Malignant mesothelioma: Current status and perspective in Japan and the world
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with a poor prognosis; and to make things worse, its incidence is increasing throughout the world. Surgical management of MPM is comprised of two aspects: diagnosis and resection. Surgical biopsy with thoracoscopy provides a higher yield but a higher rate of tumor cell seeding than blind biopsy. In some surgical cases, extended surgical staging with mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy, and contralateral thoracoscopy is required for the preoperative evaluation for resectablity. There are two types of surgical resection for MPM. Pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) involves removal of as much of the visceral, parietal, and pericardial pleura and the tumor as possible without removing the underlying lung. Because P/D is less radical but less invasive compared to extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), it can be tolerated by poor-risk patients. EPP comprises en bloc resection of visceral, parietal, and pericardial pleura and adjacent components such as ipsilateral lung, pericardium, and diaphragm, without opening the pleural cavity. EPP was considered a highly dangerous procedure with a surgical mortality of more than 30% decades ago, but its current operative mortality/morbidity rates are 4%-9% and 60%, respectively. As macroscopic complete resection is the primary goal of surgery for MPM because of its diffuse intrapleural growth, surgical resection alone is associated with poor survival. In this context, combination therapy with surgery plus chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is currently considered the standard treatment for patients with respectable MPM. A national survey of EPP was conducted recently in Japan, and a few multicenter clinical trials will start soon.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with a very poor prognosis, and its incidence is expected to increase in Asia and developing countries [1–6]. Because any type of planned surgery would be cytoreductive rather than radical , an optimal outcome via surgery alone is unlikely . "
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ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with a very poor prognosis. Unlike other solid tumors, any type of planned surgery for MPM would be cytoreductive rather than radical. There are two types of surgery for MPM. Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) involves en bloc resection of the lung, pleura, pericardium, and diaphragm. Pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) is a lung-sparing surgery that removes only parietal/visceral pleura. In comparison with EPP, P/D is theoretically less radical but is associated with less perioperative mortality/morbidity and less postoperative deterioration of cardiopulmonary function. It still remains unclear which surgical technique is superior in terms of the risk/benefit ratio. In this context, selection between EPP and P/D has been a matter to debate.
Available from: Narufumi Suganuma
- "Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor that develops from the mesothelial cells of the pleura. Although all types of asbestos e.g., white, blue and brown asbestos were widely abandoned in many industrialized countries in the 1980s, the incidence of MPM is still growing in most of these countries . The patients suffering from MPM often present symptoms such as dyspnea , chest pain, cough, and weight loss. "
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International experts developed a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma for radiologists and physicians. It is intended that it act as a supplement to the current International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases.
The research literatures on mesothelioma CT features were systematically reviewed. Ten mesothelioma CT features were adopted into the guideline prepared according to experts' opinion. The terminology of mesothelioma CT features and mesothelioma probability were agreed by consensus of experts. The CT reference films for each mesothelioma feature were selected based on agreement by experts from 22 definite mesothelioma cases confirmed pathologically and immunohistochemically. To support the validity of the mesothelioma probability, 4 experts' readings of CT films from 57 cases with or without mesothelioma were analyzed by kappa statistics between the experts; sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were also assessed.
The mesothelioma CT Guideline was developed, providing the terminology of CT features and the mesothelioma probability, the judgement of severity, the distribution of mesothelioma, and the revised CT reading sheet including mesothelioma items. The CT reference films with ten mesothelioma typical features were selected. The average linearly and quadratically weighted kappa of the agreement on the 4-point scale mesothelioma probability were 0.58 and 0.71, respectively. The average sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were 93.2% and 65.6%, respectively.
The evidence-based mesothelioma CT Guideline developed may serve as a good educational tool to facilitate physicians in recognising mesothelioma and improve their proficiency in diagnosis of mesothelioma.
Available from: Xiaolan Feng
- "To date, there is no standard treatment for PMPM because of its rarity. Surgical resection remains the main treatment modality in PMPM.4,9 However, complete tumor eradication is often unachievabl.4,9 "
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ABSTRACT: Primary pericardial malignant mesothelioma (PMPM) is extremely rare with an incidence less than 0.0022%. It comprises 0.7% of all mesothelioma cases. To date, approximately 350 cases of pericardial mesothelioma have been reported in the literature. Its typical presentation is insidious, with nonspecific signs and symptoms, and usually results in constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tamponade and congestive heart failure either by a serous effusion or by direct tumorous constriction of the heart. With the exception of several case reports, the outcome is uniformly fatal, and patients typically die within six months of diagnosis. Here we report a 72-year-old Cauca -sian male with persistent pericardial and pleural effusion. He was diagnosed with PMPM after pericardectomy. He had only one cycle of chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed. He developed acute kidney injury as result of chemotherapy. He died 1 month after diagnosis and 6 months after the first symptoms.
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