The AmpliChip CYP450 test: Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype assessment and phenotype prediction

Service of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal (Impact Factor: 4.23). 08/2008; 9(1):34-41. DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2008.7
Source: PubMed


Polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene affecting enzyme activity are involved in interindividual variability in drug efficiency/toxicity. Four phenotypic groups are found in the general population: ultra rapid (UM), extensive (EM), intermediate (IM) and poor (PM) metabolizers. The AmpliChip CYP450 test is the first genotyping array allowing simultaneous analysis of 33 CYP2D6 alleles. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of this test in CYP2D6 phenotype prediction. We first verified the AmpliChip CYP450 test genotyping accuracy for five CYP2D6 alleles routinely analysed in our laboratory (alleles 3,4,5,6, x N; n=100). Results confirmed those obtained by real-time PCR. Major improvements using the array are the detection of CYP2D6 intermediate alleles and identification of the duplicated alleles. CYP2D6 phenotype was determined by assessing urinary elimination of dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrorphan and compared to the array prediction (n=165). Although a low sensitivity of UM prediction by genotyping was observed, phenotype prediction was optimal for PM and satisfying for EM and IM.

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Available from: Michela C Rebsamen
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    • "This is a highly reliable method for CYP2D6 genotyping which identifies 33 CYP2D6 alleles (including variants associated to impaired enzyme activity and seven gene duplications ) using the Affymetrix microarray platform [20]. Once the genotype was known, according to the conventional classification system, the AmpliChip CYP450 test predicted the metabolizer phenotype as PM if they carry two non-functional alleles; IM if they carry one non-functional allele and one associated with reduced activity or two reduced activity alleles; EM if they carry at least one functional allele and UM if they carry at least three copies of a functional allele [21] [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background CYP2D6 is a key enzyme in tamoxifen metabolism, transforming it into its main active metabolite, endoxifen. Poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (PM) have lower endoxifen plasma concentrations and possibly benefit less from treatment with tamoxifen. We evaluated tamoxifen dose adjustment in CYP2D6 PM patients in order to obtain plasma concentrations of endoxifen comparable to patients with extensive CYP2D6 metabolism (EM). Patients and methods Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping and plasma tamoxifen metabolite concentrations were performed among 249 breast cancer patients in adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen dose was increased in PM patients to 40 mg and to 60 mg daily for a 4-month period each, repeating tamoxifen metabolite measurements on completion of each dose increase. We compared the endoxifen levels between EM and PM patients, and among the PM patients at each dose level of tamoxifen (20, 40 and 60 mg). Results Eleven PM patients (4.7%) were identified. The mean baseline endoxifen concentration in EM patients (11.30 ng/ml) was higher compared to the PM patients (2.33 ng/ml; p < 0.001). In relation to the 20 mg dose, increasing the tamoxifen dose to 40 and 60 mg in PM patients significantly raised the endoxifen concentration to 8.38 ng/ml (OR 3.59; p = 0.013) and to 9.30 ng/ml (OR 3.99; p = 0.007), respectively. These concentrations were comparable to those observed in EM patients receiving 20 mg of tamoxifen (p = 0.13 and p = 0.64, respectively). Conclusion In CYP2D6 PM patients, increasing the standard tamoxifen dose two-fold or three-fold raises endoxifen concentrations to levels similar to those of patients with EM phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
    • "The performance of the AmpliChip in predicting CYP2D6 phenotype was assessed (n = 165) and an overall 80 % coherence was obtained. Phenotype prediction was optimal for PM (sensitivity and specificity 100 %) and satisfactory for EM (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 47 %) and IM (sensitivity 42 %, specificity 97 %) but discrepancies were observed for UM prediction (sensitivity 6 %, specificity 99 %) [162]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interindividual variability in drug response is a major clinical problem. Polymedication and genetic polymorphisms modulating drug-metabolising enzyme activities (cytochromes P450, CYP) are identified sources of variability in drug responses. We present here the relevant data on the clinical impact of the major CYP polymorphisms (CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9) on drug therapy where genotyping and phenotyping may be considered, and the guidelines developed when available. CYP2D6 is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of up to 25 % of commonly prescribed drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, opioids, antiarrythmics and tamoxifen. The ultrarapid metaboliser (UM) phenotype is recognised as a cause of therapeutic inefficacy of antidepressant, whereas an increased risk of toxicity has been reported in poor metabolisers (PMs) with several psychotropics (desipramine, venlafaxine, amitriptyline, haloperidol). CYP2D6 polymorphism influences the analgesic response to prodrug opioids (codeine, tramadol and oxycodone). In PMs for CYP2D6, reduced analgesic effects have been observed, whereas in UMs cases of life-threatening toxicity have been reported with tramadol and codeine. CYP2D6 PM phenotype has been associated with an increased risk of toxicity of metoprolol, timolol, carvedilol and propafenone. Although conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen effects, CYP2D6 genotyping may be useful in selecting adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women. CYP2C19 is responsible for metabolising clopidogrel, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and some antidepressants. Carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles exhibit a reduced capacity to produce the active metabolite of clopidogrel, and are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. For PPIs, it has been shown that the mean intragastric pH values and the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates were higher in carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles. CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of several antidepressants. As a result of an increased risk of adverse effects in CYP2C19 PMs, dose reductions are recommended for some agents (imipramine, sertraline). CYP2C9 is responsible for metabolising vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sulfonylureas, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and phenytoin. For VKAs, CYP2C9 polymorphism has been associated with lower doses, longer time to reach treatment stability and higher frequencies of supratherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs). Prescribing algorithms are available in order to adapt dosing to genotype. Although the existing data are controversial, some studies have suggested an increased risk of NSAID-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles. A relationship between CYP2C9 polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas and angiotensin II receptor antagonists has also been observed. The clinical impact in terms of hypoglycaemia and blood pressure was, however, modest. Finally, homozygous and heterozygous carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles require lower doses of phenytoin to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, and are at increased risk of toxicity. New diagnostic techniques made safer and easier should allow quicker diagnosis of metabolic variations. Genotyping and phenotyping may therefore be considered where dosing guidelines according to CYP genotype have been published, and help identify the right molecule for the right patient.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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    • "Article Nikoloff et al. 2002 Ishida et al. 2002 Heller et al. 2006 Rebsamen et al. 2009 de Leon et al. 2009 Ramόn y Cajal et al. 2010 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic efficacy associated with currently prescribed pharmacotherapeutics may be attributed, in part, to inter-individual variability in drug metabolism. Studies on the pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes offer insight into this variability. The objective of this study was to compare the AmpliChip CYP450 Test® (AmpliChip) to alternative genotyping platforms for phenotype prediction of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a representative cohort of the South African population. Methods AmpliChip was used to screen for thirty-three CYP2D6 and three CYP2C19 alleles in two different cohorts. As a comparison cohort 2 was then genotyped using a CYP2D6 specific long range PCR with sequencing (CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing) platform and a PCR-RFLP platform for seven CYP2C19 alleles. Results Even though there was a low success rate for the AmpliChip, allele frequencies for both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were very similar between the two different cohorts. The CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing platform detected CYP2D6*5 more reliably and could correctly distinguish between CYP2D6*2 and *41 in the Black African individuals. Alleles not covered by the AmpliChip were identified and four novel CYP2D6 alleles were also detected. CYP2C19 PCR-RFLP identified CYP2C19*9,*15, *17 and *27 in the Black African individuals, with *2, *17 and *27 being relatively frequent in the cohort. Eliminating mismatches and identifying additional alleles will contribute to improving phenotype prediction for both enzymes. Phenotype prediction differed between platforms for both genes. Conclusion Comprehensive genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 with the platforms used in this study, would be more appropriate than AmpliChip for phenotypic prediction in the South African population. Pharmacogenetically important novel alleles may remain undiscovered when using assays that are designed according to Caucasian specific variation, unless alternate strategies are utilised.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Medical Genetics
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