Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: Role of the metabolic syndrome and its components

Brooklyn Center for Health Disparities, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.05). 07/2008; 4(3):261-72.
Source: PubMed


Although obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease have common risk factors, epidemiologic studies show that sleep apnea increases risks for cardiovascular disease independently of individuals' demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and race) or risk markers (i.e., smoking, alcohol, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension). Individuals with severe sleep apnea are at increased risk for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke. The underlying mechanisms explaining associations between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease are not entirely delineated. Several intermediary mechanisms might be involved including sustained sympathetic activation, intrathoracic pressure changes, and oxidative stress. Other abnormalities such as disorders in coagulation factors, endothelial damage, platelet activation, and increased inflammatory mediators might also play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Linkage between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease is corroborated by evidence that treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure reduces systolic blood pressure, improves left ventricular systolic function, and diminishes platelet activation. Several systematic studies are necessary to explicate complex associations between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, which may be compounded by the involvement of diseases comprising the metabolic syndrome (i.e., central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Large-scale, population-based studies testing causal models linking among sleep apnea, cardiovascular morbidity, and metabolic syndrome are needed.

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Available from: Clinton Douglas Brown, Nov 07, 2014
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    • "Over the years, accumulated evidence in health disparities research has shown that racial/ ethnic minorities are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic conditions. Of note, sleep disorders co-occur or often lead to the development of some of chronic conditions such as obesity; systemic and pulmonary resistant hypertension; diabetes; dyslipidemia, heart failure; and stroke [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. Yet, the reasons for these disparities are not entirely clear, although they might involve a wide range of epigenetic, behavioral, social, and environmental factors. "

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    • "Repeated partial or complete collapse of the pharynx during sleep, which results in apnea or hypopnea associated with oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep, is the most characteristic feature of OSAS [2]. The pathophysiology of OSAS is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR) and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The associations, derived from sporadic, inconsistent, small-sample-size studies, need to be evaluated further in a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and Weipu. Eligible data were extracted from each included study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. The ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association between serotonergic gene polymorphisms and OSAS in the dominant and recessive models, as well as alleles. The Q statistic was used to evaluate homogeneity and Begg's test was used to assess publication bias. Eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis of the association between 5-HTR2A gene variants (including 102T/C and 1438G/A), 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (including 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLRP), and serotonin transporter intron 2 variable number tandem repeat (STin2VNTR) and OSAS risk. The G allele of 5-HTR2A 1438G/A, long 5-HTTLPR, and 10-tandem-repeats STin2VNTR were shown to increase OSAS susceptibility, with ORs of 2.33 (A vs. G, 95% CI 1.48-3.66), 1.24 (L vs. S, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), and 2.87 (10 vs. 12, 95% CI: 1.38-5.97), respectively. These significant differences were determined in both dominant and recessive models. Of the 5-HTR2A 1438G/A gene polymorphism, the AA genotype increased the OSAS risk, with an OR of 4.21 (95% CI: 2.83-6.25) in a recessive model in male OSAS patients, but no significant association was found in females. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that polymorphisms in the 5-HTR2A 1438G/A and 5-HTT genes contributed to susceptibility to OSAS. The A allele of the 1438G/A gene polymorphism is predominantly distributed in males and increased the OSAS risk significantly.
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    • "There is evidence that OSA is associated with the metabolic syndrome [86]. In adults, OSA patients have higher rates of NAFLD [87], and patients with PCOS have higher rates of obstructive sleep apnea. "
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