussion: A history of suicidal behavior appears to be associated with (probably interrelated) structural deficits and functional overactivation in brain areas, which contribute to a decision-making network. The findings suggest that a vulnerability to suicidal behavior can be defined in terms of a reduced motivational control over the intentional behavioral reaction to salient negative stimuli.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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