Paricalcitol Reduces Albuminuria and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Trial

Indiana University and VAMC, 1481 W 10th St, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 08/2008; 52(2):249-55. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.113159
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D receptor activation is associated with improved survival in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanism of this benefit is unclear. To better understand the effects of vitamin D on endothelial function, blood pressure, albuminuria, and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (2 patients stage 2, remaining stage 3), we conducted a pilot trial in 24 patients who were randomly allocated equally to 3 groups to receive 0, 1, or 2 microg of paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, orally for 1 month. Placebo-corrected change in flow mediated dilatation with a 1-microg dose was 0.5% and 0.4% with a 2-microg dose (P>0.2). At 1 month, the treatment:baseline ratio of high sensitivity C-reactive protein was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.1; P=0.02) with placebo, 0.8 (95% CI: 0.3 to 1.9; P=0.62) with a 1-microg dose, and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.9; P=0. 03) with a 2-microg dose of paricalcitol. At 1 month, the treatment:baseline ratio of 24-hour albumin excretion rate was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.69; P=0.01) with placebo, 0.52 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.69; P<0.001) with a 1-microg dose, and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.83; P=0. 01) with a 2-microg dose (P<0.001 for between group changes). No differences were observed in iothalamate clearance, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, or parathyroid hormone with treatment or on washout. Thus, paricalcitol-induced reduction in albuminuria and inflammation may be mediated independent of its effects on hemodynamics or parathyroid hormone suppression. Long-term randomized, controlled trials are required to confirm these benefits of vitamin D analogs.

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    • "Among the 31 included studies , one study used the isotope method with 99m Tc DTPA[33]and one study used EDTA to measure GFR before and after clinical intervention[45]. Two studies[24,25]calculated GFR by subcutaneous infusion of nonradioactive iothalamate and one study estimated GFR based on measurement of cystatin C[10]. In most of the included studies, the 24-h urinary creatinine and SCr were evaluated for determination of creatinine clearance and eGFR using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) or Cockcroft-Gault equations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) can protect against mineral bone disease, but they are reported to elevate serum creatinine (SCr) and may also reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of VDRAs on kidney function and adverse events. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for RCTs that evaluate vitamin D receptor activators (alfacalcidol, calcitriol, doxercalciferol, falecalcitriol, maxacalcitol and paricalcitol) up to March 2015. Results: We included 31 studies, all of which were performed between 1976 and 2015, which enrolled 2621 patients. Patients receiving VDRAs had lower eGFR (weighted mean difference WMD -1.29 mL/min /1.73 m2, 95% CI -2.42 to -0.17) and elevated serum creatinine (WMD 7.03 μmol/L, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.46) in sensitivity analysis excluding studies with dropout rate more than 30%. Subgroup analysis of the 5 studies that not use SCr-based measures did not indicated lower GFR in the VDRAs group(WMD -0.97 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI -4.85 to 2.92). Compared with control groups, there was no difference in all-cause mortality (relative risk RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.80), cardiovascular disease (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.71), and severe adverse events (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.77) for the VDRAs groups. Episodes of hypercalcemia (RR 3.29, 95% CI 2.02 to 5.38) were more common in the VDRAs group than in the control group. Conclusions: Administration of VDRAs increased serum creatinine levels. Subgroup analysis of studies that did not use SCr-based measures did not indicate a lower GFR in the VDRA group. Future studies with non-SCr-based measures are needed to assess whether the mild elevations of serum creatinine are of clinical significance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shown an increasing prevalence in the last century. CKD encompasses a poor prognosis related to a remarkable number of comorbidities, and many patients suffer from this disease progression. Once the factors linked with CKD evolution are distinguished, it will be possible to provide and enhance a more intensive treatment to high-risk patients. In this review, we focus on the emerging markers that might be predictive or related to CKD progression physiopathology as well as those related to a different pattern of response to treatment, such as inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers; the vitamin D receptor agonist; salt sensitivity hypertension; and progressive kidney-disease markers with identified genetic polymorphisms). Candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies have analyzed the genetic basis for common renal diseases, including CKD and related factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This review will, in brief, consider genotype-based pharmacotherapy, risk prediction, drug target recognition, and personalized treatments, and will mainly focus on findings in CKD patients. An improved understanding will smooth the progress of switching from classical clinical medicine to gene-based medicine.
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    • "These findings are in conflict with some previous reports. In a placebo-controlled oral study in CKD stages 1–3 patients [53] and in two uncontrolled (intravenous and oral) studies in dialysis patients, a decrease in hs-Crp, IL-6 and TNF-α was found during paricalcitol treatment [54,55]. However, Moe et al. did not find any changes in TNF-α or IL-6 after 12 weeks of treatment with intravenous paricalcitol in a placebo-controlled study in hemodialysis patients with low PTH [56]. "
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