Article

The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study aims to investigate whether cosmetic surgery has an effect on an individual's body image, general self-esteem, and psychological problems. Further tests were conducted to assess whether the extent of psychological problems before surgery influenced improvements in postoperative psychological outcomes. Questionnaire data from 155 female cosmetic surgery patients from a plastic surgery clinic were obtained before and approximately 6 months after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of measures on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. Pre- and postoperative measures were also compared with the data compiled from a representative sample of 838 Norwegian women, aged 22-55, with no cosmetic surgery experience. No differences in psychological problems between the presurgery patient and comparison samples were found, whereas differences in body image and self-esteem between the sample groups were reported in an earlier publication. Analyses further revealed an improvement in body image (satisfaction with own appearance) after surgery. A significant but rather small effect on self-esteem was also found, whereas the level of psychological problems did not change after surgery. Postoperative measures of appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems did not differ from values derived from the comparison sample. Finally, few psychological problems before surgery predicted a greater improvement in appearance satisfaction and self-esteem after surgery. The study provides evidence of improvement in satisfaction with own appearance after cosmetic surgery, a variable that is thought to play a central role in understanding the psychology of cosmetic surgery patients. The study also points to the factors that surgeons should be aware of, particularly the role of psychological problems, which could inhibit the positive effects of cosmetic surgery.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The impact of surgery on body image has been studied for procedures such as breast augmentation, breast reduc-tion, abdominoplasty, and facial plastic surgery, providing therefore a link between aesthetic surgery and physical and mental health [14][15][16][17][18] . A review by Crerand et al reported enhanced body image at two-years follow up in the majority of women who underwent breast augmentation 15 . ...
... Similar outcomes were observed in studies on abdominoplasty, which was associated with positive psychological effects, including improved evaluations of patients' overall appearance, body image satisfaction, and self-esteem, especially in the massive weight loss population 17,20,21 . Finally, these aspects have been investigated also in patients undergoing facial plastic surgery 16,18,22 . ...
... The results showed that satisfaction with physical appearance/body image improved after a cosmetic surgery; in the comparison of the pre-and post-operative answers the rates had risen from 7.3% to 38.6%. Based on some reports 16,17,28 , patient satisfaction is the main factor that dictates the success of the cosmetic surgery procedure. Satisfaction with own appearance after cosmetic surgery is a variable that is thought to play a central role in understanding the psychology of cosmetic surgery patients 16 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Plastic surgery is the medical specialty that enables moulding and reforming the human body. Cosmetic surgery can improve aesthetic appearance and subsequently self-esteem and self-confidence. Over the past 20 years, much of the research on the psychological aspects of aesthetic plastic surgery has focused on the psychological construct of body image. This study aims to investigate whether aesthetic surgery has an effect on an individual´s body image, body satisfaction and general self-esteem in the Cyprus population. Material and methods: Questionnaire data from 128 cosmetic surgery patients in a Plastic Surgery Clinic in Nicosia, obtained at two time points: one week before and three months after the surgery. The questionnaire was developed by the authors for the purpose of this study and consisted of measures on body image, body satisfaction and self-esteem. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. Results: The majority were women (81.9%) and respondents mean age was 35.35 years. One out of two participants who responded has undergone breast augmentation (47.6%). Prior to treatment, only 7.3% of participants reported they were very satisfied with their physical appearance/body image, while after treatment this figure rose to 38.6%. Before treatment, 17.7% of the participants reported they felt bad/very bad about their body during sex and this dropped to 2.5% after the treatment. Conclusions: The study provides evidence of improvement in individuals satisfaction with their body image and self-confidence after an aesthetic surgery. .
... In this regard, a variety of studies have been conducted to assess mental health changes following rhinoplasty operation in different populations [2,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Fatemi et al. in 2012 [11], Zojaji et al. in 2014 [13], and Hosseinzadeh et al. in 2017 [14] assessed changes of quality of life in Iranian population clients who underwent rhinoplasty. ...
... Also, in 2009, Von Soest et al. [10] investigated selfesteem change of patients who underwent rhinoplasty within 6 months after surgery and compared their outcomes with the healthy population. Although the significant change was observed postoperatively, the difference with the healthy population was only 1.3%. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Psychological functioning of rhinoplasty must be evaluated in the community of Iran as the most prevalent center of rhinoplasty worldwide. Making a realistic public view about rhinoplasty psychological outcomes is necessary. In the present study, quality of life, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem alteration in rhinoplasty patients among the Iranian population were assessed. Methods This is an observational trial study conducted on 41 patients who underwent rhinoplasty in 2017–2018. The Persian version of standard questionnaires “World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-26),” “Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (HADS),” and “Eysenck Self-Esteem Questionnaire” were used for this aim. Therefore, questionnaires were filled pre and within 6 months postoperatively and then compared. Demographics including age, gender, marital status, and educational level association with the mentioned factors were assessed as well. Results The results revealed that rhinoplasty brought significant improvements in all aspects of QOL, including physical (P value = 0.011), psychological (P value = 0.002), relationships (P value = 0.019), environment (P value = 0.032), and general health (P value = 0.005). Depression (P value = 0.010) and self-esteem (P value = 0.004) scores change significantly in a positive manner as well. Anxiety improvement was the least (6.8%) with no significant change (P value = 0.334). None of the demographics including age, gender, marital status, and educational level showed association with psychological indices (P value > 0.05) except for age association with relationships domain of WHOQOL that was significantly higher among those younger than 30 years old (P value = 0.040). Conclusions Rhinoplasty can improve most of the psychological indices in the Iranian population, regardless of the candidate’s gender, marriage status, educational level, or age group. Level of evidence: Level II, therapeutic study.
... 22 In the plastic surgery literature, the psychology of aesthetic reconstruction in relation to body dysmorphism has been discussed, but not in the context of digital amputation. 23 In the preceding study, we collected data based upon interviews, examinations, and validated questionnaires, which included both objective somatic and subjective psychological metrics. The results demonstrate that even "minor" amputations can have major consequences regarding subjective, objective, and psychological outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Major limb amputation is a devastating potential outcome of trauma, tumor, or disease. Much has been written about the physical, functional, economic, and psychological consequences of major limb loss. In contradistinction, considerably less has been written concerning the consequences of "minor" limb loss, specifically single partial digit amputations. Are minor limb (partial single digit) amputations associated with symptoms of psychological disorder similar to those reported for major limb amputations? Methods: We conducted a clinical research study through interview and examination of 25 adult patients (average age: 45 years) who had suffered a single partial digit amputation to determine if symptoms of depression, anxiety, anger, or posttraumatic stress disorder newly occurred, and if such symptoms correlated with the surgical outcome. Questionnaires for Quick-DASH, Michigan Hand Score, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Psychological Profile testing were completed. Results: All but one of the patients suffered from psychological symptoms for a minimum of 3 months. Symptom resolution time averaged 6 months for seven of the 25 patients. For 18 of the 25 patients, both psychological disturbance and neuroma pain were ongoing. The Psychological Profile scores suggesting pathology were inversely related to the scores on the Quick-Dash and Michigan Hand (somatic) questionnaires indicating wellness (P < 0.03). Conclusions: (1) Even minor partial amputations of single digits can trigger significant psychological disturbance; the study hypothesis is validated. (2) Psychological and somatic outcomes are directly correlative. (3) Mitigating neuroma pain and verbally offering psychological support services early in the postamputation period should improve the clinical outcome of digital amputations.
... Also, we found that younger and also female patients were more likely to report that others noticed their eyes to be abnormal post tube implant. This is an expected finding as it is well known globally women are more concerned about their appearance and bothered with slightest facial disfigurements compared to men [20,21] Also, It has been reported that the younger age population had lower selfesteem compared to older people because they have more concerned about their appearance [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The use of a tissue patch graft is common practice with a glaucoma drainage device (GDD). Patch grafts can be visible in the palpebral fissure and may be cosmetically displeasing for some patients. The aim of this study was to report the cosmetic satisfaction of pericardial, scleral, and corneal patch grafts related to superior GDD surgery. Methods Baseline clinical data were collected for consecutive patients with glaucoma operated between 2014 and 2019 at two tertiary eye care institutions (for superiorly-placed) Ahmad glaucoma valve implant using sclera, cornea and pericardium patch graft. A patient questionnaire that contained 4 concise questions, with a Likert-scale grading relating to cosmetic satisfaction was administered by a telephone-based interview. Responses and scores for each question were compared across patients who received the three different types of graft. A binominal logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, gender, type of graft, number of previous ocular surgeries, and final visual acuity to explain differences. Results We included 92 patients who met our inclusion criteria (24 patients received a corneal patch graft, 30 who received sclera and 38 who received pericardium). The mean (±SD) age was 50 (±17.5) years, and the average follow up was 20.7 (± 18.6) months. Regardless of the type of patch graft, most (67–84%) of patients were satisfied with the appearance of their eyes . Patients who received cornea or sclera were more likely to report that their eye looked ‘abnormal’ by others. Younger age was significantly associated with the response to this question. Conclusion Patients are generally satisfied with the appearance of their eye following GDD surgery with each of the patch grafts for superiorly-placed GDDs. Younger patients with cornea or sclera were more likely to report that their eyes looked abnormal.
... In particular, self-esteem associated with body image has a great influence on choosing the type of procedure [5]. However, a lack of consensus exists among researchers regarding the relationship between cosmetic surgery and self-esteem; some studies reported that self-esteem has little bearing on the level of addiction to cosmetic surgery [10,17], whereas others reported that low self-esteem influences the choice of procedure and that self-esteem increases after cosmetic surgery [18][19][20][21]. Thus, an integrative review of studies examining the relationship between cosmetic surgery and self-esteem is needed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Advances in medical technology coupled with rapid growth of web-based mass media and social networking services have considerably increased public access to cosmetic surgery. In South Korea, in particular, the number of people undergoing cosmetic surgery has been rapidly increasing, and studies related to cosmetic surgery have markedly increased. We report an integrative review of studies examining the relationship between cosmetic surgery and self-esteem in Korea. We aimed to identify relevant variables and determine their overall effect sizes. Methods This study was designed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two researchers separately performed the literature search, selected 16 papers based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and analyzed them. Results Of the 16 papers on cosmetic surgery and self-esteem, 5 (33.3%) involved both men and women, and the remaining 11 (66.7%) involved only women. The respondents included teenagers and adults. The total number of respondents was 6296, with an average of 393.5 per paper. Most studies (n = 13, 81.3%) used the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Self-esteem was correlated with variables grouped into the following six categories: appearance management intention, cosmetic surgery intention, sociocultural attitude, body satisfaction, BMI, and stress. The effect sizes from the meta-analysis with correlation coefficients were 0.157, − 0.118, 0.023, 0.175, − 0.045, and − 0.085. Conclusions Among the relevant variables categorized in this study, sociocultural attitude, BMI, and stress showed weak effect sizes, and the appearance management intention, cosmetic surgery intention, and body satisfaction categories showed intermediate effect sizes. The results of this study are expected to serve as a concrete basis for the development of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of the ever-growing cosmetic surgery industry. This information can help elucidate the psychologic characteristics of individuals seeking cosmetic surgery and contribute to optimal medical outcomes. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
... Some studies have reported that a positive change in physical appearance has a positive psychological effect, improving selfconfidence and self-esteem. 2,20 In this study, self-esteem was at adequate levels, and thus low self-esteem was not the incentive for seeking body-contouring surgery. The motivators for undergoing cosmetic surgery were not conditioned by the search to improve self-esteem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There are reports on high psychological morbidity, mainly personality disorders, among people opting for cosmetic surgery. This study aims to describe the personality traits, level of self-esteem, and anxiety in women seeking cosmetic surgery with body contouring, such as liposculpture or lipoabdominoplasty with or without placement of breast implants. Methods: Subjects were 87 women between 18 and 60 years of age in Mexico City who went to a private clinic with the intention of undergoing cosmetic surgery with body contouring. A psychiatric interview was performed using three scales: the Salamanca questionnaire for screening for personality disorders, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Results: The average age was 31 years, with 35% of participants having previously undergone body-contouring surgery. Regarding personality, the patients did not show a psychopathology level for diagnosing a personality disorder. Regarding anxiety, 92% of the patients showed an average level of anxiety. High level of self-esteem was exhibited by 81 participants (93.15%), and six participants (6.9%) exhibited average self-esteem. Notably, no participant exhibited low self-esteem. Conclusions: The level of psychopathology of the patients was lower than expected, the self-esteem was not affected prior to the surgical procedure, and the level of anxiety did not cause dysfunction.
... They often feel unworthy and heavily incompetent in various physical and mental aspects, and this negative attitude, along with other factors, can lead to a greater tendency to undergo cosmetic surgery [32][33][34][35]. Other studies have also reported that the negative attitudes of individuals toward themselves tend to increase their tendency for cosmetic surgery [36,37]. People who are interested in aesthetic surgery have a poorer body image [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Having desired facial features creates a better mental image, results in increased self-confidence and boosts social activities to a more acceptable level. The goal of the current study is to investigate how rhinoplasty surgery affects patients admitted to Shahrekord surgical clinic. Methods The study was conducted on 100 patients randomly selected and referring for rhinoplasty surgery. The required information was collected through demographic questionnaires of rhinoplasty outcomes F 36 and Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale. The questionnaires were filled out by patients before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed using SPSS and data mining software. Findings Out of the hundred participants, 63% were female and 37% were male. The number of individuals in the studied groups decreased in older age groups so that most of the participants were in the 20–24-year group followed by 25–30 y/o group. Patients from other age groups were less frequent. In terms of educational attainment, the highest frequency was associated with a BSc and the lowest with a diploma. In terms of employment status, the highest frequency was among students and the unemployed and employees and the self-employed followed. Body image and self-esteem were significantly improved after surgery (p < 0.005). Although not statistically significant, quality of life was improved too after surgery. Conclusion According to the results of this study, physicians and patients should measure the pros and cons of the surgery before making a treatment decision. It also showed that rhinoplasty leads to an increase in quality of life and self-esteem. Prior to surgery, specialist consultation should be performed, and rhinoplasty should be performed if a specialist physician allows it. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the Online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
... 13 Many patients are seeking a betterment of quality of life, self-image, and self-esteem. 14 The patient's self-image can be altered by what they believe is the perception of others by influences of mainstream and social media, with the overall aesthetic structure of the body playing a significant role in the way individuals view themselves. Body ideals may also be distorted by mood, fears, media-defined perception of reality, and sexual orientation of the individual. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background There were almost 12 million nonsurgical cosmetic procedures performed in the United States in 2016, which represented a 12% increase from the previous year, and popularity is expected to continue rising. Furthermore, nonsurgical fat reduction and body contouring have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity among both men and women. However, there has been very little work focused on the public’s perception of the ideal abdominal muscles. Objectives The authors sought to analyze patient perspectives on ideal abdominal contours and attitudes towards methods of improving the appearance of the abdomen. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study of 718 random volunteers recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk was conducted. A survey instrument was administered to all study participants to assess the importance of ab symmetry, pec muscle definition, serratus muscle definition, and natural feel. Results Study participants across all ages, gender, ethnicity, and marital status indicated that a 6-pack was the ideal abdominal muscle count. They also rated the symmetry (61.06 ± 1.87) and natural feel of abs (60.72 ± 1.75) as the 2 most important aesthetic features in consideration of ideal abs. Study participants who reported exercising more than twice a week expressed a greater interest in nonsurgical procedures to achieve ideal abs (P = 0.007). Conclusions “Ideal abs” are 6 in number, symmetric, and feel natural. Millennials are much more willing to consider nonsurgical options to achieve ideal abs instead of surgery. Individuals who maintain a high level of fitness are, interestingly, more likely to want ideal abs and nonsurgical methods to achieve them.
... As Sadick argues, "the lack of self-confidence is expressed as anxiety and is typically connected with a specific physical quality or limitation, which is the focus of the cosmetic surgery" (2008, np). Studies promise that aesthetic surgery can generate positive psychological effects and improve one's quality of life by reducing depression and giving hope (Gagne & McGaughey, 2002;Margraf, Meyer, & Lavallee, 2013von Soest et al., 2008). A rejuvenated self-image may also include better acceptance by friends and family, improvements in one's social, sex and professional lives, and an increased sense of confidence (Gagne & McGaughey, 2002;Sadick, 2008;von Soest et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance to physical decay and the desire to keep youthful looks are not new in human history. Today, however, anti-aging discourse intensifies the longing to reshape one's body and stop the ravages of time. Aging is often portrayed as a personal accountability, a sign of moral responsibility, and even disease, which affects older women disproportionately. In order to adjust to contemporary beauty standards, many older women decide to undergo various rejuvenation procedures. However, few studies on the outcomes of such cosmetic interventions in relation to aging, acceptance and self-perception exist. This article addresses American writer Erica Jong's concerns about the aging body and surgical anti-aging interventions. As spokeswoman of the American post-war generation, the author shows how facial rejuvenation procedures generate conflicting feelings, and reminds her readers that older women continue to be doubly marginalized in today's youth- and beauty-driven society.
... 10,11 However, recently, it has been proposed that although psychosocial concerns may primarily motivate the demand for esthetic rhinoplasty, they may also hinder positive outcomes. 5,6,8,12 Although successful operations often improve the quality of life and self-esteem symptoms in patients with sound mental health, they may actually result in unsatisfactory outcomes in those with significant depression, anxiety, or other severe psychological disorders diagnosed preoperatively and not properly addressed in the postoperative setting. 12,13 As such, the purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of psychological disorders in patients seeking rhinoplasty and to determine the most effective screening practices for such mental health conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recently, it has been proposed that psychosocial concerns may motivate the demand for aesthetic rhinoplasty. Although successful operations often improve the quality of life and self-esteem symptoms in patients with sound mental health, they may actually result in unsatisfactory outcomes in those patients with significant depression, anxiety, or other severe psychological disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of psychological disorders in patients seeking rhinoplasty. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 298 random volunteers was conducted, with each participant completing a survey instrument that was administered through an internet crowd-sourcing service (Amazon Mechanical Turk). Participants were asked to complete a 10-item standardized SHNOS scale, and a 26-question PRIME-MD questionnaire in order to assess functional and aesthetic need for rhinoplasty, and the incidence of psychological disorders respectively. Results: 38.95% of female participants reported a willingness to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty, with a significantly lower number of men reporting the same (27.78%, P = 0.042). Adults between the ages of 18-24 (52.92%) were more willing to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty, as compared to any other age group (P < 0.01). It was found that 57.84% of patients interested in surgery reported a psychological disorder as determined by the PRIME-MD questionnaire. Conclusions: Those suffering from major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or body dysmorphic disorder may seek aesthetic rhinoplasty as a solution. It is important that surgeons assess patient mental health prior to treatment in order to avoid unsuccessful outcomes secondary to psychosocial illness.
... 35 Another finding of the present study was a reducing effect of cosmetic surgery regarding the score of the negative self-image in in people after cosmetic surgery, which is in accordance with researches carried out before. [36][37][38] One of the issues that always comes up about body image is person's self-evaluation. Findings from this study suggested promoting a positive attitude towards body and self-image after getting cosmetic surgery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nowadays in different communities, we are confronting an ever-increasing trend of cosmetic surgeries. The present research was carried out with the aim of investigating sexual self-esteem, attitude to body image and well-being in married women aged from 20 to 30 years old before and after cosmetic surgery in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The research was a semi-experimental design with pre- and post-test. The statistical population consisted 80 married women. The research sample was selected by means of the convenience sampling approach. This group was similar in terms of age, education, and marital status. The research data were accumulated using the Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire, the Fisher body image questionnaire and the Ryff psychological well-being questionnaire, and were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The average scores of all three variables, involving "sexual self-esteem", "body image" and "well-being" were dramatically different before and after cosmetic surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be ascertained that people after cosmetic surgery had higher sexual self-esteem, were more satisfied with their body image, and experienced more well-being.
... Body image includes thoughts, beliefs, evaluating emotions, and behaviors about the physical appearance of an individual. 17 These are affected by several factors and might change in different situations. To improve their mental body image, people try different diets, exercises, or cosmetic surgeries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nowadays, cosmetic surgery is one of the most common types of surgeries all around the world including Iran and those demanding such surgeries are also growing in number. The present study is an attempt to determine the factors in the tendency towards cosmetic surgery in Iranian students. Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, all students at Guilan University of Medical Sciences related to health issues were enrolled. The participants (n=314) were selected through census sampling. Data was garnered using a multi-section questionnaire including socio-demographic variables, body image, body satisfaction, and cosmetic surgery intention. The questionnaires were completed as self-statement. Results: The age range of the students was 18-55 years and the mean age was 25.07±7.41 years. Body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 23±3.82. Among socio-demographic variables, BMI, gender, family revenue, father's job, marital status, mother's job, and fathers' literacy level were the predictors of intention for cosmetic surgery. In addition, among psychological variables, body satisfaction and image, and attitudes were predictors of intention for cosmetic surgery. Conclusion: Educational and psychological interventions are recommended to create body satisfaction, to develop positive attitudes toward one's body, and to develop negative attitudes toward cosmetic surgery and the side effects. Apparently, providing an environment for physical activity and exercise, especially for girls would help the students in losing weight, remaining in shape and attenuating the tendency toward cosmetic surgery.
... 8 Several studies have reported small-to-moderate improvements in intrinsic factors, such as self-esteem and body image after cosmetic surgery. [9][10][11][12] Thus, clients who report primarily self-driven expectations for treatment are generally considered more realistic and, therefore, more likely to be satisfied with treatment outcomes. 13 In contrast, individuals reporting external motivators are considered less likely to have their expectations met, 6,14-17 with limited evidence indicating any change in social, romantic, or employment factors postprocedure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To develop and validate a novel patient-reported measure to assess internally and externally driven expectations for change after a cosmetic procedure, termed the aesthetic procedure expectations (ASPECT) scale. Method: In total, 186 adults recruited from nonsurgical cosmetic clinics in Melbourne, Australia, accessed an online survey (150 completed; 81% response rate) including the novel ASPECT questionnaire, demographics, and measures of psychological distress. Results: The final sample included 141 women and 5 men with a mean age of 44.78 years (standard deviation = 11.68) with <10% missing data. Results supported a two-factor ASPECT scale measuring intrinsic and extrinsic expectations, with high internal consistency and convergent validity. Heightened extrinsic and intrinsic expectations were both associated with individuals who were emotionally distressed, younger, and had previously undertaken more cosmetic procedures. Cutoff scores for the ASPECT subscales are proposed to aid cosmetic practitioners in identifying clients requiring further assessment. Conclusions: The ASPECT scale may provide a reliable and useful clinical tool for cosmetic practitioners to assess unrealistic expectations and determine which clients may require more in-depth consultation before undergoing surgical or nonsurgical cosmetic treatment.
... Many different methods including exercise (16), cosmetic surgery (17), dance therapy (18), life style therapy (19), group existential and reality therapy (20), and a variety of cognitive behavioral therapies (21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26) have been proposed to cope with body image dissatisfaction. It seems that cognitive behavioral therapies are the most effective treatment methods in body image dissatisfaction (21). ...
... The answer is self-esteem. Cosmetic surgery itself can have positive effects, such as the improvement of body image and increase of self-esteem (von Soest et al. 2009). However, this paper showed that women without serious problems may consider cosmetic surgery, and selfesteem can help such women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selfies are related to dissatisfaction with appearance, but interestingly, selfies also predict positive evaluation about appearance (e.g., narcissism). In addition, selfie effects on appearance were examined only at the personal level. This paper investigated appearance-related effects of selfies among Asian women both at the personal and societal level while controlling for individuals’ perception of own appearance to see selfie effects regardless of (dis)satisfaction with appearance. At the personal level, acceptance of cosmetic surgery (ACS) was chosen as the outcome because cosmetic surgery is the most drastic means of personal transformation. At the societal level, acceptance of lookism (AL), discrimination based on appearance, was adopted because it shows social orientation toward beauty. Study 1 (N = 501), conducted among Singaporean women, found that selfie taking directly predicts ACS and also indirectly influences ACS through appearance comparison. However, indirect effects were not significant in the high self-esteem group (top 27.65%). Study 2, with longitudinal data (N = 941 at Wave 1 and 653 at Wave 2) collected from South Korean women, found that selfie taking and editing are first associated with appearance orientation, meaning the personal importance of appearance, at Wave 1, and such increased attention positively predicts AL, the societal importance of appearance, at Wave 2. No direct effects were found. The results suggest that selfies are associated with appearance-related beliefs both at the personal and societal level regardless of one’s perception of own appearance, but there are individual differences and underlying mechanisms.
... It has been shown in previous literature that self-image improves after cosmetic surgery such as liposuction and abdominoplasty as well as breast augmentation (32)(33)(34). ...
Article
Background Surgical bleeding may lead to the need for blood transfusion and minimizing blood loss has been a basic principle followed by surgeons for generations. Antifibrinolytic agents are widely used to reduce perioperative haemorrhage. The present study sought to assess the efficacy of directly infiltrated tranexamic acid in ameliorating bruising in participants undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery (liposuction).Materials and Methods The study employed a blinded, prospective, randomized, case control design. Thirty-three patients were studied. Tranexamic acid free infiltration tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) was infiltrated to one flank of patients undergoing liposuction of flanks. The other flank was infiltrated with the same tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) mixed with tranexamic acid (0.1%). Bruises were photographed one and seven days after surgery and measured for size. The surface area of the bruises was calculated using ImageJ software. We compared the bruised surface are between the tranexamic acid infiltrated flank and non-tranexamic acid infiltrated flank in the same patient. The model employed involved measuring the bruises on each flank of the same patient, with surgery by a single surgeon using the same infiltration and surgical techniques for both sides. The only variable was the difference in tranexamic acid concentration between study and control flanks.ResultsWe found that use of tranexamic acid consistently resulted in a smaller bruise area on days one and seven after liposuction of flanks. Results were statistically significant.Conclusions This is the first study examining addition of tranexamic acid to a tumescent infiltration solution—to produce a predictable local concentration of tranexamic acid—in order to maximize surgical site effect and minimize systemic effect.The authors recommend incorporation of tranexamic acid as a routine component along with adrenaline and local anaesthetics in tumescent field infiltration solution 10–15 min before commencement of the cosmetic surgery.Level of Evidence IIThis journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
... Grooming behavior that is either poor or exaggerated can be a sign of illness or other issue. For example, in humans, excessive esthetic surgeries are not associated with improved mental health (von Soest et al., 2009) and pathological repetitive behaviors (behavioral perseveration), such as nail biting or hair pulling, are associated with poorer cognitive capacities (Flessner et al., 2015). Evolutionary psychopathology argues that many obsessions and compulsions are an exaggeration of biological systems that enable threat detection and harm avoidance (Feygin et al., 2006). ...
... Bir kişinin, sahip olmadığı fiziksel görünüm hakkındaki güzellik ideallerini içselleştirmesi ve görünüş karşılaştırmasına girmesinin beden imajıyla ilgili sorunlar yaratabileceği öne sürülmektedir. Bunun sonucunda fiziksel görünümlerinden memnun olmayan kişilerin estetik cerrahiye başvurma oranları giderek artmaktadır (1)(2)(3). Uluslararası Estetik Plastik Cerrahi Derneği'nin (International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery) verilerine göre 2019 yılında Dünya'da 11.363.569 cerrahi ve 13.618.735 ...
... Mental health status also plays an important role in post-operative satisfaction, and the patients' dissatisfaction cause problems for their surgeons [5]. Research has shown that although cosmetic surgery could improve these patients' self-esteem, their body image orientation did not differ significantly after the surgery [6]. ...
Article
Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and other psychological problems are more common in cosmetic surgery applicants.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the symptoms of BDD and narcissistic personality disorder in rhinoplasty candidates.Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on rhinoplasty applicants. All subjects were evaluated by BDD and narcissistic personality questionnaires (NPI-16).ResultsA total of 380 patients were studied. Our findings showed that the prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe BDD symptoms was 31.6%, 43.4% and 25%, respectively. The mean BDD scores were not significantly different in variables such as gender, age, marital status, history of cosmetic surgery, education, place of residence, and income. 29.5% of the subjects had symptoms of narcissism. There was no significant relationship between the symptoms of narcissism and variables such as gender, age, marital status, history of cosmetic surgery, place of residence, and income. Higher education was associated with higher rates of narcissistic personality disorder (p-value = 0.021).Conclusions According to the results of the study, there was no statistically significant relationship between BDD score and demographic parameters. Also, association between narcissistic personality disorder and demographic characteristics was not significant except for education.Level of Evidence IV
... В то же время, в отличие от значительного количества психологических исследований больных с хроническими заболеваниями кожи, а также лиц, обращающихся к пластическим хирургам [18,23,25,26,27,31], психологические исследования в области лечебной косметологии крайне малочисленны. ...
Article
. In order to study the correlation of clinical-biological and socio-psychological characteristics of women with cosmetological problems of the skin of the face using a complex of methods of clinical, clinical-psychological and psychometric diagnostics, 110 patients of the cosmetology clinic were studied and were divided into four diagnostic groups («Gravitational ptosis»,»Mimic wrinkles»,»Acne»,»Skin dehydration»). The average age of the sample was 35.64 ± 1.11 years. The specific objectives of the study were to study the relationship between age, clinical and psychological characteristics of patients; the effectiveness of cosmetological treatment and the psychological characteristics of the patients; the degree of influence of the cosmetological problem on the vital activity and psychological characteristics of the patients; attitude towards oneself and other psychological characteristics of women with facial skin defects.Based on the analysis of special literature and the results of our own research, it is shown that it is necessary to study the relationship of psychological and clinical-biological factors for the individualization of the process of cosmetological correction of the facial skin.A statistically significant relationship was established between age and clinical diagnosis, between age and psychological characteristics of patients. It has been proven that subjective satisfaction with the results of treatment positively correlates with extraversion and self-confidence, as well as with an objective assessment of the effectiveness of treatment, which in turn is interrelated with patient satisfaction with their social and professional status, as well as with the internal orientation of the personality - factors that contribute to compliance. and partnership in the treatment process.It was revealed: the higher the severity of the facial skin defect, the more self-doubt, inability to cooperate and cooperate in the personality structure, and the lower the expert assessment of the effectiveness of treatment.
... Estetik operasyonların da bireylerin ruhsal sağlık problemleri ile ilişkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Öyle ki estetik operasyonlar bireylerin beden algılarında, kendine güven duygularında ve psikolojik durumlarında değişikliklere sebep olmaktadır (Soest, Kvalem, Roald ve Skolleborg, 2009). Öte yandan rinoplasti kişinin psikososyal deneyimlerini ve gelişimini etkileyebilecek sosyal çekicilik, tutumlar, atıflar ve eylemler üzerinde etkilidir. ...
... This study referenced 72 articles. Among these, 28 assessed attitudes toward CS, 5,8,9,11,12,14,15, and 22 evaluated attitudes toward acceptance of CS, 4,9,14,18,21,25,28,29,[32][33][34][35]37,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] with some overlap. Only 1 article specifically addressed the issue of "stigma" associated with CS. 39 The remaining articles referred to related issues such as the number of CS procedures performed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background:. Worldwide, the numbers of cosmetic procedures continue to climb. However, cosmetic surgery (CS) continues to be plagued by negative stigmatization. This study reviews the literature to identify how attitudes toward CS vary by sex, age, race, culture, and nationality, and aims to determine how other factors like media exposure interact with demographics to influence how well CS is accepted. Methods:. A PRISMA-guided systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify all English-language papers reporting on CS or plastic surgery acceptance, attitudes, or stigmatization, specifically examining for data on age, sex, race/ethnicity, culture, and media influence. Results:. In total, 1515 abstracts were reviewed, of which 94 were deemed pertinent enough to warrant a full-text review. Among the potential demographic predictors of CS acceptance, the one with the most supportive data is sex, with women comprising roughly 90% of all CS patients in virtually all populations studied and consistently exhibiting greater CS knowledge and acceptance. Culturally, the pursuit of beauty through CS is a universal phenomenon, although different countries, races, and cultures differ in how willingly CS is embraced, and in the aesthetic goals of those choosing to have it. In countries with culturally diverse societies like the United States, non-Hispanic Whites continue to predominate among CS patients, but the number of CS patients of other races is rising disproportionately. In this trend, social media is playing a major role. Conclusion:. Healthcare practitioners performing cosmetic procedures need to consider demographic and cultural differences of the patients in order to enhance their understanding of their patients’ aesthetic goals and expectations.
Article
Full-text available
Recently collated scientific data on the management of C1 clinical class of chronic venous disorders; wide prevalence of the disease and high variability amongst medical practitioners in relation to managing this category of patients and absence of any regulatory documents has prompted the development of clinical guidelines for the treatment of patients with reticular varicose veins and telangiectasias of the lower extremities and various parts of the body. These guidelines have been developed by a self-regulated organization Association “The National College of Phlebology”. The purpose of the de novo guidelines is to systematize the existing evidence and offer minimal standards of care for chronic venous disorders in C1 patients.
Article
Background: Social media addiction is currently a common problem worldwide. Studies have suggested that individuals who underwent rhinoplasty are susceptible to the aforementioned condition, but no evidence-based research has been conducted to derive a definitive conclusion to this issue. Objective: This study was aimed at comparing the self-esteem, body perception, and social media use of individuals with and without a history of rhinoplasty. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was conducted at two treatment centers. Rhinoplasty patients were selected from those who sought treatment in the private clinic of one of the researchers, whereas the control cohort participants were chosen from among employees of a university hospital. After the implementation of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients and 102 healthy unmatched control subjects were enrolled in the research. Main Measures and Outcomes: The collected sociodemographic data covered age, gender, years of education, and type of social media use. Social media addiction was measured using the social media addiction scale, self-esteem was ascertained with the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and body perception was assessed using the body perception scale. The independent samples t-test was conducted twice to compare the mean scores of the participants, and mediation analysis was carried out to determine the effects of body image and self-esteem scores on social media addiction scores. Two-sided p-values were calculated, and differences were considered significant at the 0.1, 0.05, and 0.001 levels. Results: The groups obtained similar body image and self-esteem scores, but the difference in the social media addiction scores of the rhinoplasty patients and control participants was statistically significant at the 0.05 level, with the former having higher addiction scores. On the basis of the cutoff for social media addiction, 8 and 10 participants from the rhinoplasty and control groups, respectively, exhibited signs of dependency on Web-based social networks and similar innovations. The self-esteem scores (X) and body image scores (M) predicted the social media addiction scores (Y). The coefficient of the body image scores was statistically significant, but that of the self-esteem scores was not. The X + M → Y model indicated statistically significant effects. Conclusion and Relevance: We compared the social media usage of rhinoplasty patients and control participants. Our findings indicated no evidentiary support for the view of rhinoplasty patients as social media addicts and suggested that such a perception is a form of stigmatization.
Article
The popularity of cosmetic procedures appears to be on the rise. While this may be the outcome of many factors, including the increasing availability, accessibility and affordability of such procedures, the important and influential role of body image and levels of body dissatisfaction as potentially motivating factors requires attention. This article will discuss the role of body image in appearance-related cosmetic procedures and its implications for patient expectations and outcomes among women.
Chapter
This entry provides an overview of psychosocial issues related to cosmetic medical treatments, including surgical and minimally invasive procedures. It includes a discussion of psychological factors that motivate individual patients to seek treatment. Psychiatric conditions commonly seen in these patients are described. Studies that have investigated changes in psychosocial status following successful treatment are reviewed. The article highlights two newer areas of research—body contouring after massive weight loss and genital procedures. It concludes with a discussion of how mental health professionals and physicians can collaborate to identify psychologically appropriate patients and maximize the psychosocial benefits of these procedures.
Article
Little qualitative literature has examined women’s motivations for undergoing cosmetic surgery or their experiences throughout the surgery process (e.g., consultation, aftercare, and recovery). To fill this gap, we interviewed 15 Australian women (Mage = 37.67) who had undergone cosmetic surgery. We conducted a reflexive thematic analysis from which we generated five overarching themes. Broadly, participants described the ‘cosmetic surgery lifestyle’ as being normalised in contemporary Australian society. In terms of their own cosmetic surgery experiences, several expressed suffering from severe depression immediately post-surgery. Most participants also discussed how interactions with other people influenced their cosmetic surgery journeys. For instance, several described having problematic and/or distressing interactions with cosmetic surgeons, while others spoke to the lack of emotional support they received from romantic partners. Finally, almost all participants described how cosmetic surgery was a decision they made ‘for themselves’ (i.e., completely independent of external influence), yet, paradoxically, described how negative comments made by others drove them to cosmetic surgery. These findings contribute to existing feminist accounts of cosmetic surgery and highlight ethical concerns regarding how cosmetic surgery is practiced in Australia.
Article
Full-text available
The poineering research has been conducted with the objective of identifying aspects of the artifact environment that has affected on the temperament of individuals, and as a result on human soul and behavior, and according to the opinions of the scientists and thinkers of behavioral sciences, it has attempted to discover the aspects of culture with a holistic viewpoint that has been deriven from the environment and climate. By recognizing these effects, the analysis of the ethic characteristics of individuals and the impacts of these temperaments on the vernacular architecture of hot and humid climate of Boushehr has been studied. The research method in this study at first was conducted through content analysis for understanding the temperaments and its impact on the ethics and behavior of residents of various climates and then it has studied the elements of vernacular architecture of Boushehr based on analytical-argumental method. In conclution, the present research can provide a factor for better understanding of the culture and collective identity of a place that based on environmental effects, which ultimately leads to the architecture formation in order to create a state of the temperaments equilibrium, in addition to more adaptation with its environment.
Article
Aim To estimate changes in self-perception and satisfaction in women undergoing breast augmentation surgery (BAS). Methods: Using a quasi-experimental questionnaire study design, we enrolled a cohort of BAS women treated at a private clinic during a 5-year interval. The primary predictor variable was treatment (before/after). The main outcome variables included effect of considering breast augmentation as one of the most important life events on self-image (BAOMILE), and subjective evaluation of physical appearance and life satisfaction. Other study variables were demographic data. The Mann-Whitney and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare the outcomes between before and after the surgery. The Spearman rank correlation and the Pearson chi-squared test were computed to analyse the relationships among variables. Results The sample consisted of 53 subjects (52.3% married; 40.9% from medium-sized towns) with a mean age of 33.2 ± 6.4 years (range, 21 - 46). Life satisfaction was significantly increased after BAS in the whole cohort (preop, 7.83 vs. postop, 8.42; P = .003; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.22) as well as in the BAOMILE subgroup (preop, 7.87 vs. postop 8.56; P = .011; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.17). Within the BAOMILE subgroup, there was a positive correlation between the appearance assessment and the number of positive traits before surgery (ρ = .63; P = .002; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.83) and life satisfaction after surgery (ρ = .480; P = .03; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.74). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that BAS improves self-perception and life satisfaction of the patients. The psychologist's role in understating patient's motivation for cosmetic surgery and the revision of their attitudes towards expected effects require further investigations.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adolescents’ social appearence anxiety, perfectionism and self-esteem.
Article
Full-text available
Estetik cerrahi; cerrahi ve tıbbi teknikler aracılığıyla kişinin fiziksel görünüşününkorunması, yenilenmesi veya geliştirilmesi ile ilgilidir. Estetik cerrahi girişim iste-ği son on yılda daha da artmıştır. Estetik cerrahideki teknolojik gelişmelerle, birçokkişi fiziksel görünümünü değiştirmek için olası bir seçenek olarak estetik cerrahiyidüşünmeye ve kabul etmeye istekli hale gelmiştir. Estetik cerrahi hastalarının psi-kolojisi ile ilgili çalışmalar 1960’lardan bugüne kadar devam etmektedir. Gerçek-leştirilen en fazla ilk üç estetik cerrahi işlem; yağ aldırma (lipoplasti), meme bü-yütme ve göz kapağı estetiği (blefaroplasti) dir. En fazla gerçekleştirilen cerrahi dı-şı işlem botoks enjeksiyonudur. Ayrıca, kimyasal peeling, cilt soyma (mikroder-mabrazyon), lazer, epilasyon ve estetik varis tedavisi (skleroterapi) belirtilmekte-dir. Hastaların cerrahi işlem yaptırmak isteğinin gerisinde yer alan en yaygın moti-vasyonlarda Beden Biçimsizlik Bozukluğu (BBB), beden imgesi, benlik saygısı,güzel/genç/çekici görünmek, yeme bozuklukları, yaşamdan memnuniyetsizlik, re-kabet duygusu ve alay konusu olma gibi psikolojik, duygusal ve sosyo-kültürel fak-törlerin etkileşimi rol oynamaktadır. Estetik hastaların sahip olduğu güdülenmefaktörlerinin daha iyi anlaşılması, sağlık hizmeti verenlerin bu hasta popülasyonunaen üst düzeyde hizmet vermesini sağlayacaktır.
Article
The objective of this review is to shed light on the literature regarding the psychological impact of invasive cosmetic surgery and to discuss future implications for research and clinical practice. Articles published through October 2021 were reviewed to answer the question: Does cosmetic surgery improve a patient’s overall psychological health? Psychological well-being was examined through the lens of body image, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression scores. The studies revealed that while cosmetic surgery appears to boost patients’ body image, other crucial aspects of psychological well-being may or may not similarly benefit. Notably, factors such as a patient’s preoperative mental status, level of education, type of cosmetic procedure, postoperative healing time, gender, and age play a role in determining the direction and magnitude of psychological change after surgery. Limitations include the lack of diversity in study populations and the potential role of body dysmorphic disorder. Overall, researchers have concluded that cosmetic surgery improves body image, but remain in disagreement on its effects on self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.
Chapter
For many, cosmetic surgery holds the promise that one can reshape his or her body to remove perceived defects and thus have a more perfect body. However, the decision to undergo elective cosmetic surgery is not made in a vacuum, and it is easy to overlook the full range of ethical considerations surrounding cosmetic surgery. Many medical ethicists subscribe to an ethical code that centers mainly on the relationship between the doctor and patient, with a focus on respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. This chapter builds on this framework by extending the scope of actors to include not only the surgeon and the patient but also the media and the overall society. To illustrate this framework, the author uses the example of actress Heidi Montag, who underwent 10 different plastic surgery procedures in one day. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential correctives for ethical failures in each of these areas.
Thesis
Full-text available
Bu araştırmada Plastik Rekonstrüktif ve Estetik cerrahi kliniğine yatan ve estetik ameliyat geçirecek hastalarda, estetik cerrahi kabul durumları ve etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Article
There is an old saying that if you think you have discovered something new then it is because you don't read the German literature and there is some truth in this. When Plastic Surgery is mentioned the usual reply is “Ah, Gillies” as though he was the fons et origo of Plastic and Reconstructive surgery. The fact is that there were many more pioneering plastic surgeons outside the British Empire, whose work preceded and even surpassed Gilles. In 1818, Karl Ferdinand von Gräefe published “Rhinoplastik” and coined the term plastic surgery (Plastische Chirurgie). Eduard Zeis, in 1838 published the textbook "Handbuch der plastischen Chirurgie" and established its meaning based on hundreds of references. Undoubtably, the first decades of the 20th century, especially the war between 1914 and 1918, were the genesis of most modern developments in plastic surgery and there were many more pioneering plastic surgeons outside the British Empire, whose work preceded, equalled and even surpassed Gillies, despite his admirable achievements.
Article
Importance: Facial paralysis leads to both aesthetic and functional deficits placing patients at risk for sociopsychological sequelae and social impairment. Objective: To examine the effect of facial paralysis and synkinesis on social impairment and quality of life (QOL). Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care medical center. Adults with a history of facial palsy were broadly categorized by self-reported degree of facial paralysis and synkinesis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical demographic information, self-reported degrees of facial paralysis and synkinesis, and facial palsy-specific QOL as measured by the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale and the Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) were collected. FaCE and SAQ scales were evaluated as predictors of social impairment outcomes, as measured by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-II (BFNE-II), the Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ-A30), and Social Avoidance and Distress (SAD) scales, in addition to health utility scores from the Short-Form 6D (SF-6D). Results: Fifty-six participants with facial palsy were included (30% male; average age: 56.4 [standard deviation (SD): 15] years). Sixty-three percent of participants reported history of Bell's palsy; 37% reported other etiologies. Forty-seven percent of participants reported moderate or severe facial impairment and 46% of participants reported involuntary facial movement. Participants with moderate or severe facial impairment exhibited increased BFNE-II (p = 0.03), SAQ-A30 (p = 0.04), and SAD (p < 0.01) scores and lower health valuation on SF-6D (p = 0.04). FaCE scores moderately correlated with lower health valuation (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and moderately and inversely correlated with SAD (r = -0.33, p = 0.01) and BFNE-II (r = -0.35, p < 0.01) scores. Furthermore, worsening FaCE scores predicted worsening SAQ (p < 0.01), SAD (p = 0.01), BFNE-II (p < 0.01), and SF-6D (p < 0.01) scores. Worse degrees of synkinesis correlated with higher BFNE-II scores (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) and worsening SAQ scores predicted worsening FaCE (p < 0.01) and BFNE-II (p < 0.01) scores. Females demonstrated significantly worse BFNE-II scores (p = 0.04) when compared with men, and female gender significantly predicted worse FaCE scores (p < 0.01). Seventy-one percent of women with self-reported moderate or severe facial impairment met criteria for social anxiety, as did 67% of women with self-reported moderate or severe synkinesis. Conclusions and Relevance: Individuals with self-reported moderate or severe facial impairment exhibit a higher degree of social impairment and poorer health valuation than those with no or mild facial impairment. Facial palsy-specific QOL moderately and inversely correlated with social impairment and moderately correlated with health valuation. Our results indicate that FaCE scores may be used as a predictor of SAD, BFNE-II, and SF-6D scores and that facial palsy QOL and its relationship with social impairment should be considered when treating patients with a history of facial palsy.
Article
Self-esteem is one of the most important psychological aspect of cosmetic surgery, in our case aesthetic rhinoplasty surgery. Self-esteem can be described as one’s attitude towards ownself. Our aim is to assess the self-esteem pre-operatively in patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty with respect to those seeking functional rhinoplasty and also compare the post-operative improvement in the self-esteem in those patients. This is a Prospective comparative study in a Tertiary care centre. A total of 48 patients who were planned to undergo rhinoplasty over a period of 1 year in a tertiary care centre, A total of 48 patients (24 requiring aesthetic rhinoplasty and the rest functional rhinoplasty),grouped according to their primary objective, were asked to fill up Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Independent t test was used for data analysis. The mean value of self-esteem in aesthetic rhinoplasty group was significantly lower as compared to functional rhinoplasty and there was also significant improvement of self-esteem score post -operatively in the aesthetic rhinoplasty group. Age,gender, marital status, socio-economic status and educational backgrounds were analyzed and there was no significant differences in these factors on comparison between the two groups. Our study showed that self-esteem is an important parameter in cosmetic surgery as patients opting for aesthetic rhinoplasty had lower self-esteem score pre-operatively and there was significant improvement of these scores post-operatively.
Article
E‐health applications have recently become increasingly important in modern medicine.1 Especially chatbots may be of particular salience as they can serve as an automated communication tool between health care experts and patients. Simultaneously, there is a growing interest in aesthetic dermatologic treatments.
Article
Full-text available
Recently collated scientific data on the management of C1 clinical class of chronic venous disorders; wide prevalence of the disease and high variability amongst medical practitioners in relation to managing this category of patients and absence of any regulatory documents has prompted the development of clinical guidelines for the treatment of patients with reticular varicose veins and telangiectasias of the lower extremities and various parts of the body. These guidelines have been developed by a self-regulated organization Association “The National College of Phlebology”. The purpose of the de novo guidelines is to systematize the existing evidence and offer minimal standards of care for chronic venous disorders in C1 patients.
Article
Modern women feel compelled to meet near-impossible standards of beauty. For many, this pursuit ultimately culminates in cosmetic surgery - a radical form of beautification that is rapidly becoming popular worldwide. Paradoxically, while prevalent, artificial beauty remains widely unaccepted in contemporary society. This narrative review synthesizes feminist dialogue, recent research, and real-world case studies to argue that female beauty standards account for both the growing popularity of cosmetic surgery and its lack of mainstream acceptance. First, we implicate unrealistic beauty standards and the medicalization of appearance in popularizing cosmetic surgery. Second, we analyze how negative attitudes toward cosmetic surgery are also motivated by unrealistic beauty standards. Finally, we generate a synthesized model of the processes outlined in this review and provide testable predictions for future studies based on this model. Our review is the first to integrate theoretical and empirical evidence into a cohesive narrative that explains the cosmetic surgery paradox; that is, how cosmetic surgery remains secretive, stigmatized, and moralized despite its surging popularity.
Article
Studied more extensively in Western societies, body image in other cultures is less researched. South Korea provides a unique context to examine body image given its flourishing plastic surgery industry, which is indicative of negative body image and plastic surgery acceptance. The current study examined whether relevant sociocultural factors in South Korea (i.e., fear of negative evaluation [FNE] and filial piety [FP]) play a role in the association between body image and acceptance of plastic surgery. College students in South Korea ( n = 227) completed self-report measures of body image, FNE, FP, and acceptance of plastic surgery. Students with plastic surgery experience reported greater FNE and acceptance of plastic surgery than those without. Significant negative indirect effects of body image on acceptance of plastic surgery through FNE were found in the full sample. FP was found to moderate the body image-acceptance of plastic surgery link such that for individuals low in FP, lower body areas satisfaction was associated with greater acceptance of plastic surgery. The findings highlight the importance of understanding body image within a cultural context and provide implications for body image concerns in South Korean individuals.
Article
The study examines differences in body image between active and inactive people, and between active and inactive men and women. A random sample of 1555 Norwegians between the ages of 18 and 67 completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). In addition, body mass index and discrepancies between actual and desired weight (WDIS) and height (HDIS), were calculated. The subjects were classified into inactive, low-, moderate-, and high active men and women. Analyses showed that almost all groups of active men and women compared to their inactive counterparts, evaluated physical appearance, fitness, and health significantly better, were significantly more satisfied with different parts of their bodies, and were significantly more concerned with fitness and health. Active men were significantly more satisfied with weight and height, and less concerned with weight than inactive men. No such differences were obtained among the groups of women. Moderate- and high active men and women evaluated their bodies better than low active men and women. Low- and moderate active men evaluated physical appearance, fitness, and health significantly better than low- and moderate active women. No such gender differences were obtained among inactive and high active subjects. Women in all four groups were significantly more concerned with appearance, health, and weight, and were significantly less satisfied with weight and most parts of their bodies than their male counterparts.
Article
Meta-analysis was used to examine findings in 2 related areas: experimental research on the physical attractiveness stereotype and correlational studies of characteristics associated with physical attractiveness. The experimental literature found that physically attractive people were perceived as more sociable, dominant, sexually warm, mentally healthy, intelligent, and socially skilled than physically unattractive people. Yet, the correlational literature indicated generally trivial relationships between physical attractiveness and measures of personality and mental ability, although good-looking people were less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled, and more sexually experienced than unattractive people. Self-ratings of physical attractiveness were positively correlated with a wider range of attributes than was actual physical attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
This article presents an analysis of the factor structure of the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ), an attitudinal body-image instrument. Random stratified samples, drawn from a national survey, included 1,064 females and 988 males. In order to evaluate the replicability of the BSRQ factor structure, separate split-sample factor analyses (principal components with varimax rotation) were conducted for each sex. Largely consistent with the conceptual basis of the BSRQ, the resultant factors derived from each analysis were: Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Fitness Evaluation, Fitness Orientation, Health Evaluation, Health Orientation, and Illness Orientation. Subsequent concordance analyses revealed marked stability of the factor structure both within and between sexes. Females demonstrated somewhat greater differentiation of body-image attitudes than did males. The utility of the BSRQ is discussed relative to extant body-image measures.
Article
This report describes the historical evolution, development, rationale and validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), a self-report symptom inventory. The HSCL is comprised of 58 items which are representative of the symptom configurations commonly observed among outpatients. It is scored on five underlying symptom dimensions—sommatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and depression—which have been identified in repeated factor analyses. A series of studies have established the factorial invariance of the primary symptom dimensions, and substantial evidence is given in support of their construct validity. Normative data in terms of both discrete symptoms and primary symptom dimensions are presented on 2,500 subjects—1,800 psychiatric outpatients and 700 normals. Indices of pathology reflect both intensity of distress and prevalence of symptoms in the normative samples. Standard indices of scale reliability are presented, and a broad range of criterion-related validity studies, in particular an important series reflecting sensitivity to treatment with psychotherapeutic drugs, are reviewed and discussed.
Article
To assess the health related quality of life of patients before and after aesthetic surgery. A survey by questionnaire of patients before receiving surgery and 6 months after surgery. 656 patients anticipating surgery were sent a preoperative questionnaire, to which 443 replied. Subsequently 259 of these received a postoperative questionnaire, of which 198 were returned. Health status was assessed using three standardised health status instruments (The Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Comparisons were made between the health status of the plastic surgery patients and that of a random sample of the general population. Patients receiving breast reduction surgery experienced significant improvements on all three health status measures. Patients in all surgical groups experienced significant improvements in self-esteem. Patients receiving aesthetic surgery experience a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. Surgery was shown be effective at addressing these problems. Health status assessment provides a valid and independent method for measuring the effects of such health care interventions.
Article
This article discusses the psychology of cosmetic surgery. A review of the research on the psychological characteristics of individuals who seek cosmetic surgery yielded contradictory findings. Interview-based investigations revealed high levels of psychopathology in cosmetic surgery patients, whereas studies that used standardized measurements reported far less disturbance. It is difficult to fully resolve the discrepancy between these two sets of findings. We believe that investigating the construct of body image in cosmetic surgery patients will yield more useful findings. Thus, we propose a model of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and cosmetic surgery and outline a research agenda based upon the model. Such research will generate information that is useful to the medical and mental health communities and, ultimately, the patients themselves.
Article
In this report, the authors evaluate the effectiveness of breast reduction in alleviating the symptoms of macromastia by comparing baseline and postoperative health status using a series of well-validated self-report instruments. The study had a prospective design with a surgical intervention group and two control groups: a hypertrophy control group with bra cup sizes D or larger and a normal control group with bra cup sizes less than D. The effectiveness of nonsurgical interventions in relieving the symptoms of macromastia was also evaluated, both in the operative subjects and in the control groups. Surgical candidates and controls completed a self-administered baseline survey that consisted of the following validated and standardized instruments commonly used to evaluate outcomes: SF-36, EuroQol, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). A specially designed and validated instrument, the Breast-Related Symptoms (BRS), was also used. There were also questions about prior nonsurgical treatments, comorbid conditions, bra size, and a physical assessment. Additional information obtained on the operative subjects included surgical procedure data, resection weight, and complications. Approximately 6 to 9 months postoperatively, surgical subjects completed the same questionnaire as described above, and a final physical assessment was performed. The cohort included 179 operative subjects with matched preoperative and postoperative data sets, 96 normal controls and 88 hypertrophy controls. The women were predominantly Caucasian, middle-aged, well educated, and employed. Fifty percent of the operative subjects reported breast-related pain all or most of the time in the upper back, shoulders, neck, and lower back preoperatively compared with less than 10 percent postoperatively. Operative subjects and hypertrophy controls tried a number of conservative treatments, including weight loss, but none provided adequate permanent relief. Compared with population norms, the preoperative subjects had significantly lower scores (p < 0.05) in all eight health domains of the SF-36, and in the mental and physical component summary scores. After surgery, the operative subjects had higher means (better health) than national norms in seven of the eight domains and improved significantly from presurgical means in all eight domains (p < 0.05). Before surgery, the operative subjects reported high levels of pain with a Pain Rating Index (PRI) score from the MPQ of 26.6. After surgery, pain was significantly lower with a mean PRI score of 11.7, similar to that of our controls (mean PRI score, 11.2). Regression analysis was used to control for covariate effects on the main study outcomes. Among the operative subjects, benefits from breast reduction were not associated with body weight, bra cup size, or weight of resection, with essentially all patients benefiting from surgery.Breast hypertrophy has a significant impact on women's health status and quality of life as measured by validated and widely used self-report instruments including the SF-36, MPQ, and EuroQol. Pain is a significant symptom in this disease, and both pain and overall health status are markedly improved by breast reduction. In this population, conservative measures such as weight loss, physical therapy, special brassieres, and medications did not provide effective permanent relief of symptoms.
Article
This study examined the experiences of 360 women receiving bilateral breast augmentation with Dow Corning's Silastic MSI (textured) or Silastic II (smooth) gel-filled mammary implants. Before surgery, the women completed a quantitative assessment of their surgical expectations and concerns. At 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively, they rated their satisfaction with surgery and its specific psychosocial outcomes, their concerns, and benefits-to-risks appraisals of the augmentation. The women reported very high levels of satisfaction with the procedure and its psychosocial outcomes, which did not change over time. Throughout the 2-year period, over 90 percent of the women were satisfied with surgery and their resultant body-image changes. Their concerns about risks, reported by 19 percent before surgery, declined after surgery and remained subsequently stable. Most participants (75 to 85 percent) reported that the benefits of surgery exceeded its risks. Postoperative events such as significant capsular contracture that compromised aesthetic results diminished aspects of satisfaction, whereas less obvious events did not. Systematic analysis of attrition (i.e., missing assessments) did not indicate any biases because of complications or psychosocial outcomes. Evaluation of a possible impact of the publicity surrounding the Food and Drug Administration's voluntary moratorium on the use of silicone gel-filled breast implants, which occurred during the study, revealed a limited effect, if any, on women's psychosocial outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the study's methodological strengths and limitations and with respect to the broader context of patient care.
Article
A great number of questionnaires and instruments have been developed in order to measure psychological distress/mental health problems in populations. The Survey of Level of Living in 1998 conducted by Statistics Norway used both Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-25) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36), including the five-item mental health index (MHI-5). Five-item and 10-item versions of the SCL-25 have also been used in Norwegian surveys. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the various instruments, and to assess and to compare psychometric characteristics. A random sample of 9735 subjects over 15 years of age drawn from the Norwegian population received a questionnaire about their health containing SCL-25 and SF-36. Response rate was 71.9%. Reliability of the SCLs and MHI-5 were assessed by Cronbach alpha. The scores from full and abbreviated instruments were compared regarding possible instrument-specific effects of gender, age and level of education. The correlations between the instruments were calculated. The capacity of the various instruments to identify cases was assessed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC). The reliabilities were high (Cronbach alpha>0.8). All instruments showed a significant difference in the mean scores for men and women. The correlation between the various versions of SCL ranged from 0.91 to 0.97. The correlation between the MHI-5 and the SCLs ranged from -0.76 to -0.78. The prevalence rate was 11.1% for SCL-25 scores above 1.75 and 9.7% for scores below 56 in MHI-5. AUC values indicated good screening accordance between the measures (AUC>0.92). The results suggest that the shorter versions of SCL perform almost as well as the full version. The corresponding cut-off points to the conventional 1.75 for SCL-25 are 1.85 for SCL-10 and 2.0 for SCL-5. MHI-5 correlates highly with the SCL and the AUC indicate that the instruments might replace each other in population surveys, at least when considering depression. An operational advantage of the MHI-5 over the SCL instruments is that it has been widely used not only in surveys of mental health, but also in surveys of general health.
Article
The authors reviewed the literature on psychological and psychosocial outcomes for individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery, to address whether elective cosmetic procedures improve psychological well-being and psychosocial functioning and whether there are identifiable predictors of an unsatisfactory psychological outcome. They conducted a search of appropriate computerized databases for studies that evaluated psychological and psychosocial status both before and after elective cosmetic surgery. They identified 37 relevant studies of varying cosmetic procedures that utilized disparate methodologies. Overall, patients appeared generally satisfied with the outcome of their procedures, although some exhibited transient and some exhibited longer-lasting psychological disturbance. Factors associated with poor psychosocial outcome included being young, being male, having unrealistic expectations of the procedure, previous unsatisfactory cosmetic surgery, minimal deformity, motivation based on relationship issues, and a history of depression, anxiety, or personality disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder was also recognized by some studies as a predictor of poor outcome, a finding reinforced by reference to the psychiatric literature. The authors conclude that although most people appear satisfied with the outcome of cosmetic surgical procedures, some are not, and attempts should be made to screen for such individuals in cosmetic surgery settings.
Article
This retrospective chart review study examined the mental health histories and psychiatric medication usage of persons who sought cosmetic surgery. The medical records of 232 patients who had undergone a consultation for a cosmetic procedure were reviewed. The rates of self-reported psychiatric disorders and of psychiatric medication usage of these patients were compared with those of 200 patients who underwent noncosmetic procedures. Nineteen percent of cosmetic surgery patients reported a mental health history, significantly greater than the 4 percent of the noncosmetic patients who reported a psychiatric history. Eighteen percent of the cosmetic patients reported using a psychiatric medication at the time of their consultation, also significantly greater than the 5 percent of the noncosmetic patients who reported psychiatric medication usage. These results underscore the importance of collecting a psychiatric history from prospective cosmetic surgery patients. Recommendations for assessing patients' psychiatric history and status are provided.
Article
The present study investigates psychological factors expected to predict the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery. It is hypothesized that body image, self-esteem, teasing history, acceptance of cosmetic surgery in the individual's environment, and self-monitoring relate to motivation to have cosmetic surgery. Questionnaire data were obtained from 907 participants who responded to a survey distributed to a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22 to 55 years. A second sample of 195 female prospective cosmetic surgery patients was recruited from a plastic surgery clinic. Measures of the hypothesized predictor variables were obtained from both samples. Surgery motivation was operationalized in two different ways. First, the women in the first sample were asked to indicate whether they wished to undergo cosmetic surgery, such that women who wished to have surgery could be compared with those who did not. Second, prospective patients were compared with women from the first sample who indicated that they did not wish to have cosmetic surgery. Analyses revealed all predictor variables but self-esteem to be related to either the wish or the decision to undergo surgery, or to both. Social acceptance of cosmetic surgery and body image were the strongest predictors of cosmetic surgery motivation. The study gives new insights into psychological factors predicting cosmetic surgery motivation. Furthermore, the influence of social factors on cosmetic surgery motivation is emphasized, and it is suggested that these factors be included in future research designs.
Article
Elective cosmetic surgery (ECS) in the absence of physical indications is often performed to improve psychosocial function. Third-party funders need evidence of its effectiveness if they are to respond in an evidence-based way to increasing demand in the context of constrained resources. Our first aim was to review recent evidence of psychosocial outcome in a way that was systematic with respect to study inclusion and methodological evaluation. Our second aim was to review evidence for the validity of currently used selection criteria. Electronic and manual literature and database search identified prospective cohort or controlled studies of psychosocial outcomes of surgery performed for appearance reasons reported in English from 1992 to 2004. Data were extracted to describe outcomes and evaluate methodological quality. Twenty-three reports of 22 separate studies were reviewed. All were prospective observational studies and most provided low standards of evidence because of the absence of comparison groups, short follow-up periods and loss to follow-up. The evidence suggests that breast reduction improves health-related quality of life, but does not indicate enduring improvement in quality of life after other procedures, or enduring improvement in mental health, self-esteem or body image after any procedure. Similarly, there was insufficient evidence for the validity of criteria for patient selection. The negative conclusions reflect, not the existence of negative evidence, but methodological limitations of published research. The problem for third-party funders is that, although evidence does not justify the continued general provision of ECS in the absence of physical need, it is not strong enough to justify withholding such treatment. Even though randomised controlled trials are probably impractical, we identify several improvements in design whereby future prospective cohort studies could provide higher standards of evidence.
Article
This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measuring body image, personality (Big Five), and history of experiencing negative comments about appearance. Results indicated that only emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance significantly predicted both appearance evaluation and orientation, while frequency of negative comments did not. Being extrovert predicted more positive appearance evaluation and being more appearance oriented than being introvert. Scoring high on neuroticism was related to negative appearance evaluation and high appearance orientation. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating between the frequency and the emotional impact of teasing as well as including personality traits when studying body image.