Epidemiology of Pediatric Burns Requiring Hospitalization in China: A Literature Review of Retrospective Studies

Burn Center, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 08/2008; 122(1):132-42. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1567
Source: PubMed


This review was an effort to systematically examine the nationwide data available on pediatric burns requiring hospitalization to reveal burn epidemiology and guide future education and prevention.
The China Biomedical Disk Database, Chongqing VIP Database, and China Journal Full-Text Database were searched for articles reporting data on children and their burns from January 2000 through December 2005. Studies were included that systematically investigated the epidemiology of pediatric burns requiring hospitalization in China. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, all of which were retrospective analyses. For each study included, 2 investigators independently abstracted the data related to the population description by using a standard form and included the percentage of patients with burn injury who were <15 years old; gender and distribution of age; type of residential area; place of injury; distribution of months and time; reasons for burn; anatomical sites of burn; severity of burn; and mortality and cause of death. These data were extracted, and a retrospective statistical description was performed with SPSS11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL).
Of the pediatric patients studied, the proportion of children with burn injury ranged from 22.50% to 54.66%, and the male/female ratio ranged from 1.25:1 to 4.42:1. The ratio of children aged <or=3 years to those >3 years was 0.19:1 to 4.18:1. The rural/urban ratio was 1.60:1 to 12.94:1. The ratio of those who were burned indoors versus outdoors was 1.62 to 17.00, and there were no effective hints on the distribution of seasons and anatomical sites of burn that could be found. The peak hours of pediatric burn were between 17:00 and 20:00. Most articles reported the sequence of reasons as hot liquid > flame > electricity > chemical, and scalding was, by far, the most predominant reason for burn. The majority of the studies reported the highest proportion involved in moderate burn, and the lowest proportion was for critical burn. The mortality rate ranged from 0.49% to 9.08%, and infection, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were the most common causes of death.
Considering the national proportion of children, a high proportion of hospitalized patients with burn injury were children; those who were male, aged <or=3 years, and lived most of the time indoors were especially susceptible. Great attention should be paid when hot water is used or during suppertime. This compilation and analysis of hospitalization-based information has proved useful in establishing the rational priorities for prevention; a family-school-factory-government mode of preventive strategy has come into being and was performed effectively.

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Available from: Kai-Yang Lv, Aug 07, 2014
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    • "Calculating and evaluating the mortality rates are the first step in evaluation of outcome of burn, in evaluating the different modes of treatment and in establishment of protocols and guidelines of burn treatment for burn centers [1]. Identification and definition of risk factors that may lead to mortality and morbidity among the pediatric burn patients, can help preventive programs in predicting the outcome of the patients, can help developing more effective programs and conducting more effective measures to prevent the burns. "

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    • "A recent study in Aberdeen found no monthly variation amongst their population [14]. International studies analysing seasonal influence provide conflicting results, demonstrating increased incidence in colder months [17] [18] [19] [20], increased incidence in warmer months [16] [21] [22], or no influence at all [15] [23] [24] "
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    ABSTRACT: Burns are a cause of more than 5000 paediatric hospital admissions per year in England and Wales. Injury prevention and service provision may be better planned with knowledge of burn timing. Prospectively collected records from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011 were analysed. All episodes involving patients less than 16 years of age reviewed by the South West Children's Burns Centre were included. Data was collected from 1480 records to investigate seasonal, weekly, and daily variation. Day to day analysis showed significantly more burns occurred on Saturday and Sunday than Monday–Friday (p < 0.001). Of all burns, 46% occurred within the time-period 08:00–15:59; however the mean hourly rate of burns was highest between 16:00 and 18:59. Of the larger burns (>10% body surface area), 38% occurred after 19:00. There was no statistically significant variation in the monthly (p = 0.105) or seasonal (p = 0.270) distribution of burns. Bank holidays did not cause a statistically significant increase in numbers. Injury prevention strategies are likely to have most volume impact by increasing awareness of the peak time for burns in children, enabling parents at home with young children to modify any risky behaviour and by targeting older children and their behaviour.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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    • "Burns generally have a high prevalence of head and neck involvement [2], presumably because that area is more exposed compared to body regions usually covered with clothes, such as the trunk or the legs. Prevalence rates of facial involvement vary internationally between 6% and 60% [3] [4] [5]. A recent study showed that almost half of the patients admitted to Dutch burn centres had facial burns [6], and thus were at risk for visible scars. "
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    ABSTRACT: The face is central to our identity and provides our most expressive means of communication. Currently, the role of facial scarring in relation to self-esteem is unclear and the value of self-reported scar assessment is insufficiently understood. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the extent of agreement between patients' ratings and observers' ratings of facial scar characteristics; and (2) to examine if patients' and observers' scar characteristics ratings, or the differences, are associated with the patients' self-esteem. A prospective study was conducted including patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 3 months post-burn. Ninety-four subjects were included, 76 (81%) men and mean percentage TBSA burned was 12.4 (SD 10.4; range 1-50). Subject's and observer's assessment were significantly positively correlated and were identical in 53% of the cases. Subjects' assessments and discrepancy scores on the scar characteristic surface roughness were associated with self-esteem in multiple regression analysis. The majority of the patients scored the quality of facial scars in a similar way as the professionals. Furthermore, facial scarring appeared only moderately associated with self-esteem. However, our study suggests that using both patients' and professionals' scar assessments provides more useful information regarding the patients' well-being relative to focussing on the separate assessments only. In particular a discrepancy between the patients' and professionals' view on surface roughness might be an early indication of psychological difficulties and a call for further clinical attention.
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