ArticleLiterature Review

South African Helichrysum species: A review of the traditional uses, biological activity and phytochemistry

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Abstract

In South Africa, the genus Helichrysum is widely used in traditional medicine. The uses are well documented although renaming of species and the resulting confusing taxonomic nomenclature may cause uncertainty as to which specific species was referred to in some reports. The aim of this paper is to present a collated and coherent overview of the documented traditional uses of Helichrysum species and to update the botanical identity of previously studied species. Databases (Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge) and several books were used to collect in information on South African Helichrysum species. The traditional uses, chemistry and biological activity of Helichrysum species have been summarized. It was attempted to give clarity as to exactly which species is refer to in the ethnobotanical literature. Although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented and the chemistry of the genus has been studied extensively, only a few South African species have been investigated for their biological activity.

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... 'Imphepho' species are used interchangeably, but the choice is mainly dictated by availability, rather than by preference (Van Vuuren et al., 2014). It is therefore not surprising that the traditional uses of H. odoratissimum and H. petiolare overlap À these include the treatment of abdominal pains, coughs and colds, catarrh, headache, fever, menstrual disorders and urinary tract infections, suggesting that these plants exhibit antibacterial activity (Van Puyvelde et al., 1989;Lall and Meyer, 1999;Lourens et al., 2008;Heyman, 2009). In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). ...
... It is therefore not surprising that the traditional uses of H. odoratissimum and H. petiolare overlap À these include the treatment of abdominal pains, coughs and colds, catarrh, headache, fever, menstrual disorders and urinary tract infections, suggesting that these plants exhibit antibacterial activity (Van Puyvelde et al., 1989;Lall and Meyer, 1999;Lourens et al., 2008;Heyman, 2009). In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). The traditional use of the Helichrysum species involves the preparation of infusions or decoctions, and the inhalation of smoke (Lourens et al., 2008). ...
... In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). The traditional use of the Helichrysum species involves the preparation of infusions or decoctions, and the inhalation of smoke (Lourens et al., 2008). Both species are used medicinally, but also play an important role in the spiritual lives of many communities in South Africa. ...
Article
Helichrysum petiolare and Helichrysum odoratissimum, collectively known as ‘Imphepho’, are popular medicinal herbs that are indigenous to South Africa. The species are used interchangeably to relieve gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions, fever and urinary tract infections, implying that they produce antibacterial compounds. Although these herbs are sold in informal markets, they have not been commercialized. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical profiles and the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of the two species. The profiles of the smoke condensates were also compared, since the smoke from both species is inhaled during cultural rituals to induce central nervous system effects. After optimizing the extractant, the chemical profiles of aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts of twelve H. odoratissimum and fifteen H. petiolare samples, collected from several different localities, were obtained using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Three isomeric compounds were found to be present in both species. The construction of chemometric models from the data indicated a large degree of inter-population variation within H. odoratissimum, with the samples loosely clustering into two main groups. In contrast, the chemistry of H. petiolare was highly conserved. Discriminant analysis identified four distinguishing marker compounds for each species. One of the isomers common to both species, was isolated from H. odoratissimum and identified as 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and is herein reported for the first time from the two species. Following validation of a developed UPLC-photodiode array (PDA) detection method, it was determined that the concentrations of the compound ranged from 3.89 - 31.1 µg/g in H. odoratissimum and from 2.3 to 13.4 µg/g in H. petiolare. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprints also indicated a greater degree of chemical variation within H. odoratissimum than in H. petiolare. This was confirmed through multivariate analysis of densitograms obtained from images of the fingerprints through the application of rTLC software, effectively mirroring the UPLC-MS results. The antibacterial activity of extracts of all the samples was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) serial dilution assay against selected Gram-positive (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Moraxella catarrhalis) pathogens that affect the urinary, respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. The MICs obtained for H. odoratissimum extracts indicated that these were more effective towards a larger range of bacteria than extracts of H. petiolare. The methanol extracts yielded average MICs denoting noteworthy or moderate activity towards three pathogens (E. coli, M. catarrhalis and S. agalactiae), while the chloroform:methanol extracts displayed noteworthy or moderate activity towards the same three pathogens, but also towards E. faecalis. These results justify to some degree the traditional use of H. odoratissimum to treat conditions of the gastro-intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. The UPLC-PDA profiles of smoke condensates of the two species, obtained under controlled conditions, revealed five major compounds that were common to both species. Although the similarity of the smoke profiles rationalises their interchangeable use for inhalation, the solvent extracts displayed little congruence regarding their chemical profiles or antibacterial activities.
... Several Helichrysum species grow in South Africa. The most common include H. asperum, H. callicomum, H. cymosum, H. dasyanthum, H. excisum, H. felinum, H. odoratissimum, H. petiolare, and H. rosum (Reddy, 2007;Lourens et al., 2008). H. odoratissimum (L.) Sweet (HO) is an aromatic herbaceous shrub commonly known as 'Imphepho' in Xhosa and Zulu, and 'Kooigoed' in Afrikaans. ...
... Helichrysum species have been reported for many traditional usages to combat a vast number of ailments, such as the treatment of wounds, burns, pimples and eczema as well as coughs and colds (Lourens et al., 2008;Swelankomo, 2004). In addition, Helichrysum sp. is reported to be used for various cultural or religious purposes. ...
... Furthermore, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, locals inhale it as a protective cleanser (De Canha, Komarnytsky, Langhansova, & Lall, 2020;Twilley et al., 2017). In Lesotho, leaves and stems of the plant is burn to fumigate sick rooms as a repellent for parasitic insects (Lourens et al., 2008;Swelankomo, 2004). Helichrysum has a strong distinct smell, which substantiates its wide use in perfumes (Lawal et al., 2015). ...
Article
Extracts of indigenous plants have been explored to control several plant diseases and fruit pathogens, as well as in the development of bioactive compounds. This study investigated the impact of spatial variation and application of different extraction solvent on the antioxidant properties (total polyphenols (TP), and radical scavenging capacity via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), secondary metabolite profile and the inhibitory activity (against Botrytis cinerea) of South African Impepho (Helichrysum odoratissimum L.). Fresh H. odoratissimum were harvested from two different agro-climatic sites of South Africa: Western Cape (WC) and Kwazulu Natal (KZN) provinces. Crude extracts were obtained using 95% ethanol and 70% acetone. Rovral® WP was used as control in antifungal study. Secondary metabolites of these extracts were relatively quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Extracts obtained via acetone had the highest soluble solids (SS), TP and DPPH capacity, for H. odoratissimum from WC and KZN (p ≤ 0.05). All extracts of H. odoratissimum provided considerable inhibition against B. cinerea in comparison to the controls. A total of 18 chemical classes of secondary metabolite were identified across all samples. Sesquiterpenoids were found to be the most relatively abundant class of compounds (31% - 40%), followed by sesquiterpenes (9% - 40%) and alkanes (7% - 12%). Acetone extract of H. odoratissimum from KZN had the highest relative amount of sesquiterpenes. Higher relative abundance in viridiflorol (26% and 16.8% for acetone and ethanol extracts, respectively), were obtained for samples collected from WC compared to KZN province (p ≤ 0.05).
... The results showed that, whereas the standard antiinflammatory drug indomethacin showed 60% inhibition, the aqueous extract showed 52% and the ethanol extract showed 100% inhibitory activity [36]. In addition, other related plant species like Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum felinum were reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties; the acetone extract and essential oil from H. excisum showed anti-inflammatory properties at IC 50 concentrations of 35.09 ± 1.12 µg/mL and 27.62 ± 0.43 µg/mL respectively, using the 5-lipoxygenase assay, while the anti-inflammatory properties reported for the acetone extract and essential oil from H. felinum, occurred at IC 50 concentrations of 38.72 ± 2.94 µg/mL and 22.87 ± 7.59 µg/mL respectively, in comparison with control with IC 50 of 5.00 ± 0.50 µg/mL [37]. ...
... In 1967, phytochemical studies of the helichrysum genus were done, and the helichrysum dendroideum species was the first to be explored [49], leading to the identification of many chemical secondary metabolites. Scientific reports on 63 helichrysum species of South African origin have shown many isolated compounds, including acylphloroglucinol, humulone derivatives, flavonoids, 8-hyroxyflavonols, α-pyrones, chalcone, and pyranochalcones [37,50,51]; essential oils, benzofurans, oxygenated compounds are present in the many species of this plant genus [10]. Representative of some of the compounds present in H. petiolare, H. cymosum, H. foetidum and H. pandurifolium Schrank are depicted in Figures 1-4. ...
... In 1967, phytochemica ies of the helichrysum genus were done, and the helichrysum dendroideum species w first to be explored [49], leading to the identification of many chemical secondary m olites. Scientific reports on 63 helichrysum species of South African origin have shown isolated compounds, including acylphloroglucinol, humulone derivatives, flavono hyroxyflavonols, α-pyrones, chalcone, and pyranochalcones [37,50,51]; essential oil zofurans, oxygenated compounds are present in the many species of this plant genu Representative of some of the compounds present in H. petiolare, H. cymosum, H. fo and H. pandurifolium Schrank are depicted in Figures 1-4. While the biological funct the associated compounds including that of the essential oils are listed in Tables this review. ...
Article
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The genus Helichrysum Mill comprises hundreds of species that are mostly flowering perennial shrubs. Some of these plants that belong to the Helichrysum species are used in traditional medicine to treat cough, back pain, diabetes, asthma, digestive problems, menstrual pain, chest pain, kidney disorders, skin disorders, wounds, open sores, among other conditions, but, only a few scientific studies are reported in the literature with sufficient information that validates the acclaimed folkloric benefits of these plants. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive update of the available information on the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities of selected Helichrysum species of interest: H. petiolare, H. cymocum, H. foetidum, and H. pandurifolium Schrank, using scientific databases as well as electronic and print sources. The ethnobotanical and morphological characteristics as well as the phytochemical composition and biological activities of these plants are elucidated. The scientific rationale for their current use is discussed based on the evidence in the literature. This review highlights the putative use of the Helichrysum species as a reliable source of bioactive compounds for the production of standard commercial drugs to treat many ailments, including those reported in folkloric uses. Further research on the many plants in the genus Helichrysum is recommended to explore their economic importance both as edible crops and medicinal botanicals.
... For example, the discovery of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug from the leaves of Artemisia annua L., a member of the Asteraceae family [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] illustrated the importance of the family toward a role in the production of plant-derived medicines. The Asteraceae is one the largest families of flowering plants in the world, with about 1600 genera and 23,000 species, found almost everywhere in the world except in Antarctica [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Several members of this family are characterized by phytochemical compounds such as acetophenones, caffeoylquinic acids, phloroglucinol, polyphenols, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, polyacetylenes, chalcone, flavonoids, and diterpenoids [15][16][17][18][19]. Several species of the family Asteraceae are characterized by analgesic, anti-allergic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antimigraine, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antipyretic, antitumor, antiulcer, cardiotonic, and neuroprotective and neurotoxicity activities [16,17,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... For example, the discovery of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug from the leaves of Artemisia annua L., a member of the Asteraceae family [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] illustrated the importance of the family toward a role in the production of plant-derived medicines. The Asteraceae is one the largest families of flowering plants in the world, with about 1600 genera and 23,000 species, found almost everywhere in the world except in Antarctica [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Several members of this family are characterized by phytochemical compounds such as acetophenones, caffeoylquinic acids, phloroglucinol, polyphenols, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, polyacetylenes, chalcone, flavonoids, and diterpenoids [15][16][17][18][19]. Several species of the family Asteraceae are characterized by analgesic, anti-allergic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antimigraine, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antipyretic, antitumor, antiulcer, cardiotonic, and neuroprotective and neurotoxicity activities [16,17,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. The genus Helichrysum Mill. is one of the most important sources of herbal medicines among the Asteraceae genera [17,27,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. ...
... The Asteraceae is one the largest families of flowering plants in the world, with about 1600 genera and 23,000 species, found almost everywhere in the world except in Antarctica [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Several members of this family are characterized by phytochemical compounds such as acetophenones, caffeoylquinic acids, phloroglucinol, polyphenols, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, polyacetylenes, chalcone, flavonoids, and diterpenoids [15][16][17][18][19]. Several species of the family Asteraceae are characterized by analgesic, anti-allergic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antimigraine, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antipyretic, antitumor, antiulcer, cardiotonic, and neuroprotective and neurotoxicity activities [16,17,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. The genus Helichrysum Mill. is one of the most important sources of herbal medicines among the Asteraceae genera [17,27,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Helichrysum longifolium DC. and Helichrysum pedunculatum Hilliard and B.L. Burtt. ...
Article
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Helichrysum longifolium and Helichrysum pedunculatum have a long history of medicinal use, particularly managing wounds acquired during male circumcision rites in South Africa. There is a need to evaluate the existence of any correlation between the ethnomedicinal applications, the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the species. Therefore, in this review, analyses of the botanical, medicinal, and chemical and biological activities of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum are presented as well as exploring the potential of the two species as important sources of health and pharmaceutical products. Information on the botany, medicinal uses, and phytochemistry and biological activities of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum was assembled from several internet sources which included Scopus, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, SciFinder, and BMC. Additional information was sourced from journal articles, scientific reports, theses, books, and book chapters obtained from the University library. This study showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oleic acid, phenol, proanthocyanidin, saponins, and tannins have been identified from the leaves of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum. The pharmacological research showed that H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum extracts and compounds isolated from the species have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxicity activities. For local communities to use H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum extracts with confidence as herbal medicines, there is a need for extensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Further research is required to establish the safety profiles of different H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum preparations.
... 'Imphepho' species are used interchangeably, but the choice is mainly dictated by availability, rather than by preference (Van Vuuren et al., 2014). It is therefore not surprising that the traditional uses of H. odoratissimum and H. petiolare overlap À these include the treatment of abdominal pains, coughs and colds, catarrh, headache, fever, menstrual disorders and urinary tract infections, suggesting that these plants exhibit antibacterial activity (Van Puyvelde et al., 1989;Lall and Meyer, 1999;Lourens et al., 2008;Heyman, 2009). In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). ...
... It is therefore not surprising that the traditional uses of H. odoratissimum and H. petiolare overlap À these include the treatment of abdominal pains, coughs and colds, catarrh, headache, fever, menstrual disorders and urinary tract infections, suggesting that these plants exhibit antibacterial activity (Van Puyvelde et al., 1989;Lall and Meyer, 1999;Lourens et al., 2008;Heyman, 2009). In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). The traditional use of the Helichrysum species involves the preparation of infusions or decoctions, and the inhalation of smoke (Lourens et al., 2008). ...
... In addition, they are also used to relieve heart problems, chest pains, hypertension, stress, anxiety and over-excitement (Lourens et al., 2008;Olorunnisola et al., 2011). The traditional use of the Helichrysum species involves the preparation of infusions or decoctions, and the inhalation of smoke (Lourens et al., 2008). Both species are used medicinally, but also play an important role in the spiritual lives of many communities in South Africa. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Many species within the family Combretaceae are popular medicinal plants that are used traditionally to treat various conditions, of which many are related to bacterial infections. Global concerns regarding the increasing resistance of pathogens towards currently available antibiotics have encouraged researchers to find new drugs with antibacterial activity, particularly from plant sources. Aim of the study This study aimed at exploring the broad-spectrum antibacterial potential of methanol extracts of species representing four genera of Combretaceae (Combretum, Pteleopsis, Quisqualis, Terminalia), indigenous to South Africa, using a biochemometric approach. Materials and Methods The microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activities, measured as minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), of the 51 methanol extracts representing 36 Combretaceae species, against nine species of pathogenic bacteria. Integrative biochemometric analysis was performed, thereby correlating the MIC values with the metabolomic data obtained from ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. Orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were constructed for six pathogens displaying variation in their susceptibility towards the extracts. Results Evaluation of the overall MIC values obtained indicated that extracts of species from the four genera displayed the highest activity towards Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 (average MIC 0.52 mg/mL) and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 (average MIC 0.63 mg/mL). These bacteria were the most sensitive Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Extracts from Combretum acutifolium, Combretum imberbe and Combretum elaeagnoides were the most active, with average MIC values of 0.70 mg/mL, 0.52 mg/mL and 0.45 mg/mL, respectively. Five triterpenoid compounds were tentatively identified as biomarkers from the biochemometric analysis. Conclusions Correlation of the phytochemistry of species from four genera in the Combretaceae family with antibacterial activity revealed that triterpenoids are responsible for the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity observed.
... Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet is a perennial shrub of the genus Helichrysum, consisting of approximately 500-600 species, of which approximately 244-250 are found in South Africa (Lourens et al., 2008). The vernacular name "Impepho" is common among species of this genus and are commonly used medicinal plants. ...
... The antibacterial activity of 3-O-methylquercetin isolated from the methanolic flower extract of H. odoratissimum showed selectivity against the Grampositive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus with an MIC of 50 and 6.25 μg/ml, respectively (Van Puyvelde et al., 1989). Although the flowers were not included in this study, a review by Lourens et al. (2008) indicated the presence of other flavonoid derivatives including chalcones and flavonols found in the aerial parts and roots of H. odoratissimum. The presence of pyrone, phloroglucinols, and diterpenes were mentioned and could be responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity against Grampositive C. acnes. ...
... Due to the ability of biofilm-forming bacteria to alternate between both single cell and biofilm states, it is important for agents to possess both strong anti-biofilm activity as well as antibacterial activity. This makes HO-MeOH a promising candidate as an anti-biofilm agent (Lourens et al., 2008;D'Abrosca et al., 2016). Tetracycline was less effective at disrupting established C. acnes biofilm. ...
Article
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The Gram-positive bacterium Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes), plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of the dermatological skin disorder acne vulgaris. The methanolic extract of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet (HO-MeOH) was investigated for its ability to target bacterial growth and pathogenic virulence factors associated with acne progression. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of HO-MeOH identified α-humulene (3.94%), α-curcumene (3.74%), and caryophyllene (8.12%) as major constituents, which correlated with previous reports of other Helichrysum species. The HO-MeOH extract exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against C. acnes (ATCC 6919) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 7.81 µg/ml. It enhanced the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The extract showed high specificity against C. acnes cell aggregation at sub-inhibitory concentrations, preventing biofilm formation. Mature C. acnes biofilms were disrupted at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 3.91 µg/ml. At 100 µg/ml, HO-MeOH reduced interleukin-1α (IL-1α) cytokine levels in C. acnes-induced human keratinocytes (HaCaT) by 11.08%, highlighting its potential as a comedolytic agent for the treatment of comedonal acne. The extract exhibited a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 157.50 µg/ml against lipase enzyme activity, an enzyme responsible for sebum degradation, ultimately causing inflammation. The extract’s anti-inflammatory activity was tested against various targets associated with inflammatory activation by the bacterium. The extract inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-8 by 48.31% when compared to C. acnes-induced HaCaT cells at 7.81 µg/ml. It exhibited cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) enzyme inhibition with an IC50 of 22.87 µg/ml. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) was inhibited by 40.39% at 7.81 µg/ml when compared with NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. The intracellular NO inhibition was potentially due to the 2.14 fold reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression. The HO-MeOH extract exhibited an IC50 of 145.45 µg/ml against virulent hyaluronidase enzyme activity, which is responsible for hyaluronan degradation and scar formation. This study provides scientific validation for the traditional use of H. odoratissimum as an ointment for pimples, not only due to its ability to control C. acnes proliferation but also due to its inhibitory activity on various targets associated with bacterial virulence leading to acne progression.
... • The fruit is a cypsela Use in traditional African medicine Leaves are used as a fumigant and as part of snake bite remedy [2]. It prefers the prairies and the woods border • Green, simple, oblong leaves with entire margin and evident vein, covered by a fine sticky fuzz. ...
... Leaves are used as a fumigant and as part of snake bite remedy [2]. ...
... • The fruit is a cypsela Use in traditional African medicine Leaves are used as a fumigant and as part of snake bite remedy [2]. Paguignan, 34210 Aigues Vives, France). ...
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Helichrysum genus was used in folk South African medicine to treat various human disorders. As a part of our on-going research addressing the exploitation of South African plants belonging to this genus, five species were investigated for their volatile and antimicrobial activities. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the essential oils (EOs) were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Microdilution was the method used for assessing both antimycotic and antibacterial activities, which was also tested by Kirby-Bauer agar disc diffusion. Total monoterpenes (TMs) dominated the VOCs of four species (H. trilineatum (70.6%), H. edwardsii (79.3%), H. cooperi (84.5%), and H. pandurifolium (57.0%)). H. cooperi and H. edwardsii EOs showed the predominance of TMs (68.2% and 84.5%, respectively), while H. pandurifolium and H. trilineatum EOs were characterized by the prevalence of TSs (86.5% and 43.6%, respectively). H. odoratissimum EO evidenced a similar amount of both TMs (49.5%) and TSs (46.4%). Microsporum canis was more sensitive to these EOs. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed with H. pandurifolium and H. edwardsii EOs (0.25%). H. pandurifolium and H. trilineatum had a good effect on Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5%). These findings open new perspectives for the exploitation of these natural compounds for application in cosmetics and pharmaceutics.
... The genus Helichrysum, belonging to the family Asteraceae, comprises more than 500 species, of which almost half are indigenous to South Africa [1][2][3]. Different species of Helichrysum are widely used in the traditional local medicine, thanks to the variety of secondary metabolites that the plants belonging to this genus can produce [3]. Their aerial parts are employed as herbal teas for the treatment of respiratory issues, digestive problems, as diuretic and anti-inflammatory agents, and for other purposes [4,5]. ...
... The genus Helichrysum, belonging to the family Asteraceae, comprises more than 500 species, of which almost half are indigenous to South Africa [1][2][3]. Different species of Helichrysum are widely used in the traditional local medicine, thanks to the variety of secondary metabolites that the plants belonging to this genus can produce [3]. Their aerial parts are employed as herbal teas for the treatment of respiratory issues, digestive problems, as diuretic and anti-inflammatory agents, and for other purposes [4,5]. ...
... are biennial or perennial herb shrubs, Helichrysum decorum DC is a plant growing in sandy grassland or open woodland from sea level to 900 m. The African Zulu inzagomas (diviners) smoked/inhaled or burned unspecific parts of the plant, which resulted in a trance state [3]. Growing on rocky grounds in submontane areas, H. lepidissimum is a perennial shrub [10] from which Mkhize (2015) isolated lepidissipyrone [11]. ...
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Helichrysum decorum DC, Helichrysum lepidissimum S. Moore, and Helichrysum umbraculigerum are three species traditionally used in the South African medicine. The present work deals with the investigation of the spontaneous emission and the essential oils obtained from these plants cultivated in open field under uniform conditions. Fractions of the volatile organic compounds of the three species were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons, representing more than 70% of the total composition. Pinene isomers were the most representative compounds: β-pinene in H. decorum (53.0%), and α-pinene in H. lepidissimum (67.9%) and H. umbraculigerum (54.8%). These latter two species evidenced an important amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SH) especially represented by γ-curcumene (H. lepidissimum) and α- and β-selinene (H. umbraculigerum). On the contrary, in the EOs, sesquiterpenes compounds prevailed, representing more than 64% of the identified fraction to reach more than 82 and 87% in H. umbraculigerum and H. lepidissimum, respectively. Although the chemical classes and their relative abundances were comparable among the three species, the individual compounds of EOs showed large differences. In fact, caryophyllene oxide (26.7%) and γ-curcumene (17.4%) were the main constituents in H. decorum, and H. lepidissimum respectively, while neo-intermedeol (11.2%) and viridiflorol (10.6%) characterized H. umbraculigerum.
... The Helichrysum genus of the Asteraceae family, is widely recognised for its many traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of several medical conditions like nervousness and hysteria, and also to treat wounds, bacterial and viral infections and respiratory conditions (Meyer et al., 1996;Lourens et al., 2004;Lourens et al., 2008;Van Vuuren, 2008). It consists of approximately 500-600 species of which 245 are indigenous to southern Africa including Namibia (Lourens et al., 2004;Lourens et al., 2008). ...
... The Helichrysum genus of the Asteraceae family, is widely recognised for its many traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of several medical conditions like nervousness and hysteria, and also to treat wounds, bacterial and viral infections and respiratory conditions (Meyer et al., 1996;Lourens et al., 2004;Lourens et al., 2008;Van Vuuren, 2008). It consists of approximately 500-600 species of which 245 are indigenous to southern Africa including Namibia (Lourens et al., 2004;Lourens et al., 2008). This genus has been the source of many interesting and bioactive compounds (Lourens et al., 2004;Appendino et al., 2007;Bauer et al., 2011;Kutluk et al., 2018). ...
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Several species of the Helichrysum genus have been used ethnobotanically to treat conditions that we today know have been caused by viral infections. Since HIV is a modern disease with no ethnobotanical history, we commenced with a study on the anti-HIV activity of several Helichrysum species. Drug discovery of small molecules from natural resources that is based on the integration of chemical and biological activity by means of metabolomical analyses, enables faster and a more cost-effective path to identify active compounds without the need for a long process of bioassay-guided fractionation. This study used metabolomics to identify anti-HIV compounds as biomarkers from 57 Helichrysum species in a combined study of the chemical and biological data of two previous studies. In the OPLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analyses, anti-HIV activity data was included as a secondary observation, which assisted in the correlation of the phytochemical composition and biological activity of the samples. Clear grouping revealed similarity in chemical composition and bioactivity of the samples. Based on the biological activity of polar extracts, there was a distinct phytochemical difference between active and non-active groups of extracts. This NMR-based metabolomic investigation showed that the chlorogenic acids, compounds with cinnamoyl functional groups, and quinic acid were the most prominent compounds in the Helichrysum species with anti-HIV activity. This study further revealed that the chlorogenic acid type compounds and quinic acid are biomarkers for anti-HIV activity.
... In African traditional medicine, species of the genus Helichrysum Mill. (family Asteraceae or Compositae) are highly valued as sources of herbal medicines [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Some of the species which include H. nudifolium (L.) Less. ...
... Major medicinal applications of different plant parts of H. foetidum based on literature records include the following (in descending order of importance): wounds, sores, induce trances, dysmenorrhea, eye infections, influenza, and as a sedative (Table 1 and Fig. 1). Smoke of different plant parts of H. foetidum is regarded as a rapid and effective means of inducing trances or causing hallucinogenic effects in South Africa [6,8,[63][64][65][66][67][68]. Other minor medicinal applications of different plant parts of H. foetidum include uses as herbal medicine for herpes in Rwanda [41], pneumonia in Tanzania [69], snakebite antidote in the DRC [30], and tonsillitis in Spain [56]. ...
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Helichrysum foetidum is a medicinal plant species with various medicinal applications among different ethnic groups in Africa, Asia, and Europe. This review was aimed at providing a critical appraisal of the existing medicinal uses, biological activities, and phytochemical components of H. foetidum. Literature search for information on medicinal uses, biological activities, and phytochemical components of H. foetidum was conducted using various online search engines such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Mendeley, and Web of Science. Additional information on these aspects was sourced from the university library. Literature studies revealed that H. foetidum is mainly used to induce trances and as herbal medicine against wounds, sores, dysmenorrhea, eye infections, influenza, and as a sedative. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include chalcones, diterpenoids, flavanols, flavonoids, phenolics, phenols, and proanthocyanidins. Pharmacological studies revealed that H. foetidum extracts and compounds have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, protease-inhibiting, and cytotoxicity activities. There is a need for advanced phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations and clinical trials aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential of H. foetidum in Africa, Asia, and Europe.
... The Helichrysum species shows incredible morphological multifariousness and hence subdivided into 30 morphological clusters (Onaran et al., 2016). The aerial parts of the plants are covered with hairs and flowers are aromatic, solitary or found in dense or dispersed inflorescences (Lourens et al., 2008). Some members of this genus have been commonly used in traditional medicine as a herbal tea comprising of ethnopharmacological uses such as has been used to treat various ailments/diseases including pain, inflammation, antioxidant, cholagogue, wounds, infections, and respiratory conditions that have been treated using this plant (Haddouchi et al., 2014). ...
... Some members of this genus have been commonly used in traditional medicine as a herbal tea comprising of ethnopharmacological uses such as has been used to treat various ailments/diseases including pain, inflammation, antioxidant, cholagogue, wounds, infections, and respiratory conditions that have been treated using this plant (Haddouchi et al., 2014). In Northern African countries usually seeds, roots and other aerial parts of the plants were traditionally used in healing of various diseases like jaundice, gall bladder stone disorders, malaria, oedema, rheumatism, gout, impotency, and in the elimination of kidney stones (Lourens et al., 2008). An immense amount of pharmacological activities are generally ascribed to this plant like antiallergic, anti-inflammatory in cough relief, antioxidant, (Bektas et al., 2005;Sala et al., 2002) antimicrobial and in the treatment of rhinitis and wounds (Maggio et al., 2016). ...
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Helichrysum stoechas has been conventionally used as herbal tea due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and diuretic activities. Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant (HSE) afforded a lanostane triterpenoid glycoside. The isolated compound was characterized as Lanostan-3β-olyl-26-oic acid 3-O-α-D-glycopyranoside (HS-01) with the help of UV, IR, 1H, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. HSE (at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses) and the isolated compound, HS-01 (at 10 mg/kg dose) has been investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities against chemically challenged experimental animal. Both the HSE as well as HS-01 showed a substantial decline in paw volume when compared with the relevant control groups (p<0.01 & p<0.001). The HSE and HS-01 also confirms a significant prolongation of the paw licking or jumping towards the Eddy’s hot plate and reduction in quantity of writhes after the introduction of acetic acid in mice (p<0.01 & p<0.001). In order to have a better understanding of the binding interactions of HS-01 at molecular level, docking studies were performed with various macromolecular drug targets using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina 1.1. Both programs predicted Galectin-3 as most favorable target for HS-01 followed by iNOS, whereas TNFα and COX-2 were among less favorable. Therefore, HS-01 could be developed as suitable therapy against inflammation and associated disorders.
... It can be observed from this study that the high percentage of terpenes (43.79%) found in the extract of H. patiolare leaves is in accordance with those reported from previous studies, in which, terpenes were the major constituents. [20,21] Therefore, it can be suggested that the lower percentage of terpenes in the ethanol extract of B. asphodeloides could impact negatively on their biological activities compared to that of H. patiolare extract. This study, therefore, confirm that ethanol extracts of B. asphodeloides and H. patiolare leaves are composed of bioactive components which are known to exhibit medicinal values coupled with physiological activities. ...
... Its common English and Xhosa names are gold carpet and Impepho, respectively. Helichrysum species are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach-ache, pain, wounds, coughs, and diabetes mellitus (Lourens et al., 2008;Demir et al., 2009Otang, 2012;Viegas et al., 2014). H. cymosum grows well in sandy soil and is mostly propagated using cuttings and seeds. ...
... Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet, a strongly aromatic shrub, distributed widely throughout Southern Africa, is extensively used as a traditional medicine for numerous ailments such as coughs, abdominal pains and fever, as well as the treatment and alleviation of various skin disorders. An extract prepared from the leaves is used for eczema, whereas the ground leaves or leaf pulp is used as a dressing for wounds and burns (Lourens et al., 2008). A paste from the flowers has also been used for the treatment of acne and pimples (Cleversley, 2002). ...
Article
Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major contributing factor to the increasing number of skin cancer cases. Interest has grown to use plant extracts as natural ingredients in cosmetic formulations due to their photoprotective effect, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as other biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of two South African plant extracts, Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet. and Buddleja saligna Willd., and to successfully incorporate these extracts into sunscreen formulations (o/w emulsions) due to their reported biological activity. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from the leaves and stems of H. odoratissimum and B. saligna and evaluated for their antioxidant activity, mutagenic potential and antiproliferative activity against human dermal fibroblasts (MRHF). The extracts were further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thereafter, the extracts were incorporated into separate sunscreen formulations to evaluate the in vivo dermal irritancy potential, in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro UVA protection, photostability and long term stability of the formulation, to confirm that by incorporating the extracts, the stability or photoprotective effect of the sunscreen formulation was not reduced and that these formulation were considered safe for topical application. Three separate sunscreen formulations were prepared; the base sunscreen formulation (formulation A), the base sunscreen formulation containing B. saligna (formulation B) and H. odoratissimum (formulation C) respectively. Both extracts showed significant radical scavenging activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with a fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5.13 ± 0.07 and 8.16 ± 0.34 µg/mL for H. odoratissimum and B. saligna respectively. No mutagenic activity was observed when the extracts were tested in the Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100). The PrestoBlue® cell viability assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the extracts against MRHF cells, both extracts showed an IC50 value >90 µg/mL. Photoprotective activity was measured using in vivo sun protection factor (SPF) test method according to South African (SANS 1557) and International (ISO 24444) standards as well as the in vitro UVA SPF testing procedure (ISO 24443). The SPF results showed that the formulations had broad-spectrum UV protection with SPF values of 15.8±0.41, 16.1±0.66 and 16.0±0.49 and UVAPF values of 6.47±0.06, 6.45±0.06 and 6.47±0.07 for formulation A, B and C respectively. Furthermore, the formulations remained stable under normal and extreme conditions and the plant extracts did not affect the photoprotective effect of the sunscreen formulations and contributed towards the formulations stability. Additionally, each of the formulations were photostable, whereas the formulations with the addition of the extracts showed an incremental increase in photostability when compared to the base formulation. Both these extracts have been previously reported to display antiproliferative activity against skin cancer cell lines (previously published data), with an IC50 value of 31.80 ± 0.35 µg/mL (human malignant melanoma, UCT-MEL-1) for B. saligna and IC50 values of 15.50 ± 0.20 (human epidermoid carcinoma, A431) and 55.50 ± 6.60 µg/mL (human malignant melanoma, A375) for H. odoratissimum, contributing towards the medicinal benefit of using these extracts as ingredients into sunscreen formulations. Therefore, Helichrysum odoratissimum and Buddleja saligna could be considered as useful and viable additives to sunscreen formulations due to their reported biological activity.
... Moreover, D9-THC is a positive allosteric modulator of µ-and δ-opioid receptors. On the other hand, D9-THC showed promising therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, sleep disorders, Tourette's syndrome and Alzheimer' disease, at different doses [13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid which represents one of the constituents of the “phytocomplex” of Cannabis sativa. This natural compound is attracting growing interest since when CBD-based remedies and commercial products were marketed. This review aims at exhaustively addressing the extractive and analytical approaches that have been developed for the isolation and quantification of CBD. Recent updates on cutting-edge technologies were critically examined in terms of yield, sensitivity, flexibility and performances in general, and are reviewed alongside original representative results. As an add-on to currently available contributions in the literature, the evolution of novel, efficient synthetic approaches for the preparation of CBD, a procedure which is appealing for the pharmaceutical industry, is also discussed. Moreover, given the increasing interest on the therapeutic potential of CBD and the limited understanding of the undergoing biochemical pathways, the reader will be updated about recent in silico studies on the molecular interactions of CBD towards several different targets attempting to fill this gap. Computational data retrieved from the literature have been integrated with novel in silico experiments, critically discussed to provide a comprehensive and updated overview on the undebatable potential of CBD and its therapeutic profile.
... Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, also known as curry plant, belongs to the Asteraceae family. This plant is mainly distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, although it is also present in South Africa, where Helichrysum genus is endemic and includes as many as 244 different species (Lourens et al., 2008). Being a xerophyte, this plant can grow on dry, sandy, and stony terrain, at various altitudes (0À2200 m). ...
Article
The antitumor effect of Helichrysum species has been rarely documented in literature. Thus, in the present work, the potential antineoplastic properties of the essential oil extracted from Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don flower heads by hydrodistillation were investigated. The biochemical profile of the essential oil was characterized by GC–MS analysis: Neryl acetate (33.97%), α-Pinene (28.50%), Nerol (7.97%), Neryl phenylacetate (7.11%) and β-Caryophyllene (5.71%) were the most abundant molecules of the phytocomplex. An absolute quantitation of five terpens (D-Limonene, β-Linalool, α-Terpineol, Nerol, and Neryl acetate) was also carried out, to further typify the oil chemotype. The antiproliferative effect of the essential oil was assessed on B16F10 murine melanoma cells, by Trypan Blue exclusion test and MTT assay. These preliminary analyses demonstrated that H. italicum essential oil was able to significantly inhibit tumor cell growth, in a dose and time-dependent manner, inducing only low levels of cytotoxicity. Probably, the bioactivity of this oil against the B16F10 cells was due to its elevated antioxidant power, which was measured by three different in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). According to all these results, H. italicum essential oil might be considered a promising natural source of new anticancer compounds.
... It is a fastgrowing shrub capable of reaching 1.5 m in height, has aromatic smell and its flowers have a long-lasting sweet scent (Hae, 2016). Several reports have denoted that essential oil is extracted from this plant has antifungal and antibacterial properties (Bruno et al., 2006;Lourens et al., 2008;Mashigo et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Background: The rapid expansion of Helichrysum splendidum shrub into Menz-Guassa community conservation area has resulted in the scarcity of Guassa grasses and this has threatened the livelihoods of the local community. Objective: A field survey was undertaken to examine the effect of human disturbance and soil burrows on the expansion of H. splendidum. Materials and Methods: Two transects were laid out along altitudinal gradient with a 200 m interval and 15 quadrats (5 m  5 m each) were arranged on each quadrat at every 100 m for data collection on the level of human disturbance, number of soil burrows, and the abundance of H. splendidum. In total, 90 composite soil samples were collected from three soil layers (litter, 0-3 cm and 3-6 cm) from the five subplots (size: 1 m x 1 m each) which were established in the four corners and one in the center of each quadrat. The soil seed bank study was undertaken in the greenhouse and the seedlings grown were identified to the species level the density of which was recorded. The General Linear Model (GLM) was employed to test the effects of human disturbance and soil burrows on the abundance and density of seedlings of H. splendidum. Results: The results showed that abundance of H. splendidum significantly increased with increasing level of human disturbance, but decreased with the increasing number of soil burrows (P < 0.001). Higher germination density was recorded from soil seed bank with moderate and high levels of human disturbance compared to soil banks with very high levels human disturbance. However, the density of seedlings showed an increasing trend with increasing the number of soil burrows. Conclusion: Our overall results suggest that human disturbances (i.e., grass cutting and wood collections) and soil burrowing by mole rats are the major drivers of the expansion of H. splendidum and hence mechanisms that halt such process need be sought to restore the cover of Guassa grass on which the livelihoods of the local community largely depend.
... "De Materia Medica" written by Pedanius Dioscorides reported the application of decoction of floral filaments of Helichrysum in wine against different inflammatory complications related to snake bites, sciatica, urinary tract and hernias [3]. Later during Renaissance, the Dutch botanist Herman Boerhaave reported the use of herbs from this genus in J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f South Africa for the treatment of hysteria and nervousness [4]. However, though medicinally used in many countries, there still a paucity of scientific information to validate such traditionally uses [2]. ...
Article
We endeavoured to probe into and compare the possible effect(s) of different extraction techniques (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonication-assisted extraction (UAE), maceration, and Soxhlet extraction (SE)) on the bioactivity (antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities) of the aerial parts of Helichrysum stoechas subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts obtained by different extraction methods followed the order of ASE > MAE > UAE > maceration > SE. Extract obtained by ASE was the most potent radical scavenger (219.92 and 313.12 mg Trolox equivalent [TE]/g, against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), respectively) and reducing agent (927.39 and 662.87 mg TE/g, for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), respectively). Helichrysum stoechas extract obtained by UAE (18.67 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic equivalent [EDTAE]/g) was the most active metal chelator and inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (4.23 mg galantamine equivalent [GALAE]/g) and butyrylcholinesterase (6.05 mg GALAE/g) cholinesterase. Extract from maceration (183.32 mg kojic acid equivalent [KAE]/g) was most active against tyrosinase while ASE extract (1.66 mmol acarbose equivalent [ACAE]/g) effectively inhibited α-glucosidase. In conclusion, data amassed herein tend to advocate for the use of non-conventional extraction techniques, namely ASE and UAE, for the extraction of bioactive secondary metabolites from H. stoechas aerial parts.
... It was observed by Odalo et al. (2005) that phytol had a high repellent activity against Anopheles gambiae. Squalene is the most common triterpene found in high concentration in different Helichrysum species (Lourens et al., 2008). These species are generally enriched source of phenolics, α-pyrone and acetophenones derivatives responsible for its biological activities (Kladar et al., 2015). ...
... According to Lourens et al. [61] and Pljevljakušić et al. [62], the genus Helichrysum is characterized by acylphloroglucinols, humulone derivatives, flavonoids, chalcones, phenolic acids, phthalides, sterols, coumarins, pyrones, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and polyacetylenes. The genus Helichrysum is characterized by several biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, cholagogue, choleretic, hepatoprotective, detoxifying, protease-inhibiting, and antiallergic properties [61][62][63]. ...
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Helichrysum cymosum is a valuable and well-known medicinal plant in tropical Africa. The current study critically reviewed the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of H. cymosum. Information on medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of H. cymosum, was collected from multiple internet sources which included Scopus, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, SciFinder, and BMC. Additional information was gathered from pre-electronic sources such as journal articles, scientific reports, theses, books, and book chapters obtained from the University library. This study showed that H. cymosum is traditionally used as a purgative, ritual incense, and magical purposes and as herbal medicine for colds, cough, fever, headache, and wounds. Ethnopharmacological research revealed that H. cymosum extracts and compounds isolated from the species have antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and cytotoxicity activities. This research showed that H. cymosum is an integral part of indigenous pharmacopeia in tropical Africa, but there is lack of correlation between medicinal uses and existing pharmacological properties of the species. Therefore, future research should focus on evaluating the chemical and pharmacological properties of H. cymosum extracts and compounds isolated from the species.
... Helichrysum paronychioides DC (Synonym: Gnaphalium paronychioides Sch.Bip.) and Senecio longiflorus DC Sch.Bip (Synonym: Kleinia longiflora DC) were well-cited as the popular remedies for skin diseases. These four aforementioned plants are known for their diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, toxicity and anti-inflammatory activities [16][17][18], as well as their rich phytochemical pools [16,[19][20][21]. Despite the diverse biological activities of these medicinal plants, their effects against microbes implicated in common skin diseases are not well-documented. ...
Article
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Although orthodox medications are available for skin diseases, expensive dermatological services have necessitated the use of medicinal plants as a cheaper alternative. This study evaluated the pharmacological and phytochemical profiles of four medicinal plants (Drimia sanguinea, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Helichrysum paronychioides, and Senecio longiflorus) used for treating skin diseases. Petroleum ether and 50% methanol extracts of the plants were screened for antimicrobial activity against six microbes: Bacillus cereus, Shigella flexneri, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans using the micro-dilution technique. Antioxidant activity was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene linoleic acid models. Cytotoxicity was determined against African green monkey Vero kidney cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Spectrophotometric and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods were used to evaluate the phytochemical constituents. All the extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antimicrobial potencies. Shigella flexneri, Candida glabrata, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans were most susceptible at 0.10 mg/mL. In the DPPH test, EC50 values ranged from approximately 6–93 µg/mL and 65%–85% antioxidant activity in the β-carotene linoleic acid antioxidant activity model. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.5–64 mg GAE/g and 1.25–28 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The LC50 values of the cytotoxicity assay ranged from 0.015–5622 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed a rich pool (94–198) of bioactive compounds including dotriacontane, benzothiazole, heptacosane, bumetrizole, phthalic acid, stigmasterol, hexanoic acid and eicosanoic acid, which were common to the four plants. The current findings provide some degree of scientific evidence supporting the use of these four plants in folk medicine. However, the plants with high cytotoxicity need to be used with caution.
... It can be observed from this study that the high percentage of terpenes (43.79%) found in the extract of H. patiolare leaves is in accordance with those reported from previous studies, in which, terpenes were the major constituents. [20,21] Therefore, it can be suggested that the lower percentage of terpenes in the ethanol extract of B. asphodeloides could impact negatively on their biological activities compared to that of H. patiolare extract. This study, therefore, confirm that ethanol extracts of B. asphodeloides and H. patiolare leaves are composed of bioactive components which are known to exhibit medicinal values coupled with physiological activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bulbine asphodeloides and Helichrysum petiolare are important medicinal plants that commonly used in folklore medicine in South Africa for the management of skin ailments such as acne, burns, wounds, eczema, shingles, hives, psoriasis, sores, rosacea, and rashes. Despite their extensive use in traditional medicine, the chemical profiles of these medicinal plants have not been elucidated. Objective: The present study was carried out to identify and compare the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) profiles of the volatile components from the ethanol extracts of both plants. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of both plants were collected from Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa, and later oven dried and subjected for extraction and these extracts were further subjected to GC–MS analysis using standard procedures. Results: The GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of bioactive terpenes in the volatile components of the ethanol extracts of B. asphodeloides and H. petiolare. Conclusion: The findings reveal the presence of various bioactive compounds which therefore validates the therapeutic importance of these plants in the treatment of skin-related diseases.
... Helichrysum species, also known as everlasting flowers, are widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere of Africa, Europe and Australia [4]. They are valued as medicinal plants for the treatment of ailments such as influenza, eye infection, kidney stones, relief from gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual pain, headache, wound-healing, inflammation and to induce trance [22,32]. Previous studies of the phytochemicals from H. foetidum demonstrated antioxidants, antimicrobial and protease-inhibiting activities [5,26,27,34]. ...
Article
Toxicity Glucose uptake A B S T R A C T Searching for new natural bioactive capping agents represent an urgent priority in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Additionaly, the biosaftey of metal nanparticles is a major concern especially in medical applications. Recently, the use of pharmacollogicaly active natural products as capping agents has been deployed to avoid toxic effects during the nanoparticles preparation and to enhance their drugability compared with con-vential drugs. Helichrysum foetidum is a South African medicinal plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of different human pathologies, and it is known to contain a variety of bioactive compounds. Herein, the total extract and two pure chalcones, helichrysetin and helichrysin, isolated from the same plant were successfully used to synthesize quasi-monodispersed gold nanoparticles in the size range of 2-12 nm. The bio-evaluation of samples indicated that the AuNP/capping agent conjugates are biostable, and have different biological profiles from the total extract/pure compounds. The enzymatic inhibition assays showed significant inhibition by the total extract, helichrysetin and their gold nanoparticles. Interestingly, a similar activity was observed for glucose uptake in HEK293 treated cells. On the other hand, all the tested samples relatively demonstrated no cytotoxicity when tested against the HaCaT keratinocytes. In conclusion, the study demonstrated potential enhancement of glucose uptake in mammalian kidney cells, and inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes by green synthesized gold nanoparticles of H. foetidum. It also provides a therapeutic appraisal of AuNPs/chalcones conjugate towards the development of antidiabetes drugs derived from H. foetidum and its gold nanoparticles.
... It is a fastgrowing shrub capable of reaching 1.5 m in height, has aromatic smell and its flowers have a long-lasting sweet scent (Hae, 2016). Several reports have denoted that essential oil is extracted from this plant has antifungal and antibacterial properties (Bruno et al., 2006;Lourens et al., 2008;Mashigo et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The rapid expansion of Helichrysum splendidum shrub into Menz-Guassa community conservation area has resulted in the scarcity of Guassa grasses and this has threatened the livelihoods of the local community. Objective: A field survey was undertaken to examine the effect of human disturbance and soil burrows on the expansion of H. splendidum. Materials and Methods: Two transects were laid out along altitudinal gradient with a 200 m interval and 15 quadrats (5 m  5 m each) were arranged on each quadrat at every 100 m for data collection on the level of human disturbance, number of soil burrows, and the abundance of H. splendidum. In total, 90 composite soil samples were collected from three soil layers (litter, 0-3 cm and 3-6 cm) from the five subplots (size: 1 m x 1 m each) which were established in the four corners and one in the center of each quadrat. The soil seed bank study was undertaken in the greenhouse and the seedlings grown were identified to the species level the density of which was recorded. The General Linear Model (GLM) was employed to test the effects of human disturbance and soil burrows on the abundance and density of seedlings of H. splendidum. Results: The results showed that abundance of H. splendidum significantly increased with increasing level of human disturbance, but decreased with the increasing number of soil burrows (P < 0.001). Higher germination density was recorded from soil seed bank with moderate and high levels of human disturbance compared to soil banks with very high levels human disturbance. However, the density of seedlings showed an increasing trend with increasing the number of soil burrows. Conclusion: Our overall results suggest that human disturbances (i.e., grass cutting and wood collections) and soil burrowing by mole rats are the major drivers of the expansion of H. splendidum and hence mechanisms that halt such process need be sought to restore the cover of Guassa grass on which the livelihoods of the local community largely depend.
... It is a fastgrowing shrub capable of reaching 1.5 m in height, has aromatic smell and its flowers have a long-lasting sweet scent (Hae, 2016). Several reports have denoted that essential oil is extracted from this plant has antifungal and antibacterial properties (Bruno et al., 2006;Lourens et al., 2008;Mashigo et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Factors driving the expansion of Helichrysum splendidum in Menz-Guassa community conservation area of the Afroalpine ecosystem of Ethiopia Sisay Wube 1,2*, Debissa Lemessa 1, and Bikila Warkineh Dullo 2 1Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia Abstract Background: The rapid expansion of Helichrysum splendidum shrub into Menz-Guassa community conservation area has resulted in the scarcity of Guassa grasses and this has threatened the livelihoods of the local community. Objective: A field survey was undertaken to examine the effect of human disturbance and soil burrows on the expansion of H. splendidum. Materials and Methods: Two transects were laid out along altitudinal gradient with a 200 m interval and 15 quadrats (5 m  5 m each) were arranged on each quadrat at every 100 m for data collection on the level of human disturbance, number of soil burrows, and the abundance of H. splendidum. In total, 90 composite soil samples were collected from three soil layers (litter, 0–3 cm and 3–6 cm) from the five subplots (size: 1 m x 1 m each) which were established in the four corners and one in the center of each quadrat. The soil seed bank study was undertaken in the greenhouse and the seedlings grown were identified to the species level the density of which was recorded. The General Linear Model (GLM) was employed to test the effects of human disturbance and soil burrows on the abundance and density of seedlings of H. splendidum. Results: The results showed that abundance of H. splendidum significantly increased with increasing level of human disturbance, but decreased with the increasing number of soil burrows (P < 0.001). Higher germination density was recorded from soil seed bank with moderate and high levels of human disturbance compared to soil banks with very high levels human disturbance. However, the density of seedlings showed an increasing trend with increasing the number of soil burrows. Conclusion: Our overall results suggest that human disturbances (i.e., grass cutting and wood collections) and soil burrowing by mole rats are the major drivers of the expansion of H. splendidum and hence mechanisms that halt such process need be sought to restore the cover of Guassa grass on which the livelihoods of the local community largely depend. Keywords: Afroalpine Ecosystem; Conservation; Disturbance; Seed Bank; Soil burrows
... Helichrysum species are popularly used to relieve pain, while Aloe species are commonly used for inflammation and arthritis. Several studies have reported the anti-inflammatory properties of species from the genus Helichrysum (Jäger et al., 1996;Lourens et al., 2004Lourens et al., , 2008 and Aloe (Lindsey et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2012;Cock, 2015). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Inflammation is a serious global concern due to its debilitating symptoms, resulting in considerable suffering and lost productivity. Chronic and auto-immune inflammatory diseases are of particular concern. Several pharmaceutical therapies are already available. However, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) is accompanied by harmful and toxic side effects. Hence, the search for safer alternative therapeutics with limited side effects is imperative. The use of medicinal plants is common practice amongst the southern African population and may provide targets for drug development. Aim of the study This study aims to review and document the medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of southern African medicinal plants used for inflammation and pain-related ailments. Material and methods An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify southern African plants used traditionally to treat inflammation. A variety of ethnobotanical books and grey literature, as well as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus search engines were used as sources of information. Results This review identified 555 medicinal plants from 118 families which were traditionally used in southern Africa to treat inflammation and pain. Fabaceae was the most prominent family with 63 species, followed by Asteraceae (54 species) and Apocynaceae (33 species). The top category of ailments indicated include non-specific inflammation with 150 species, followed by inflammatory pain (148 species), headache (114 species) and toothache (114 species). Conclusion Despite a large number of southern African medicinal plants used to treat inflammation and pain, relatively few have been screened for their anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, biologically active plant extracts have been tested against relatively few inflammatory markers and considerable further work is required.
... Helichrysum Umbraculigerum belongs to the Asteraceae family, this large genus consists of approximately 500-600 species original from south Europe, south-west Asia, south India, Sri Lanka and Australia, Africa and Madagascar. The traditional uses of Helichrysum species are extensively described and seem to be quite stackable to those of cannabis, against nausea and vomiting, respiratory diseases and dysentery [115]. ...
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Nowadays cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes for the reduction of the quality of life. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders due to its involvement in vasomotor control, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and vascular inflammation. Alteration in cannabinoid signalling can be often related to cardiotoxicity, circulatory shock, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Plants have been the major sources of medicines until modern eras in which researchers are experiencing a rediscovery of natural compounds as novel therapeutics. One of the most versatile plant is Cannabis sativa L., containing phytocannabinoids that may play a role in the treatment of CVDs. The aim of this review is to collect and investigate several less studied plants rich in cannabinoid-like active compounds able to interact with cannabinoid system; these plants may play a pivotal role in the treatment of disorders related to the cardiovascular system.
... Over 600 species of the genus Helichrysum are present in South Africa, Turkey, Madagascar, Eurasia and Australasia, and are reputable for their use in traditional medicine wherever they occur. For example, colds and coughs are treated with various concoctions of H. odoratissimum, H. cymosum and H. kraussii, while H. nudifolium leaves are used as a treatment for wounds and against respiratory infections [2]. The plant H. aureonitens Sch. ...
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Native South Africans make use of Helichrysum aureonitens Sch. Bip. extracts for the treatment of a variety of infections and they are important in traditional medicinal preparations. This study investigated the effect of seasonal variation and geographical location on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of H. aureonitens. Material was collected in two different seasons: early spring, with high rainfall and high temperatures (October), and late autumn, with low rainfall and lower temperatures (May). Further analysis was carried out using 1H-NMR based metabolomics to analyse and compare the chemical profiles of the plants in both seasons and locations. Plant materials were collected from two sites for each season, at Wakefield farm (KwaZulu-Natal), representing a colder, wetter environment, and Telperion (Mpumalanga), representing a drier and warmer environment. Leaves of H. aureonitens were tested against bacteria (Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)) as well as fungi (Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), Aspergillus nomius (A. nomius), Cladosporium cladosporioides (C. cladosporioides), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Penicillum halotolerans (P. halotolerans)). Extracts from the October harvest showed significant activities against the Gram-negative bacterium P. vulgaris compared to the May harvest, with an MIC value of 62.5 µg/mL. Similar activity was observed between the extracts from the wet season across the two geographically different locations. There was generally very good antifungal activity observed for all the species, with the exception of A. nomius, which had MIC values ranging from 0.39–1.56 µg/mL. Extracts of plant materials harvested in the wetter region had a significantly higher activity against A. flavus and F. oxysporum in both seasons than those from plants harvested in the drier region. Telperion-harvested plants exhibited better activity against F. oxysporum in the autumn. Hydrogen-1 NMR metabolomic analysis confirmed the significant effects of the seasons and the peculiar climates of different localities on the secondary metabolite profile of H. aureonitens.
... Traditionally, H. pandurifolium ( Figure 1B) is used to treat respiratory conditions, heart troubles, constipation, back pain, and kidney stones [14]. Biological activity of H. pandurifolium total extract using chloroform:methanol (1:1) has been previously tested for antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity [22]. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of systemic metabolic disorders with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the detrimental side effects of the current treatment, there is a great need to develop more effective antidiabetic drugs with fewer side effects. Natural products are a well-known source for the discovery of new scaffolds for drug discovery, including new antidiabetic drugs. The genus Helichrysum has been shown to produce antidiabetic natural products. In this investigation, the methanolic extract of H. cymosum and H. pandurifolium resulted in the isolation and identification of eleven known compounds viz 5,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-phenyl flavanone (1), pinostrobin (2), dihydrobaicalein (3), glabranin (4), allopatuletin (5), pinostrobin chalcone (6), helichrysetin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (8), 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (9), 3-O-methylquercetin (10), and 3-methylethergalangin (11). The in vitro bio-evaluation of isolated compounds against alpha-glucosidase showed that 10, 5, and 11 demonstrated the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 9.24 ± 0.4, 12.94 ± 0.2, and 16.00 ± 2.4 μM respectively, followed by 7 and 3 with IC50 values of 18.16 ± 1.2 and 44.44 ± 0.2 μM respectively. However, none of these compounds showed a measurable inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase under the experimental conditions used except compound 10 which showed a poor alpha-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 230.66 ± 15.8 μM. Additionally, strong total antioxidant capacities were demonstrated by 10, 5 and 7 in ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power assay (374.34 ± 69.7; 334.37 ± 1.7; 279.93 ± 0.8) µmol AAE/mmol. This is the first scientific report to be carried out on alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacities of H. cymosum constituents and a first report on the isolation and identification of methoxyflavanoids from H. pandurifolium. Our findings suggest that these compounds are promising candidates to inhibit alpha-glucosidase as well as oxidative stress related to diabetes. Results from molecular docking provided insight into the observed in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities for 5, 7, 10, and 11. It is envisaged that the isolated phytochemicals from these plants may contribute to the development of hypoglycemic lead compounds with anti-diabetic potential.
... Coupled with the many traditional uses, the phyto-constituents in the plant are purportedly responsible for the biological activities and such uses. A comprehensive review by [9] highlights the different classes and the phytoconstituents' types that have been isolated from different Helichrysum species from South Africa. The family of isolated compounds include phenolic derivatives, phloroglucinols, pyrones, diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, chalcones, pyranchalcones, and flavanones, among others. ...
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Helichrysum caespititium (DC.) Sond. Ex Harv., (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant indigenous to South Africa. Its non-polar extracts exhibit significant antimicrobial and, in particular, antigonorrheal activity. This study aimed at isolating and purifying the active antigonorrheal compound from its chloroform extract and validating its inhibition potential on quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of H. caespititium afforded a diterpene lactone (CF6). The effect of CF6 on violacein production and biofilm formation was studied using in vitro quantitative violacein inhibition (Chromobacterium violaceum) and biofilm formation (Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The structure of CF6 was characterized using FTIR, NMR, and UPLC-MS data accordingly, as 10-methyl-8-(propan-17-ylidene)naphthalen-9-yl)-11-vinyl-14-hydroxyfuran-16-one. The susceptibility testing of the pathogens against CF6 revealed Neisseria gonorrhoeae was noticeably susceptible with a MIC value of 60 µg/mL, while Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed MIC of 125 µg/mL. All gram-negative pathogens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited at 250 µg/mL. CF6 also inhibited the production of violacein by 51.88% at 250 µg/mL and prevented cell attachment by 40.76–81.18%, with N. gonorrhoeae being highly prohibited from forming biofilm. In conclusion, 10-methyl-8-(propan-17-ylidene)naphthalen-9-yl)-11-vinyl-14-hydroxyfuran-16-one is the first of its kind to be isolated from the non-polar (chloroform) extract of South African Helichrysum caespititium with antigonorrheal, antimicrobial, antiquorum sensing, and antibiofilm properties. The compound may serve as a drug candidate against MDR pathogens.
... The antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-proliferative characteristics of the Helichrysum genus have been investigated in scientific studies [18,19]. Many complex bioactive chemicals, such as phloroglucinols and their derivatives, chalcones, flavonoids, α-pyrones, essential oils, and terpenoids, may be found in this massive plant genus [20,21], whereas for Helichrysum petiolare, phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins are the dominant phytochemicals [18,22,23]. A recent review indicated that some species of Helichrysum are under-explored for drug discovery and development [18] in many human diseases or disorders, such as diabetes mellitus. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic condition that can lead to significant complications and a high fatality rate worldwide. Efforts are ramping up to find and develop novel α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors that are both effective and potentially safe. Traditional methodologies are being replaced with new techniques that are less complicated and less time demanding; yet, both the experimental and computational strategies are viable and complementary in drug discovery and development. As a result, this study was conducted to investigate the in vitro anti-diabetic potential of aqueous acetone Helichrysum petiolare and B.L Burtt extract (AAHPE) using a 2-NBDG, 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake assay. In addition, we performed molecular docking of the flavonoid constituents identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) from AAHPE with the potential to serve as effective and safe α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, which are important in drug discovery and development. The results showed that AAHPE is a potential inhibitor of both α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 46.50 ± 6.17 (µg/mL) and 37.81 ± 5.15 (µg/mL), respectively. This is demonstrated by a significant increase in the glucose uptake activity percentage in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the control, with the highest AAHPE concentration of 75 µg/mL of glucose uptake activity being higher than metformin, a standard anti-diabetic drug, in the insulin-resistant HepG2 cell line. The molecular docking results displayed that the constituents strongly bind α-amylase and α-glucosidase while achieving better binding affinities that ranged from ΔG = −7.2 to −9.6 kcal/mol (compared with acarbose ΔG = −6.1 kcal/mol) for α-amylase, and ΔG = −7.3 to −9.0 kcal/mol (compared with acarbose ΔG = −6.3 kcal/mol) for α-glucosidase. This study revealed the potential use of the H. petiolare plant extract and its phytochemicals, which could be explored to develop potent and safe α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors to treat postprandial glycemic levels in diabetic patients.
Article
Cancer is a major global health issue and one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. In recent years, cancer mortality and morbidity rates have risen dramatically due to variety of factors. Despite therapeutic alternatives, chemotherapy medications have major adverse effects and many kinds of drug resistance that severely diminish their effectiveness. Galangin, 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, is considered as the bioactive constituent of galangal and honey. In general, galangin exhibits several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral activities. The anticancer effects of galangin are mostly due to its abilities to inhibit cell cycle progression, inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt), or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity leading to apoptotic cell death by stimulating caspase-9/8/3 and inhibiting tumor invasion and metastasis by decreasing the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9). These molecular pathways of galangin are involved in suppressing different malignancies, such as lung cancer, hepatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retinoblastoma, and osteosarcoma. The present work is emphasized on the anticancer mechanisms of galangin. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract
Article
Reports on the occurrence of cannabidiol (CBD, 1) in non-cannabis plants are critically reviewed. The isolation of 1 from Humulus Kriya (sic) was fraudulent and from Trema orientalis and stevia dubious, while the occurrence of traces of 1 in flax needs additional confirmation. The presence of high concentration of cannabigerol (CBG, 3a) and its corresponding acidic precursor (GBGA, 3b) in Helichrysum umbraculigerum could not be confirmed, but this plant deserves additional attention due to the possible phytocannabinoids accumulation in selected chemotypes.
Chapter
The Chemistry inside Spices and Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part II continues from the previous part with chapters on the treatment of skin diseases and oral problems. This part focuses on clinically important herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ashwagandha (Indian winter cherry), basil, Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan). In terms of phytochemicals, this part presents chapters that cover resveratrol, piperine and circumin.
Article
Background Medicinal plants have been used to treat diseases for centuries. They are important sources in terms of their pharmacological effects and also have many microbial agents. Recently, the development of drug resistance has begun to spread in human pathogens against used antibiotic and this situation has led to the increasingly necessitating the new researches for novel antimicrobial substances from natural products containing plants. Objective The purpose of this review is to determine the antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds isolated from medicinal plants and to evaluate how molecular structures of these compounds affect the activity and also provide to the readers a source for future studies about natural antimicrobial agents. Methods Relevant informations were gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, PubMed, Taylor&Francis online) with using different keywords. Antimicrobial activity researches were selected especially on pure phenolic compounds. Results Numerous phenolic compounds have been isolated from plants/plant extracts and these compounds are shown to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi and their Minimum Inhibition Concentration and inhibition zone values were given in details. Conclusion This review revealed that they have different antimicrobial activity according to the changes in molecular structure of phenolic compounds found in medicinal plants.
Article
The volatiloma of four Helichrysum species (H. anomalum, H reflexum, H. retortum and H. rugulosum) was analysed here for the first time by GC-MS for a chemotaxonomic contribution to this genus. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SHs) prevailed in the aroma profile (VOCs) of H. reflexum, H. rugulosum and H. anomalum (74.7%, 93.6% and 41.6%, respectively), even though the main compounds were different (β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene, respectively). The VOCs of H. retortum showed a high percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (NTs, 77.7%) mainly represented by octyl ether. The essential oil composition of each of H. rugulosum and H. retortum followed the same trend as VOCs related to the main class (SHs and NTs, respectively). In H. reflexum EO, the SHs were replaced by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OS, 49.0%) with caryophyllene oxide as the main compound, while in H. anomalum the SHs were swapped in NTs (37.3%).
Article
The phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract from Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B. L. (Asteraceae) confirmed the content of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Five secondary metabolites were isolated using preparative HPLC, namely coumarin scopolin (1), 3-chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid-hexose derivative (3), dicaffeoylquinic acid (5), and the flavonoid isoquercitrin (4). These compounds were identified from this species for the first time. Only dicaffeoylquinic acid was able to inhibit Escherichia coli CCM 7929 at the concertation of 512 μg mL-1 in a screening of antibacterial activity.
Article
In the present work the composition of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and the essential oil (EO) of Helichrysum araxinum Takht. ex Kirp. aerial parts, together with the antimicrobial activity, were investigated. The results showed the prevalence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in both spontaneous emissions as well as in the EO. The main compounds of BVOCs were γ-curcumene (10.7%), γ-muurolene (9.2%), and β-selinene (8.5%). This latter constituent also showed a similar amount in the EO and represented the most abundant compounds together with α-selinene (8.0%). It is Interesting to note the same percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (MHs) in both the aroma profile and the EO (18.0%) with the same most abundant compounds: β-pinene (6.3% in BVOCs vs. 5.1% in EO, respectively) and limonene (4.5% in VOCs vs. 4.9% in EO, respectively). With regard to the antimycotic activity, the EO showed to be inactive against the tested strains, while a moderate antibacterial activity was shown against Staphylococcus isolates.
Article
Impepho is an indigenous African herb well known to most people in South Africa, particularly Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces. The term “Impepho” is how the IsiXhosa speaking tribe from Eastern Cape called this herb while the IsiZulu’s from KwaZulu-Natal called it “Imphepho”. Despite documented uses for healing by traditional healers, especially in Africa, the healing abilities and mechanism of Impepho remain under-studied by science and medicine for modern drug development. There is a disconnection between medical scholars and traditional healers on how adequately and jointly to use this herb. We therefore urge researchers to work with traditional healers and medical professionals in South Africa and other African countries to carry out additional scientific studies on the Impepho herb.
Article
Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench (Family Compositae) is a medicinal herb endowed with several pharmacological activities. Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was used for the isolation of lignoceric acid (HS-02), lanost-5- en-3β-ol- 26-oic acid (HS-03), and lanost-5-en-26-oic acid-3β-olyl palmitate (HS-04). All molecules were screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight doses, and the TEST program assessed their toxicity. The molecular interaction profile with numerous anti-inflammatory drug targets was investigated by molecular docking. Compounds HS-03 and HS-04 showed a significant reduction in paw volume compared to the control group challenged with carrageenan in the rats, and prolongation of the paw licking/jumping and reduction in the number of writhes was noted after the injection of acetic acid in mice. In a hot plate test, all compounds showed significant pain inhibition. These findings might aid in the development of anti-inflammatory and anti-analgesic therapies.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part II continues from the previous part with chapters on the treatment of skin diseases and oral problems. This part focuses on clinically important herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ashwagandha (Indian winter cherry), basil, Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan). In terms of phytochemicals, this part presents chapters that cover resveratrol, piperine and circumin. Audience: This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
Article
Tropical diseases such as leishmaniosis constitute a major health concern in developing countries. Multiresistance of pathogens against classical antibiotics is a growing problem in treating infectious diseases. Thus, the search for new antibiotics is an urgent challenge. Helichrysum spp., mainly distributed in African countries, have been used in traditional and folk medicine for the treatment of several disorders including infectious diseases such as protozoal problems. In an ongoing project on the beneficial effects of Helichrysum spp., we aim to investigate and compare the anti-protozoal activities and phytochemical components of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. and Helichrysum leucocephalum Ausfeld. Previously, we discovered pyrone and phloroglucinol derivatives as the active anti-protozoal components in Helichrysum oocephalum Boiss. [IC50 values 5.08 µg/mL and 4.01 µg/mL against Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively for dichloromethane (DCM) fraction]. As the former plants also showed similar activities to some extent [IC50 values 5.19 µg/mL and 5.42 µg/mL against L. donovani and P. falciparum respectively for DCM fraction of H. oligocephalum, IC50 value 3.8 µg/mL against P. falciparum for DCM fraction of H. leucocephalum], we decided to compare the metabolite profiles of those plants with H. oocephalum for dereplication purposes. A sensitive method coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode-array detector (PDA) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) was optimized for separation and metabolite profiling. The LC-ESIMS metabolite profiles of the fractions from the plants were compared by applying a two-step workflow using an ACD/MS workbook suite add-in, and data clustering on an open-source web platform freeclust. The metabolites were identified by NMR and LC-PDA-ESIMS techniques. The metabolites can be categorized into major types namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, pyrone, and phloroglucinol derivatives. Phloroglucinol derivatives were mainly present in DCM fractions. DCM extract of H. oligocephalum showed the most similar profile to our previously studied extract of H. oocephalum and seems to be even much richer in pyrone and phloroglucinol derivatives. The data could emphasize the potential of Helichrysum spp. for the treatment of infectious diseases. However, more studies on the other species around the world are needed to have a much better insight.
Chapter
Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B.L.Burtt (Asteraceae) is an aromatic and low-growing shrub. The plant is also commonly known as ‘herbal helichrysum’. It grows mainly in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Helichrysum petiolare is traditionally used in the treatment of fungal infections, menstrual disorders, urinary tract infections and hypertension. Many studies have been done to reveal both in vitro and in vivo potential anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive effects. Six specimen of H. petiolare were obtained and the aerial parts were extracted with methanol. A semi-automated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) system and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection (UPLC-MS-PDA) were used to obtain the chromatographic profiles of the non-volatile fractions. The HPTLC profiles of the extracts viewed under 366 nm radiation showed quantitative variation between the samples. 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified on the UPLC-MS-PDA chromatograms.
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South Africa's recent higher education protests around fees and decolonizing institutions have shone a spotlight on important issues and have inspired global discussion. We witnessed similar resistance during apartheid, where African languages and ideas were limited. The educational space was the most affected by clashes between languages and ideas; we saw this in the prioritizing of English and Afrikaans over indigenous African languages and the prioritizing of Western medicine, literature, arts, culture, and science over African ones. This chapter will show how formal education and knowledge production in South Africa has been used as a tool to repress Black people, while discrediting their knowledge systems. This discussion will draw from impepho, which is rejected by Christians because its main use is for communicating with ancestors. The herb has many other medicinal uses, but it is still rejected. African practices are used and revitalized by AIC like the Shembe Church and revolutionary movements like FMF.
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Till date, less studies have been done on the nutritive and antinutritive constituents of Helichrysum petiolare. This study therefore evaluated the nutritive and antinutritive constituents of the plant using proximate analysis and standard laboratory procedures, respectively. The result showed high levels of acid detergent fibre (ADF), vitamins (A, C and E), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and minerals in H. petiolare. The high ADF level was believed to be responsible for the low energy, fat and carbohydrate levels observed in this study. The result also showed high level of oxalate and therefore, suggests cooking of the plant before human consumption. Overall nutrition, antinutritional and mineral compositions of the plant showed that the H. petiolare is immensely rich in vital nutrients that are of great importance to health and metabolism. These nutrients are suggested to be partly responsible for the plant’s useful medicinal properties.
Article
Treatment of diseases is a major challenge in Lesotho due to several factors, such as limited availability and affordability of western medicine, as well as accessibility to healthcare facilities. As a result, traditional medicine plays a vital role in the well-being of the population in the country. Many studies conducted on medicinal plants in Lesotho have primarily focused on indigenous uses of the plants. However, the therapeutic potential and safety of a majority of these plants are still unknown. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the antibacterial activity and toxicity of plants used in the Maseru District, Lesotho, to treat tuberculosis (35 species), other respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (31 species), gastrointestinal conditions (13 species) and skin ailments (13 species), using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) micro-titre plate dilution assay. The antibacterial activity for at large proportion of plant species are reported here for the first time, which may mean that their medicinal use is only limited to the Basotho people. Several plant species demonstrated noteworthy (≤ 0.16 mg/ml) or moderate (> 0.16 and ≤ 1.00 mg/ml) antibacterial activity with Ipomoea oblongata demonstrating the highest antibacterial activity (0.09 mg/ml) against B. cereus. Of the plants that showed noteworthy to moderate activity, Eragrostis curvula, Gerbera piloselloides, Ipomoea oblongata, Metalasia muricata and Thesium costatum had previously not been tested for toxicity levels. The highest levels of toxicity were observed for G. piloselloides, I. oblongata, Senecio asperulus and Withania somnifera. The antibacterial results support to some extent, the traditional Lesotho utilization of previously unstudied plant species for the treatment of some bacterial infections.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Helichrysum italicum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat allergies, colds, cough, skin, liver and gallbladder disorders, inflammation, infections, and sleeplessness. Furthermore, it possesses considerable wound healing and skin protective properties, documented by several in vivo studies performed on animals. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence supporting its potential as a topical agent tested by human clinical trials. Aim of the study The study aimed to investigate the skin protective activity of cotton gauze and polypropylene non-woven fabric, impregnated with H. italicum extract by the integrated supercritical CO2 extraction-supercritical solvent impregnation process. Materials and methods The integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction of H. italicum and the impregnation of cotton gauze and polypropylene non-woven fabric was performed under 350 bar and 40 °C with and without the addition of ethanol as a cosolvent. Impregnated textile materials were tested in vivo for their bioactivity on irritated human skin. Randomized in vivo studies performed involved assays of both safety and efficacy of the impregnated textiles. The effects were evaluated using the in vivo non-invasive biophysical measurements of the following skin parameters: electrical capacitance, transepidermal water loss, melanin index, erythema index, and skin pH. Results Both cotton gauze and polypropylene non-woven fabric were impregnated with H. italicum extracts under supercritical conditions with considerable values of the impregnation yield (1.97%–4.25%). The addition of ethanol as a cosolvent during the process caused significant changes in the incorporated extracts’ impregnation yield and chemical profile. Both impregnated textile materials were safe, evaluated by their testing on the human skin with no cause of any irritation and redness. However, efficacy studies revealed that polypropylene non-woven fabric impregnated with H. italicum extract with ethanol as a cosolvent, possessed significantly greater potential for skin protection than the other investigated samples. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the feasibility of the combined supercritical extraction and impregnation process in developing materials for topical application based on H. italicum extract. The results of in vivo studies performed on human volunteers confirmed the suitability of H. italicum active components to be a part of human skin protective preparations because of their ability to maintain the skin unimpaired. Traditionally claimed applications as a medicinal plant capable of regenerating skin have been scientifically proven, in addition to employing green technology in obtaining the impregnated materials with a broad spectrum of utilization.
Article
Antimycobacterial activity of acetone and water extracts of Helichrysum caespititium against a drug-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated by the agar plate method. The acetone extract exhibited inhibitory activity at a concentration of 0.5mg ml⁻¹ against this strain whereas the organism was found to be partially susceptible to the water extract at 5.0mg ml⁻¹. The inhibitory activity of the acetone extract was confirmed using the rapid radiometric method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 0.1mg ml⁻¹. Caespitate, a novel phloroglucinol, which was previously isolated and identified, from H. caespititium was also evaluated for its activity against drugsensitive and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The MIC of caespitate was found to be 0.1mg/ml for all the M. tuberculosis strains. The ability of caespitate to inhibit the growth of all the strains of M. tuberculosis, shows the broad spectrum antimycobacterial activity of the compound.
Article
An ethnobotanical lead has resulted in the identification of prenyl-butyrylphloroglucinol (1) from the aerial parts of Helichrysum kraussii Schultz Bip. (Asteraceae). Characterisation was achieved by H-1- and C-13-NMR spectroscopy and EI-MS. Kaurenoic acid (2) was also isolated and identified by CC-MS. Both 1 and 2 were shown to have antibacterial activity against five Gram + and two Gram - bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 was particularly potent against E. coli at 1 mu g/ml.
Article
The leaves of Helichrysum pedunculatum and H. longifolium are used for the treatment of wounds arising from male circumcision by the Xhosas and the Pondos of South Africa, respectively. The antibacterial activity of these herbs was compared by direct bioautography using Staphylococcus aureus. Extracts from the leaves of H. pedunculatum showed more activity against the bacterium than those from H. longifolium. Heating the extracts from the latter, further reduced their activity against S. aureus. The traditonal heating of the leaves of this plant over hot ash before use is, therefore, likely to reduce their activity against infection.
Article
An investigation was undertaken to determine the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of aromatic plants traditionally used to treat dermatological pathologies. Guided by ethnobotanical literature and availability from natural sources, the essential oils of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less., Heteropyxis natalensis Harv. and Lippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng, were collected. The hydrodistilled essential oils displayed promising 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity with IC50 values between 35 and 75 ppm. The oil compositions were determined by GC and GC/MS. Major compounds possibly contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity include β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole and limonene. Enantiomers and racemic mixtures of limonene displayed significantly different 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity suggesting stereoselectivity of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Furthermore, the monoterpene 1,8-cineole appeared to cause partial potentiation of the anti-inflammatory activity displayed by limonene.
Article
Acetone extracts of Helichrysum callicomum, H. glomeratum, H. hypoleucum, H. odoratissimum, H. pilosellum and H. rugulosum were investigated for antibacterial activities against ten bacteria using the agar diffusion method. Epicuticular (shaken) and homogenized extracts of H. hypoleucum, H. odoratissimum and H. rugulosum significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus kristinae and Staphylococcus aureus (all Gram-positive bacteria) and Enterobacter cloacae (Gram-negative) at a concentration range of 0.01 to 1.0 mg/ml. In addition, the epicuticular extract of H. hypoleucum was active against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas the homogenized extract only had activity against P. aeruginosa. None of the other six extracts inhibited the growth of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, all Gram-negative bacteria. The extracts of H. glomeratum and H. pilosellum had no activity against any of the organisms tested. Shaken extracts proved to be more bioactive than homogenized extracts.
Article
Antimycobacterial activity of acetone and water extracts of Helichrysum caespititium against a drug-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated by the agar plate method. The acetone extract exhibited inhibitory activity at a concentration of 0.5mg ml-1 against this strain whereas the organism was found to be partially susceptible to the water extract at 5.0mg ml-1. The inhibitory activity of the acetone extract was confirmed using the rapid radiometric method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 0.1mg ml-1. Caespitate, a novel phloroglucinol, which was previously isolated and identified, from H. caespititium was also evaluated for its activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The MIC of caespitate was found to be 0.1mg/ml for all the M. tuberculosis strains. The ability of caespitate to inhibit the growth of all the strains of M. tuberculosis, shows the broad spectrum antimycobacterial activity of the compound.
Article
The isolation of a further chlorophenol acetylene from Helichrysum coriaceum as well as the synthesis of three naturally occurring chlorophenols are described.
Article
The aerial parts of Helichrysum thapsus afforded three new flavanone derivatives all derived from pinocembrin.
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The investigation of two further Helichrysum species afforded in addition to known compounds three new prenylated chalcones and two humulone-like compounds. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The chemotaxonomic situation is discussed briefly.
Article
The investigation of two South African Helichrysum species afforded in addition to known compounds two new chalcone derivatives, four related dihydrochalcones,5,7,8-trimethoxyflavone and 5-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxyflavone. The structures are elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The chemotaxonomic situation in the large genus Helichrysum is discussed, in the light of these results.
Article
The investigation of several South African species of the tribe Inuleae afforded in addition to known compounds 16 new constituents. From Leontonyx a group of 9 new phloroglucinol derivatives, from Stoebe species two new p-hydroxyacetophenone, two thymol and two coumaric acid derivatives and from Relhania a new euparine-derivative were isolated. The structures are elucidated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The chemotaxonomic aspects are discussed briefly. The phloroglucinol derivatives, which in part are derived from geraniol, seem to be especially characteristic.
Article
The investigation of several South African Helichrysum species afforded in addition to known compounds two new kaurenic acid derivatives, three new labdane derivatives, three aromadendrene derivatives and geranylterpinene. The structures are elucidated mainly by extensive 1H NMR-studies. The chemotaxonomic importance of these findings is discussed briefly.
Article
Helichrysum natalitium afforded four new phloroglucinol derivatives, while from H. bellum two further compounds of this type have been isolated; H. platypterum yielded two known derivatives. The new structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The chemotaxonomical situation is briefly discussed.
Article
The aerial parts of Anaphalis araneosa afforded, in addition to known compounds, three new prenylated phthalides. A further compound of this type was isolated from the roots of Helichrysum platypterum. The structures were elucidated by high-field 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Article
From Helichrysum refluxum, in addition to known compounds, a diterpene acid related to erythroxydiol Z was isolated. The structure was elucidated by NMR techniques.
Article
The investigation of several Australian representatives of the genus Helichrysum and related genera afforded 28 new diterpenes (20 ent-labdanes, five seco ent-labdanes, one iso-kaurene, two pimarenes), a cadalenal, a guaiane and a sesquiterpene alcohol with a new carbon skeleton.
Article
The investigation of 25 further Helichrysum species afforded in addition to known compounds a new diterpene, an oxo-geranyllinalol, a second one, most probably a cembrene derivative, and three dihydrochalkone derivatives. The distribution of the constituents in South African Helichrysum species is discussed briefly.
Article
The investigation of a further South African Helichrysum species afforded eleven resorcinol derivatives, most of them closely related to cannabigerol and the corresponding acid, both also being present in the aerial parts of H. umbraculigerum. Furthermore a new geranyl chalcone is present. The structures are elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The occurrence of the cannabigerol-like compounds in a composite is surprising. Probably, some of these compounds are formed by the combination of three different biogenetic pathways.
Article
The investigation of two further South African Helichrysum species afforded five new flavones and six new phloroglucinol derivatives. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. The chemotaxonomic situation is discussed briefly.
Article
The aerial parts of Helichrysum fulvum afforded, in addition to beyerenic acid and ent-kaurenic acid, two new diterpenic acids with the hitherto unknown carbon skeleton of an isotrachylobane type. The structures of these acids, isolated as their methyl esters, were elucidated by extensive NMR studies, some chemical transformations and by X-ray structural analysis of the corresponding acetate. The related alcohol on reaction with pyridinochlorochromate afforded a homoconjugated diene probably formed by fragmentation of a cyclopropyl carbinol. The possible biogenesis of the new carbon skeleton is discussed briefly.
Article
The investigation of five further Helichrysum species afforded in addition to known compounds nine α-pyrone derivatives all also being phloroglucinol derivatives. Furthermore, a new toxol derivative has been isolated. The structures were elucidated by extensive NMR studies and by some chemical transformations. The chemotaxonomic situation is discussed briefly.
Article
The investigation of five further South African Helichrysum species afforded, in addition to known compounds, several new phloroglucinol derivatives, their structures being elucidated by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations. These results confirm the existence of several different chemical groups within this large genus.