Regulation of Mesangial Cell Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression in 3-Dimensional Matrix by High Glucose and Growth Factors
We postulated that alpha-smooth muscle actin expressed in primary cultured mesangial cells is down-regulated in 3-dimensional (D) culture and up-regulated by high glucose and growth factors.
Primary rat mesangial cells were growth-arrested in 5.6 mM (NG) or 30 mM (HG) glucose for 14 days in 3-D Matrigel. Alpha-SM actin expression was analyzed by immunoblotting, real-time PCR and by alpha-SM actin promoter activity in response to 24 h stimulation with endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin II (Ang II) or HG.
Alpha-SM actin mRNA, protein and promoter activity were reduced to significantly lower levels in 3-D cells compared to cells in 2-D. Up-regulation of alpha-SM expression was stimulated by ET-1, Ang II and HG. Specific inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -beta or -zeta prevented alpha-SM upregulation in HG. In NG, PKC and ERK1/2 activation were required for alpha-SM actin accumulation in 3-D in response to ET-1 or Ang II. In HG, enhanced expression of alpha-SM actin in response to ET-1 or Ang II was unchanged during PKC or ERK1/2 inhibition.
Mesangial cells in 3-D express low levels of alpha-SM actin representing a more differentiated state. Regulation of alpha-SM actin expression is dependent on specific PKC isozyme and ERK1/2 signaling.
Available from: Hirofumi Hitomi
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies indicate that the remission, regression or both of nephrotic-range albuminuria are exerted by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in diabetes. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that these effects of ARBs are associated with regression of glomerular podocyte injury.
We examined the effects of an ARB, olmesartan, on glomerular podocyte injury in type 2 diabetic Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty rats with overt albuminuria.
At baseline (55-week-old), diabetic Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty rats showed severe albuminuria with desmin-positive areas (an index of podocyte injury) in both superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli, and podocyte injury was much greater in juxtamedullary than in superficial glomeruli. At 75-week-old, Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty rats had developed more severe albuminuria and superficial glomerular podocyte injury, whereas juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury did not advance further. Olmesartan (10 mg/kg per day) decreased albuminuria and superficial glomerular desmin staining to levels that were lower than those at baseline, whereas advanced juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury was not changed.
The current study demonstrates for the first time that juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury reaches a severe condition at an earlier time than superficial glomerular podocyte injury during the progression of overt albuminuria in type 2 diabetic rats. Our data also support the hypothesis that the antialbuminuric effects of ARBs are associated with regression of superficial glomerular podocyte injury in type 2 diabetes with nephrotic-range albuminuria.
Available from: Lucas L Falke
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ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is the common end point of chronic kidney disease. The persistent production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors leads to an ongoing process of extracellular matrix production that eventually disrupts the normal functioning of the organ. During fibrosis, the myofibroblast is commonly regarded as the predominant effector cell. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated a diverse origin of myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis. Proposed major contributors of myofibroblasts include bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and interstitial fibroblasts; the published data, however, have not yet clearly defined the relative contribution of these different cellular sources. Myofibroblasts have been reported to originate from various sources, irrespective of the nature of the initial damage responsible for the induction of kidney fibrosis. Here, we review the possible relevance of the diversity of myofibroblast progenitors in kidney fibrosis and the implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Specifically, we discuss the current status of preclinical and clinical antifibrotic therapy and describe targeting strategies that might help support resident and circulating cells to maintain or regain their original functional differentiation state. Such strategies might help these cells resist their transition to a myofibroblast phenotype to prevent, or even reverse, the fibrotic state.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG) growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (
) conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1) proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2) proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB), supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase), suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.
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