A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Cingulate Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia and First-Episode Affective Psychosis

Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Brockton Division, Harvard Medical School, Brockton, MA 02301, USA.
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 08/2008; 65(7):746-60. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.7.746
Source: PubMed


Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have demonstrated psychopathological symptom-related smaller gray matter volumes in various cingulate gyrus subregions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, it is unclear whether these gray matter abnormalities show a subregional specificity to either disorder and whether they show postonset progression.
To determine whether there are initial and progressive gray matter volume deficits in cingulate gyrus subregions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and patients with first-episode affective psychosis (FEAFF, mainly manic) and their specificity to FESZ or FEAFF.
A naturalistic cross-sectional study at first hospitalization for psychosis and a longitudinal follow-up approximately 1(1/2) years later. Setting and
Patients were from a private psychiatric hospital. Thirty-nine patients with FESZ and 41 with FEAFF at first hospitalization for psychosis and 40 healthy control subjects (HCs) recruited from the community underwent high-spatial-resolution MRI, with follow-up scans in 17 FESZ patients, 18 FEAFF patients, and 18 HCs. Individual subjects were matched for age, sex, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness.
Cingulate gyrus gray matter volumes in 3 anterior subregions (subgenual, affective, and cognitive) and 1 posterior subregion, and whether there was a paracingulate sulcus.
At first hospitalization, patients with FESZ showed significantly smaller left subgenual (P = .03), left (P = .03) and right (P = .005) affective, right cognitive (P = .04), and right posterior (P = .003) cingulate gyrus gray matter subregions compared with HCs. Moreover, at the 1(1/2)-year follow-up, patients with FESZ showed progressive gray matter volume decreases in the subgenual (P = .002), affective (P < .001), cognitive (P < .001), and posterior (P = .02) cingulate subregions compared with HCs. In contrast, patients with FEAFF showed only initial (left, P < .001; right, P = .002) and progressive subgenual subregion abnormalities (P < .001). Finally, patients with FESZ showed a less asymmetric paracingulate pattern than HCs (P = .02).
Patients with FEAFF and FESZ showed differences in initial gray matter volumes and in their progression. Initial and progressive changes in patients with FEAFF were confined to the subgenual cingulate, a region strongly associated with affective disorder, whereas patients with FESZ evinced widespread initial and progressively smaller volumes.

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    • "Despite the great variety of antipsychotics currently available, longitudinal cohort studies with patients in their first episode of psychosis have shown aggravation in several psychopathological domains (McGlashan, 1998; Hoff et al., 1999; Lieberman, 1999; Stirling et al., 2003), as well as progressive gray matter loss and altered brain function, particularly in fronto-temporal areas (Lieberman, 1999; Cahn et al., 2002; Bachmann et al., 2004; Perez-Neri et al., 2006; Whitford et al., 2006; Koo et al., 2008; van Haren et al., 2008; Mane et al., 2009; Smieskova et al., 2009). "
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