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How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: A constructive replication


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The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke two psychologically different processes. In the first process, job demands lead to constant psychological overtaxing and in the long run to exhaustion. In the second process, a lack of job resources precludes actual goal accomplishment, leading to cynicism. In the present study these two processes were used to predict objective team performance. A total of 176 employees from a temporary employment agency completed questionnaires on job characteristics and burnout. These self-reports were linked to information from the company's management information system about teams' (N=71) objective sales performance (actual sales divided by the stated objectives) during the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection period. The results of structural equation modeling analyses did not support the hypothesis that exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and performance, but confirmed that cynicism mediates the relationship between job resources and performance suggesting that work conditions influence performance particularly through the attitudinal component of burnout.
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How job demands, resources, and burnout predict
objective performance: A constructive replication
Department of Work & Organizational Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The
Netherlands &
Department of Social & Organizational Psychology, University Utrecht, Utrecht, The
The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine
how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in
objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke
two psychologically different processes. In the first process, job demands lead to constant
psychological overtaxing and in the long run to exhaustion. In the second process, a lack of job
resources precludes actual goal accomplishment, leading to cynicism. In the present study these two
processes were used to predict objective team performance. A total of 176 employees from a
temporary employment agency completed questionnaires on job characteristics and burnout. These
self-reports were linked to information from the company’s management information system about
teams’ (N71) objective sales performance (actual sales divided by the stated objectives) during the 3
months after the questionnaire data collection period. The results of structural equation modeling
analyses did not support the hypothesis that exhaustion mediates the relationship between job
demands and performance, but confirmed that cynicism mediates the relationship between job
resources and performance suggesting that work conditions influence performance particularly
through the attitudinal component of burnout.
Keywords: Burnout, Job Demands-Resources model, objective performance
Generally, it is assumed that burnout negatively affects job performance, although the
evidence is still limited (Demerouti & Bakker, 2006). Moreover, research has usually relied
on subjective assessments of job performance (Taris, 2006) and studies on the impact of
burnout on objective performance are virtually lacking (Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004).
Using the Job Demands-Resource (JD-R) model as a guiding framework, the goal of the
present study was to examine how job demands and resources are related to teams
objective financial performance focusing on the mediating role of burnout (Bakker &
Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). Specifically, the
purpose of the present study was a constructive replication of Bakker, Demerouti, and
Verbeke (2004). Following Lykken (1968), a constructive replication extends the general-
izability of the research after which it is modeled by avoiding exact duplication.
Correspondence: Arnold B. Bakker, Institute of Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Woudestein, T12-47,
P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: 31 10 408 8853. Fax: 31 10 408 9009. E-mail:
ISSN 1061-5806 print/ISSN 1477-2205 online # 2008 Taylor & Francis
DOI: 10.1080/10615800801958637
Anxiety, Stress, & Coping,
July 2008; 21(3): 116
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Consequently, we used different demands and resources as predictors, another measure of
burnout, and objective financial performance at the team level as the dependent variable
(instead of colleague ratings of performance).
Burnout was originally conceived as a work-related syndrome that most often occurs among
individuals who work with other people (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). However, research of
the past decade has shown that the two core burnout dimensions emotional exhaustion
and cynicism can be observed in virtually any occupational group (Bakker, Demerouti, &
Schaufeli, 2002; Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001). Emotional exhaustion refers to a
general feeling of extreme chronic fatigue, caused by continuous exposure to demanding
working conditions. Cynicism is defined as a callous, distanced and cynical attitude toward
the work itself or the people with whom one works.
Of these two burnout dimensions, emotional exhaustion appears to be the central
variable in the burnout process (Baba, Jamal, & Tourigny, 1998; Shirom, 2005). A number
of studies have indeed shown that exhaustion is more strongly related to important outcome
variables (such as personnel turnover and absenteeism) than the other burnout dimensions
(Lee & Ashforth, 1993, 1996; Leung & Lee, 2006; Wright & Bonett, 1997). In addition,
exhaustion is always part of the different definitions of burnout (Shirom, 2005). Leiter’s
(1993) process model of burnout proposes that cynicism should be seen as a consequence
of emotional exhaustion. Accordingly, feelings of exhaustion arise from stressful working
conditions, whereby employees are repeatedly confronted with high job demands (such as
work pressure or high emotional demands) and as a consequence, they can develop a
cynical attitude as a coping strategy to distance themselves emotionally and mentally from
work (e.g., Bakker, Schaufeli, Sixma, Bosveld, & Dierendonck, 2000; Taris, LeBlanc,
Schaufeli, & Schreurs, 2005).
Burnout and Performance
Job performance refers to employees’ behaviors that are supposed to contribute to the
effectiveness of the organization and to overall organizational performance (Campbell,
1990). Singh, Goolsby, and Rhoads (1994) offer three possible explanations for the
influence of burnout on performance. First, burnout is characterized by a reduction of the
available energy and the amount of effort that is invested to perform well. Another reason is
that employees with burnout get trapped in a negative, vicious cycle, in which they are not
inclined to search for support or are not motivated to change their situation. The
consequence is that performance declines (Bakker et al., 2004). A final explanation for the
impairment of performance is that burnout undermines employees’ self-confidence in their
ability to solve work-related problems.
However, although a negative relationship between burnout and performance seems
apparent, empirical evidence for the influence of burnout on job performance is scarce
(Demerouti & Bakker, 2006). On the basis of six studies (total N2000), Schaufeli and
Enzmann (1998) found that burnout correlated only weakly with self-reported job
performance. On average, emotional exhaustion and cynicism explained 5 and 4%,
respectively, of the variance in job performance. Taris (2006) reviewed 16 studies on the
relationship between burnout and ‘‘objective’ performance (mainly supervisor reports),
and found a meta-analytical correlation (r .22) between exhaustion and in-role
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performance. Taris also found that the evidence for the relationship between cynicism
(depersonalization) and performance was inconclusive.
In the current study, we wanted to replicate the study of Bakker et al. (2004) among
human service professionals. In addition to employee ratings of their own job demands,
resources, and burnout (as measured with the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), Bakker et al.
collected colleague ratings of in-role and extra-role performance. The results showed that
exhaustion was the most important predictor of in-role performance, whereas cynicism
(called disengagement in the study) was the most important predictor of extra-role
performance. Both dimensions of burnout explained 8% of the variance in performance.
The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model
In the present study, we used the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model (Bakker &
Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001) to examine how job characteristics and burnout
contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in
the JD-R model is that working characteristics may evoke two psychologically different
processes. In the first process, demanding aspects of work (i.e., work overload and
complaining customers) lead to constant psychological overtaxing and in the long run to
exhaustion (e.g., Lee & Ashforth, 1996; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998).
According to Hockey’s (1993) control model of demand management, employees will use
a performance protection strategy when confronted with high job demands. In order to
maintain the desired performance level, they will mobilize extra energy to compensate
fatigue through mental effort. This implies that when people become exhausted under the
influence of environmental demands, they will not be able to perform well because their
energy resources are diminished. Indeed, Veldhuizen, Gaillard, and De Vries (2003), using
office tasks in order to simulate a working day, found that exhausted participants had
problems investing sufficient energy to their tasks. Moreover, exhausted participants’
performance results decreased as they reacted more slowly and produced a smaller number
of correct responses. Further, exhausted participants seemed unable to perform particularly
well in the evening, although they tried to invest more effort than their non-exhausted
counterparts. This implies that the impact of job demands on performance could be
mediated by feelings of (enhanced) exhaustion (cf. Hockey, 1993). Therefore, we
formulated the following hypothesis (see also Figure 1).
Hypothesis 1: Emotional exhaustion fully mediates the relationship between job demands
and objective performance.
In the second process proposed by the JD-R model, a lack of job resources precludes
actual goal accomplishment, which causes failure and frustration (Bakker, Demerouti, De
Boer, & Schaufeli, 2003). When organizations do not provide their employees with
sufficient job resources, withdrawal and decreased commitment will be the end result
(Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2003; Demerouti et al., 2001). These outcomes can be
interpreted as self-protecting mechanisms that prevent the development of employee
frustrations caused by not achieving work-related goals (cf. Hackman & Oldham, 1980).
Indeed, consistent with this line of reasoning, Hobfoll’s (1989) conservation of resources
theory argues that people strive to obtain and maintain (job) resources, and that situations
are experienced as stressful when loss or threat of loss occurs, or when the acquiring of job
resources fails. To reduce their level of stress, employees will try to limit losses. One way to
achieve this is to develop a detached attitude to the job (Wright & Bonett, 1997). We
propose that this detached attitude can diminish job performance (cf. Maslach, 1993). The
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prediction is that cynicism is the most important consequence of lacking job resources (cf.
Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001), which, in turn, has a negative
association with job performance (see Figure 1).
Hypothesis 2: Cynicism fully mediates the relationship between job resources and
objective (financial) performance.
Context of the Present Study: Performance as an Outcome
It was not before the 1990s that scholars formulated precise definitions of performance
(Campbell, 1990; Roe, 1999). When trying to define performance, researchers either
referred to the process of performance, or to the outcome of performance. According to the
former perspective, performance is the process by which people try to achieve a given work
goal (Roe, 1999). This definition focuses on the actions (or behaviors) that people
undertake to achieve their performance or what individuals do in their work situation, like
reading scientific literature, writing research proposals, and conducting studies in case of
researchers (Demerouti & Bakker, 2006). The second definition views performance as the
congruence between the work goal and the outcome of the process by which people try to
accomplish that work goal (Roe, 1999). For scientists, publication of a scientific article is an
example of an outcome of individual behaviors. Conceptually, this differentiation is helpful
to explicate what we talk about when studying performance. Practically, and in many cases
even psychometrically, it is difficult to separate behaviors from their outcome because the
behaviors are mainly enacted in order to achieve the outcome.
In the present study, performance was operationalized through an objective assessment of
team effectiveness, which is clearly an outcome-related indicator of performance. This kind
of performance is also known in the literature as in-role performance, defined as those
officially required outcomes and behaviors that directly serve the goals of the organization
(Motowildo & Van Scotter, 1994). Among other things, in-role performance includes
meeting company objectives (Behrman & Perreault, 1982).
Team Cohesion
Work Pressure
Figure 1. The Job Demands-Resources model.
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We used the JD-R model to examine how burnout affected the performance of groups of
employees who worked in autonomous teams of a temporary employment agency. Every
team included at least one desk manager, one sales executive, and one team manager. The
goal of each team was to realize the yearly sales objectives by placement of temporary
employees. We used the extent to which the sales objectives (of the teams) were met as the
operationalization of job performance. This operationalization is an objective measurement
of team effectiveness. Previous studies on performance most frequently used individual level
outcomes (e.g., Bakker et al., 2004) or aggregated individual level outcomes to the group or
unit level (see Taris, 2006).
There is scarce empirical evidence for the relationship between burnout and team
performance. The PsychInfo database revealed only one empirical study (Keijsers,
Schaufeli, Le Blanc, Zwerts, & Reis Miranda, 1995). This study reported a negative
correlation between intensive care nurses’ feelings of burnout and subjective unit
performance. In contrast, burnout was positively related to objective unit performance.
Regarding the temporary employment agencies of the present study, a negative association
between burnout and performance is to be expected. Team members are jointly responsible
for the realization of their yearly sales objectives (work goal interdependence), and are
strongly dependent on each others’ efforts to meet these objectives (task interdependence).
A number of theories presuppose that interdependence is one of the most important
predictors of team effectiveness (e.g., Gladstein, 1984; O’Leary Kelly, Martocchio, &
Frink, 1994; Shea & Guzzo, 1987). Team members who perform insufficiently would have
a negative impact on the performance of their team. For example, within an employment
agency, a desk manager has to perform many ad hoc tasks, and this demands flexibility and
mental energy. If the desk manager suffers from burnout, he or she will be less able to
comply with these task demands. The placement of the temporary employees will most
probably be affected by these processes and will be less efficient, which, in turn, negatively
affects the realization of the company’s objectives.
Participants and Procedure
A survey study was conducted in an organization of temporary employment agencies. All
508 employees were approached for the present study. The management informed the
employees with a letter that the study would consist of a qualitative and a quantitative part.
For the qualitative part, 15 explorative interviews were conducted. Based on the results,
specific job demands and job resources were chosen to be included in the questionnaire. For
the quantitative part, the questionnaire and an accompanying letter was sent to employees’
home addresses. It was emphasized that the information would be treated confidentially
and that the results would be reported anonymously to the management. Two reminders
from the human resource management department were sent to increase the response rate.
In total, 290 employees responded (57%). For the present study, we used the data of those
176 respondents who were still employed within the company during the follow-up study of
financial performance (the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection). It should be
noted that a high personnel turnover is not uncommon in this sector.
We performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to examine the extent to
which there were differences between our final sample (N 176) and the dropouts
(N114) on all model variables. The MANOVA produced a multivariate significant effect,
F(11, 278) 3.13, p B.001. Univariate analyses showed that the two groups differed
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significantly regarding work pressure, F(1, 288)10.27, p B.01; harmony F(1, 288)
17.62, pB.001; exhaustion, F(1, 288) 7.63, p B.01; and cynicism, F(1, 288)10.32,
pB.001. The research sample scored less favorable than the dropouts on each of these
variables: work pressure M3.16 vs. M2.88; harmony M 4.00 vs. M4.28; exhaus-
tion M 1.69 vs. M 1.39; and cynicism M 1.28 vs. M .95. There were no differences
between both groups regarding the background variables, or the other job demands and
resources. Taken together, these results suggest that our research group experienced more
strain than the dropouts.
The research sample included 97 desk managers (55%), 29 sales executives (17%) and
50 branch managers (28%) working in one of 71 teams. The mean number of respondents
per team was 2.5 (SD 1.2, range 16), whereas in the whole company this was five
employees. Sixteen (25%) of these 71 teams represented all three job categories. The vast
majority of the sample was female (85%). Age ranged between 21 and 50 years, with a mean
of 27 years (SD 4.5). The educational level was mainly upper secondary education (53%)
and higher vocational training (43%). The average organizational tenure was 2.7 years
(SD2.6), and mean number of working hours was 38 hours per week (SD4.5). Almost
all employees (94%) had a permanent employment contract. The correlational analyses
showed no significant relationships between the demographic characteristics and the model
variables. Therefore, demographic characteristics were excluded from all further analyses.
Measurement Instruments
Job Demands. Three demands were included in the questionnaire: work pressure, emotional
demands, and workhome conflict. All items were answered on a scale from 1never to
5always. Work pressure was assessed with the five-item scale developed by Bakker et al.
(2004). An example is: ‘‘How often does it occur that you have to work extra hard to finish
your work?’’ Emotional demands were measured with three items of the scale developed by
Van Veldhoven and Meijman (1994). One item was deleted, because the reliability analysis
indicated that it was unsound. The remaining two items are: ‘Does your work put you in
emotional situations?’’, and ‘Is your job emotionally demanding?’ Finally, workhome
conflict was measured with three items of the SWING (Geurts et al., 2005; see also
Demerouti, Bakker, & Bulters, 2004). An example is: ‘How often does it happen that you
find it difficult to fulfill your domestic obligations because you are constantly thinking about
your work?’
Job Resources. Six job resources were included in the questionnaire: social support from
colleagues, team cohesion, harmony, autonomy, supervisory coaching, and supervisor
support. All items were answered on a scale from 1never to 5always, unless otherwise
indicated. Social support was measured with the three-item scale developed by Bakker et al.
(2003). An example is: ‘If necessary, can you ask your colleagues in your team for help?’
Team cohesion was also assessed with three items, based on the ‘Substitutes for Leadership
Scales’ (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). Two examples are: ‘Together, my colleagues
and I constitute a cohesive team’’, and ‘In my team we are well-tuned to work together’
(1completely disagree, 5completely agree). Harmony was measured with a four-item
scale, based on Jehn (1994, 1995). An example is: ‘How often do colleagues within your
team get angry with each other?’ (reverse coded). Autonomy was measured with a short
scale developed by Bakker et al. (2004) that comprises three items referring to decision
authority (i.e., freedom of action in accomplishing the formal work task). An example item
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is: ‘Can you decide yourself how you execute your work?’ Supervisory Coaching was
assessed with a four-item scale derived from the ‘‘Leadership Practices Inventory’ (Posner
& Kouzes, 1988, 1994). An example is: ‘Does your manager clearly envision future
opportunities?’ (1not at all, 5to a high extent). Finally, supervisor support (the team
manager) was measured with five items from the scale of LeBlanc (1994), for example, ‘My
supervisor uses his/her influence to help me to perform well’’.
Burnout was measured with the scales from the Dutch version (Schaufeli & Van
Dierendonck, 2000) of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS;
Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). We used the scales to assess the two core
dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion and cynicism. The exhaustion scale consists
of five items, including ‘‘I feel burned out from my work’’ and ‘‘I feel tired when I get up in
the morning and have to face another day on the job’ (0 never, 6always). Cynicism was
measured with four of the five items from the original scale. An example item is: ‘I have
become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything’’. Item 4 (‘‘I just want to
do my job and not be bothered’’) was omitted, as suggested by Schaufeli and Van
Dierendonck (2000) and Schutte, Toppinnen, Kalimo, and Schaufeli (2000). They have
shown that this item does not load on the intended factor, and thus creates problems with
factorial validity.
Performance was operationalized through an objective assessment of team effectiveness
using a standardized measurement of sales. Information about each team’s sales
performance during the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection period was drawn
from the management information system. As the size of the teams was not constant, we
divided the actual sales by the stated objectives (the larger the team, the larger the stated
objective). This resulted in a standardized objective measure of effectiveness that signified
to what extent the stated sales objectives had been realized.
The model in Figure 1 was tested in two steps with structural equation modeling (SEM)
analyses using AMOS 6.0 (Arbuckle, 2005). Maximum likelihood estimation methods and
the covariance matrix of the above-mentioned scales were used. To test the fit of alternative
models to the data, the traditional chi-square, the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) and the root
mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were assessed. As a rule of thumb, a
GFI.90 and RMSEAB.08 indicate a reasonable fit of the model to the data (Browne &
Cudeck, 1989). As recommended by Marsh, Balla, and Hau (1996), the non-normed fit
index (NNFI), the incremental fit index (IFI), and the comparative fit index (CFI) were also
assessed. These values should meet the criterion of .90 (Hoyle, 1995).
In the first step, we tested the measurement model. The second step involved the test of
our theoretical model with structural paths (N 176). For this analysis, a team score on
objective financial performance (a team variable) was allocated to each individual team
member. The latent exogenous job demands and resources factors were operationalized by
three and six observed variables, respectively (see above). Further, the model consisted of
two endogenous latent variables that were included as mediators: emotional exhaustion and
cynicism. Both emotional exhaustion and cynicism were operationalized by one indicator
(the respective scale of the MBI-GS) to ensure a parsimonious model. We controlled for
measurement errors by equalling the error variance of emotional exhaustion to the product
of its variance and the quantity 1 minus the internal consistency (Jo
reskog & So
1993). The same procedure was followed for cynicism. The endogenous variable
‘performance’ was included in the model as an observed variable.
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Descriptive Statistics
Table I presents the means, standard deviations, reliabilities, and correlations between the
model variables. All constructs were measured reliably. It can be seen that the specific job
demands correlated most strongly with emotional exhaustion and that the specific resources
correlated most strongly with cynicism. In addition, performance correlated primarily with
resources (positive) and cynicism (negative).
Measurement Model
Our initial measurement model showed a poor fit to the data, x
(47)193.14, GFI.84,
RMSEA.13, NNFI .68, CFI .77, and IFI .78. The modification indices revealed
high covariations between the errors of several job resources indicators. Specifically, the
AMOS output suggested that the fit of the measurement model to the data could be
improved considerably if two separate job resources factors would be distinguished. One job
resource factor included the three job resources referring to the interpersonal relationships
with colleagues in the team, namely colleague social support, team cohesion, and harmony.
This factor will be referred to as ‘colleague resources’’. The second job resource factor
included the three resources referring to the relationship with the supervisor, namely
supervisor support, supervisory coaching, and autonomy. This factor will be referred to as
‘supervisor resources’’.
The modified measurement model (see Figure 2) showed an acceptable fit to the data, x
(42)90.21, GFI.92, RMSEA.08, NNFI .88, CFI .92, and IFI .93. All indica-
tors loaded well on the respective factors. For the job demands, the factor loadings ranged
from .41 to .73. The factor loadings of the colleague resources social support, harmony, and
team cohesion were .65, .75, and .80, respectively; the factor loadings of the supervisor
resources autonomy, supervisory coaching, and supervisor support were .48, .90, and .84,
Test of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model: Level 1 Analyses
In the next step, we tested the JD-R model including the hypothesized relationships and the
correlations between the latent factors job demands, colleague resources, and supervisor
resources. Using the chi-square difference test, this model was compared with simpler
nested models that specify alternative relationships. As the dependent variable in the
present study (objective financial performance) was measured at the aggregate, team level,
we allocated the team score on objective financial performance to each of the employees
working in that team. The results of the SEM analyses showed that the hypothesized model
fits reasonably well to the data, x
(48)96.89, GFI.92, RMSEA.08, NNFI .90,
CFI.93, and IFI.93. In line with expectations, the results revealed a positive
relationship between emotional exhaustion and cynicism (b.39, pB.01).
In order to test the mediation hypotheses formulated in Hypotheses 1 and 2, we followed
Baron and Kenny’s (1986) approach, according to which there are four steps in establishing
a significant mediation effect. First, there must be a significant relationship between the
predictor and the outcome. Second, the predictor must be significantly related to the
mediator. Third, the mediator should be significantly related to the outcome variable.
Finally, there is a significant mediation effect when the relationship between the predictor
and the outcome becomes non-significant after the inclusion of the mediator. Before testing
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Table I. Means, standard deviations, reliability coefficients, and correlations between the variables.
Variable MSD 1234567891011
1. Work pressure 3.16 .71 (.81)
2. Emotional demands 1.83 .66 .24** (.71)
3. Workhome conflict 1.92 .67 .30** .29** (.70)
4. Social support colleagues 3.99 .74 .01 .07 .28** (.81)
5. Harmony 4.00 .59 .12 .06 .20** .47** (.88)
6. Team cohesion 3.67 .72 .05 .08 .18** .52** .60** (.80)
7. Autonomy 3.73 .74 .14 .17* .32** .31** .32** .32** (.79)
8. Supervisory coaching 3.58 .77 .04 .11 .26** .31** .35** .38** .38** (.84)
9. Supervisor support 3.42 .89 .09 .09 .27** .36** .24** .24** .42** .76** (.90)
10. Exhaustion 1.69 .94 .40** .35** .61** .20* .27** .18** .24** .20** .17 (.90)
11. Cynicism 1.28 .87 .15* .08 .37** .27** .37** .38** .44** .38** .31** .46** (.83)
12. Objective (team) performance (%) 22.00 4.00 .03 .04 .11 .01 .27** .29** .04 .20* .05 .12 .26**
Note. N 176 employees divided over 71 teams. Reliabilities (Cronbach’s alphas) are shown in the diagonal.
*pB.05, **pB.01.
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whether exhaustion was a mediator of the relationship between job demands and
performance (Hypothesis 1), we first checked for the prerequisite conditions. The results
of the hypothesized model showed that the coefficient of the path between emotional
exhaustion and objective performance was not significant, b.04, tB1, ns indicating that
Hypothesis 1 was not supported.
In the next step, we checked the prerequisites before testing whether cynicism mediates
the relationship between job resources and performance (Hypothesis 2). Preliminary results
showed that colleague resources and supervisor resources were both related to the mediator
cynicism, b.30 (pB.01) and b .22 (pB.05), respectively. In addition, cynicism was
significantly related to performance, b.30 (pB.01). However, while colleague
resources was related to performance, b.21, pB.05, supervisor resources was not,
b.03, ns. These results allowed proceeding with the test of Hypothesis 2, but only for
colleague resources.
We compared the proposed mediation model with a model including an additional direct
path from colleague resources to performance in order to see which model fitted better to
the data (Frazier, Tix, & Barron, 2004). The results showed that the alternative partial
mediation model did not fit better to the data than the proposed model, Delta x
ns, and that the direct path of colleague resources to performance became non-significant
(t1.80, ns). This indicates that cynicism mediated the relationship between colleague
resources and performance. The results of the Sobel test confirmed that colleague resources
had an indirect effect on performance through cynicism (z2.28, pB.05). Thus,
Hypothesis 2 was supported as far as resources from colleagues are concerned. These
findings suggest that employees who received support from their colleagues and worked in
close harmony were less cynical about their job, and performed better than employees who
Team Cohesion
Work Pressure
Figure 2. Maximum likelihood estimates of the revised JD-R model, N176 employees and N 71 teams.
Note. All parameters are significant at the pB.01 level, except the coefficient of the path from supervisor resources
to cynicism, which is significant at the pB.05 level.
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had non-harmonious mutual relationships and displayed a detached attitude toward their
Based on these results, the proposed model was modified regarding one pathway: the
path from emotional exhaustion to performance was deleted. The fit of this model to the
data was acceptable, x
(49)97.03, GFI.92, RMSEA .08, NNFI.90, CFI .93,
and IFI.93. The results are summarized in Figure 2. The JDR model explains 79% of
the variance in exhaustion, 47% of the variance in cynicism, and 8% of the variance in
objective financial performance.
Level 2 Analyses
The previously described SEM analyses were performed at the individual level (N176) by
allocating team scores on the (aggregate level) performance variable to each of the
employees working in the teams. This procedure may have led to an artificial increase in the
statistical power. In addition, the estimation of the effect of burnout on objective financial
performance may have been affected. We therefore decided to conduct additional level 2
As the dependent variable was at the aggregate level, we aggregated all the independent
variables and we assessed the inter-rater agreement kappa. Kappa indicates the percentage
agreement, the closer to 100% agreement, the higher the reliability. Inter-rater reliability
kappa was calculated using multi-rater kappa (an unweighted form of kappa) using the
MKAPPASC.SPS macro in SPSS. Although there are different methodologies for the
assessment of observer agreement developed, in the present study we used Kappa because
of the small number of employees per team (the mean number of respondents per team was
2.5 with SD 1.2 and range16). Kappa can handle cases where there are only two raters
and when there are more than two raters or when there are more than three categories to be
rated. According to Altman (1991), interpretation of Kappa is: poor agreementB.20, fair
agreement .20 to .40, moderate agreement.40 to .60, good agreement.60 to .80, and
very good agreement.80 to 1.00. Kappas for the scales included in the present study
generally indicated fair agreement: social support from colleagues.39, team cohesion
.26, harmony.32, autonomy .35, supervisory coaching .29, supervisor support .38,
work pressure.15, emotional demands.39, workhome conflict.26, exhaustion .28,
and cynicism.34.
Additional analyses for both burnout components exhaustion and cynicism were
performed to examine the correlation with objective financial performance at the team
level (N71). The results showed that both exhaustion (r .27, p.02) and cynicism
(r.47, p B.001) were significantly and negatively associated with objective financial
performance. Note that the pattern of the correlations at the team level was consistent with
the pattern at the individual level.
The present study is one of the first studies that examined the relationship between working
conditions, burnout, and objective (financial) performance. On the basis of the JD-R model
(Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti et al., 2001), two central hypotheses were
formulated: exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and performance,
and cynicism mediates the relationship between job resources and performance. SEM
analyses found only support for the mediating role of cynicism. Colleague resources
(e.g., team cohesion and harmonic relationships with colleagues) were most clearly related
Job demands, resources, and burnout 11
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to objective team performance, because these resources are motivating and prevent
employees from developing a cynical, detached attitude. Therefore, the conclusion is that
motivation, and not strain, plays a prominent role when it comes to objective performance.
This is a relevant finding, since exhaustion (and not cynicism) is considered to be the core
symptom of burnout (Baba et al., 1988; Shirom, 2005), and exhaustion is known to have
the strongest relationship with self-reported job performance (Schaufeli & Enzmann,
How can we explain that previous studies found most support for a relationship between
emotional exhaustion (not cynicism) and in-role performance, including the study we
replicated (Bakker et al., 2004)? First of all, it is conceivable that we had a restriction in
range regarding the exhaustion variable. For one thing, the levels of exhaustion among the
young participants were relatively low even though they scored somewhat higher than the
dropouts. This may have limited the statistical possibility to find a relationship between
exhaustion and performance in the present study.
Second, given these low levels of exhaustion, it is unlikely that our participants were
unable to perform well because their energy resources were diminished, as in the study of
Veldhuizen et al. (2003). To this extent, it would be interesting to replicate the present study
among a heterogeneous group of employees, including a wide range of exhaustion levels.
Indeed, it is conceivable that the relationship between emotional exhaustion and job
performance is better explained by a curvilinear than a linear relationship (Gardner &
Cummings, 1988). A curvilinear relationship assumes the existence of an optimal activation
level of effort to perform well, with impaired performance under conditions of very low and
very high levels of exhaustion, and increased performance under conditions of average levels
of exhaustion. However, additional analyses of the present data do not support this
Third, it is conceivable that previous studies overestimated the relationship between
exhaustion and performance because of common-method variance problems. Indeed, most
previous studies used a questionnaire design and did not include objective indicators of
performance. Finally, it should be noted that we did find a correlation between exhaustion
and performance at the team level. However, this correlation disappeared when the data
were analyzed at the employee level, and when exhaustion had to compete with cynicism in
the prediction of performance.
In Lykken’s (1968) terminology, the present study is a constructive replication of Bakker
et al. (2004) because we used several other job demands and resources, a different measure
of burnout, and objective financial performance at the team level as the dependent variable
(instead of colleague ratings of performance). However, our theoretical framework and
some of the hypotheses were the same. The findings of the present study are generally in
line with Bakker et al. (2004) supporting the two independent pathways leading to
performance as proposed by the JD-R model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Thus, our
findings suggest that job resources may start a motivational process because job resources
had a negative impact on cynicism, and indirectly contributed to objective performance. In
contrast, job demands seem to evoke a health impairment process, in which increased job
demands coincide with increased levels of exhaustion.
Our findings are also consistent with Campbells (1990) theory, which gives a central role
to motivation as a determinant of job performance. Eight percent of the variance in
objective financial performance was explained by cynicism. This 8% is considerable if we
consider the following arguments. First, in Campbell’s theory besides motivation two
other determinants are distinguished: declarative and procedural knowledge. Sternberg
12 A. B. Bakker et al.
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(1994) proposes a number of additional determinants, including learning styles and
personality differences. Muchinsky (1993) has argued that situational factors may act as
determinants of performance as well. In short, in addition to motivation, job performance
may be explained by several other factors. Second, cynicism is an indirect indicator of
motivation as defined by Campbell. He assumes that motivation is the combined effect of
three choices: (a) the choice to put in effort; (b) the choice for the amount of effort; and (c)
the choice to continue effort. In contrast, cynicism refers to a negative job attitude, which
will generally coincide with the choice to put in less effort.
In the present study, the indicator of job performance was an indirect indicator as well
because team effectiveness referred to the job performance of all team members. If we had
been able to use more direct measures for motivation and job performance, the association
between cynicism and performance might have been stronger. As a matter of fact,
additional analyses showed a considerably stronger association between cynicism and
performance at the team level as compared with the individual level. Nevertheless, if we
compare the amount of variance (8%) that cynicism explained in the objective (financial)
performance with previous studies, the conclusion is that the present study explained more
variance than previous studies (see Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998; Taris, 2006).
Limitations of the Present Study
In the present study, we related employees’ individual burnout scores to team effectivity. As
the teams in our sample represented only 50% of all employees, a considerable amount of
information could not be included in the analysis. It is therefore unclear whether the finding
that cynicism explained 8% of the variance in performance is an under- or over-estimation.
Furthermore, some teams were represented by one person only. As performance is the
result of the combined effort of all team members, we believe that using the information
regarding working conditions and burnout of only one member is not necessarily a problem,
but represents a conservative test of our hypotheses. Nevertheless, it is evident that more
employees per team would have been preferred.
Another limitation pertains to the design of the present study. The present study is cross-
sectional as far as the questionnaire data are concerned; all these data were collected at one
point in time. A consequence of this is that we cannot be confident about the causal
direction of the pathways included in the JD-R model. For example, it is conceivable that
exhaustion is not only a consequence, but also a cause of job demands (Demerouti et al.,
2004). Future longitudinal studies with a cross-lagged panel design are therefore desirable.
Note, however, that longitudinal studies have their own challenges, including attrition. Our
dropout analysis showed that the attrition in the present study was not random. The results
revealed that our participants scored higher than the dropouts on work pressure, lower on
harmony, and higher on exhaustion and cynicism. It is unclear how these differences have
affected our findings, but it is conceivable that the research sample showed a restriction of
range in the model variables, which may have made it more difficult to find effects. Finally,
the vast majority of the participants were female. It is therefore important to replicate the
current findings in more heterogeneous samples, including men and women, younger and
older employees, and different occupations.
Practical Implications
The results of the present study are valuable for human resource management policies
within this organization. Motivation (cynicism) appeared to be an important explanatory
Job demands, resources, and burnout 13
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variable for team performance. This suggests that it is profitable to invest in an increase of
the resources at the level of interpersonal relationships (i.e., between colleagues in the
teams). The resources ‘‘cohesion’’ and ‘‘harmony’’ appeared to be most strongly associated
with team performance, through cynicism. This is consistent with the assumptions of Shea
and Guzzo (1987), who argue that interdependence is one of the most important predictors
of team effectiveness. In addition, these findings are in line with the theoretical model of
Guzzo and Campbell (1990) which assumes that the provision of social resources by the
organization is an important determinant of objective team performance. Organizations
may mobilize such resources by investing in team development. Training sessions could
focus on the development of effective team communication and use roleplay to promote
team decision making and to facilitate collaboration between team members.
We thank Garry Hall for proofreading the manuscript.
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... They found that strain factors such as "exhaustion" and "cynicism" positively impact the employee outcome "absence duration," and that motivation factors such as "commitment" negatively impact the employee outcome "absence frequency." Strains have also been found to have a negative impact on objective financial performance within a JD-R model (using a sample of employees from an organization of temporary employment agencies) (Bakker et al., 2008), as well as on supervisor ratings of employee task performance (Demerouti et al., 2014). Studies that have not explicitly adopted the JD-R theory, but that have used an identical pathway of relationships from strains, motivations and employee outcomes, have found similar results. ...
... Control variables. The inclusion of a variety of individual characteristics as control variables in the analysis is supported by the JD-R and related literatures (Bakker et al., 2008;Bond and Bunce, 2003;Chowhan et al., 2016;Rodwell et al., 1998;Schieman et al., 2009) university?" with the four response categories being: faculty (26%); librarian or archivist (2%); administrative (or professional, technical and general staff, including trades, caretaking and hospitality) (71%); senior university management (deans or AVP and above) (1%). For this study, binary variables are derived for each category (51 and 5 0 otherwise), with faculty being the reference group. ...
... The job demand and resource relationships with stress were also consistent with recently published work (De Carlo et al., 2022;Sayin et al., 2021), and the relationship with job satisfaction was statistically significant, which was consistent with previous non-educational sector studies (Alarcon, 2011), but in contrast to other studies focusing on the educational sector (Demir and Budur, 2022;Haslam et al., 2013). Several studies use the JD-R model to look at the relationships between strains, motivations and performance outcomes (Bakker et al., 2003(Bakker et al., , 2008Demerouti et al., 2014;Sayin et al., 2021). The relationships found in these studies mirror those found in the current study in terms of the direction of relationships. ...
Purpose This study, using a comprehensive job demand–resources (JD-R) model, aims to explore the pressures of workload, work–life interface and subsequent impacts on employee stress and job satisfaction, with implications for employee job performance, in the context of working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional sample of employees at seven universities ( n = 4,497) and structural equation path analysis regression models are used for the analyses. Findings The results show that a partial mediation JD-R model was supported, where job demands (such as workload and actual hours worked) and job resources (including expectations, support and job security) have relationships with work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. These have subsequent negative path relationships with stress. Further, stress is negatively related to job satisfaction, and job satisfaction is positively related to employee job performance. Practical implications Potential policy implications include mitigation approaches to addressing some of the negative impacts on workers and to enhance the positive outcomes. Timely adjustments to job demands and resources can aid in sustaining balance for workers in an uncertain and fluid environmental context. Originality/value This study makes a contribution to knowledge by capturing sentiments on working arrangements, perceived changes and associated outcomes during a key period within the COVID-19 pandemic while being one of the rare studies to focus on a comprehensive JD-R model and a unique context of highly educated workers' transition to working from home.
... On the one hand, coworkers with low vitality will carefully assess their surroundings in order to reduce decision risk and uncertainty, which leads coworkers to do a series of behaviors resulting in lower innovation performance (e.g., adhere to work habits, strive to maintain the status quo, and to avoid or abandon innovative behaviors that may expose their flaws and bring negative consequences). On the other hand, the negative emotion of tension and anxiety reduce coworkers' ability to control their environment and their confidence in solving work problems (Bakker et al., 2008); specifically, coworkers with insufficient control are more likely to make mistakes at work, and coworkers with emotional exhaustion will fall into a vicious cycle (i.e., neither being willing to seek help nor taking the initiative to change the status quo), which further undermines their thinking and creativity. Campbell et al. (2017) findings suggest that antisocial behaviors are common retaliatory responses to threats. ...
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In the hypercompetitive marketplace, contemporary organizations incorporate the diversity of talents into job design (i.e., offering idiosyncratic deals), in order to meet the unique needs of talented employees and achieve the purpose of attracting, motivating, and retaining them. Based on the cognitive-affective processing system framework, this study aims to explore the effect of coworkers’ perceptions of employees’ idiosyncratic deals (CPEID) on coworker innovation performance, the mediating role of thriving at work, and the moderating role of humility. Two-wave data were obtained from 248 employees of 15 China firms. The findings suggest that (a) CPEID increase coworker innovation performance by fostering coworker learning; (b) CPEID decrease coworker innovation performance by undermining coworker vitality; (c) Coworker humility not only positively moderates the relationship between CPEID and coworker learning, but also positively moderates the indirect effect of coworker learning between CPEID and coworker innovation performance; and (d) the moderating role of coworker humility is not significant in the relationship between CPEID and coworker vitality. This study provides a theoretical explanation for whether CPEID have both positive and negative effects on coworker innovation performance, and extends boundary conditions of idiosyncratic deals (i-deals). Besides, the findings inspire managers to make reasonable use of the positive role of i-deals.
... Rydstedt et al. 2007), samt nye teoriudviklinger hen imod mere copingorienterede arbejdsmiljømodeller som f.eks. den kognitive aktiveringsteori (Ursin & Eriksen, 2004) og Job Demand-Ressources modellen (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007;Bakker et al., 2008). Lazarus (1966;1984; har rejst lignende kritikker af balancemodellerne. ...
Ifølge de etablerede arbejdsstressteorier skal miljømæssige krav balanceres op imod individuelle kontrolmuligheder, og der peges derfor på behovet for både sociologiske og psykologiske niveauer af arbejdsstress. Selvom en niveauinddelt tilgang til stress er vigtig, risikeres en opsplitning mellem individet og miljøet. Som grundlag for at arbejde med en mere integreret relationsforståelse mellem individ og miljø i arbejdsstressforskningen foreslås en tredimensional integrationsmodel, som inddrager relationens sociale dimensioner. Kontekst og handling er de centrale opmærksomheder, og i socialitetsperspektivets opbygning (gen)introduceres et fokus på den intentionelle arbejder, som udvikles gennem en ”lag”- deling mellem subjektiv og kollektiv intentionalitet.
... Burnout can affect both physical and mental health, with farreaching consequences for individuals. Workers with high levels of job burnout tend to be physically, mentally, and emotionally exhausted when performing their tasks; hence, they are less effective at accomplishing their goals and show lower levels of well-being and job performance (Bakker et al., 2008;Taris, 2006). The WHO (2019) acknowledges burnout in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as an occupational phenomenon (rather than medical condition). ...
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What is the real value of entrepreneurship? We propose a framework of psychological utility by integrating Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory with a recovery approach from a personal agency perspective. We hypothesize that personal agency together with the positive JD-R pattern of entrepreneurship generates outstanding psychological utility, which maintains and rewards a healthy, strong work engagement that spills over to off-work time. This benefits entrepreneurs, but also their businesses reliant on strong work engagement that avoids burnout. We validate our framework by means of panel data comprising four waves (348 entrepreneurs and 1,002 employees), where we also analyze different types of entrepreneurs.
... Ref. [25] conducted an analysis of engagement and burnout as a continuum representing the extremes of workers' emotional states. They are categorical in pointing out that both variables influence people's functioning and therefore their performance and organizational results. ...
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Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching was considered one of the most stressful occupations, one that could provoke burnout in workers. Continuing to provide educational services despite the pandemic and the new methodologies was a challenge for teachers that demonstrated their engagement in their work. This research, from the model of healthy and resilient organizations (HERO), aimed to assess the perception of healthy organizational practices (HOP) of teachers of an educational institution during the years 2020 and 2021 and the impact they have on their levels of engagement and burnout. Through the application of three instruments, 154 responses were obtained. The data were analyzed through correlations and mean comparisons. The main results show that in 2020, the correlations between HOP with engagement and burnout were positive and negative, respectively, as expected. In 2021, the perception of HOP decreased, as did teacher engagement, while burnout increased. In conclusion, the findings suggest that HOP can become a sustainable human resource management tool that promotes teachers’ mental health, even in challenging times.
... In line with the JD-R framework work conditions, e.g. performance evaluation systems might influence job performance through the attitudes of employees (Bakker, Van Emmerik and Van Riet 2008). The research evaluation system characteristics might influence the perception of job demands or job resources and this, in turn, might influence burnout and work engagement, as well as long-term performance. ...
In this article, we focused on the nature of the relationship between research evaluation systems that are based on metrics and those that are based on a critical comprehensive judgment of scientific content with researchers’ burnout and work engagement. The research was conducted on a sample of 1,191 Polish researchers in the context of a highly metricized research evaluation system. Our contribution to the field of research evaluation is fourfold. First, we provide empirical support for the recent call for more nuanced views on publication metrics in research evaluation, showing that evaluations lacking in the judgment of scientific content are associated with higher demands and lower job resources. Second, our study focuses the attention of various policymakers on the fact that performance measurement should not be confused with performance management and that thoughtless use of performance publication metrics might lead to research performance deterioration instead of improvement. Third, our findings illustrate the tensions between different views on publication metrics as means of research evaluation; this tension might be observed among researchers and their supervisors but also within the research community as a whole. Fourth, our article may inspire further research of evaluation systems, as we design measures of demands and resources generated by the evaluation system based on Job Demands-Resources theory. Moreover, based on the Leiden Manifesto and Royal Society Resume for researchers, we have validated an evaluation based on a judgment scale that might be used in further research and practical settings to audit research evaluation systems.
... It can impact everyone, from busy employees and homemakers to stressed-out career-driven professionals and celebrities. Bakker et al. (2008) concluded at the organisational level, burnout and stress are associated with negative organisational outcomes such as lack of concentration, poor timekeeping, poor productivity, difficulty in comprehending new procedures, lack of cooperation, irritability, aggressiveness, resentment and increased tendency to make mistake. ...
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When it comes to managing their workforce, one of the most difficult difficulties that organizations encounter is burnout among employees. This study sought to examine the level and factors contributing to burnout among employees in Johor state health department, Malaysia and to determine the association between burnout and sociodemographic. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 employees from Johor State health department. 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was developed to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The questionnaire elicited information regarding socio-demographic and work characteristics. Descriptive analysis was undertaken and parametric test was conducted to establish the relationship of burnout and sociodemographic. The data indicated on the MBI, majority of the respondents have moderate degree of emotional exhaustion (55.8%), High degree of depersonalization (55.8%) and low degree of personal accomplishment (62.2%). One way- ANOVA demonstrates there is association in emotional exhaustion between type of profession, depersonalization between type of profession and service period, and personal accomplishment between service period. (p value <0.01). The findings show that research design and techniques are sufficient for the upcoming prospective analyses of aetiology and effects of burnout and of the influence of workplace intervention.
Background: As we live in the era of technology, it is clear that employees' technical skills and savviness are important to their work performance. With the COVID-19 pandemic, these qualities have become a "necessity‿ for many employees as they have switched to remote working. Less attention, however, has been given to empirical evidence regarding how employees' technological competencies influence their work outcomes during a forced shift to remote work. Integrating the theories of Job Demands-Resources and Conservation of Resources, this study sought to provide evidence regarding the joint effect of job/personal resources and technological competency on levels of employees' remote work engagement and performance. Method: A total of 131 teachers working in Turkey completed an online survey during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. SPSS Process Macro (Model 7) was used for hypotheses testing. Results: We found partial support for the proposed moderated mediation model. Specifically, psychological resilience (as a personal resource) increased the level of work performance through work engagement and this relationship was stronger among employees with high levels of technological competency. However, the results did not provide support for the hypothesized interaction effect of workplace support (as a job resource) and technological competency on work performance through work engagement. Conclusion: This research advances the theoretical and empirical understanding of the role of technological competency in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources model. Our findings suggest that providing training activities aimed at promoting employee learning in the domain of online work tools can accelerate the effect of personal resources on work outcomes, especially during enforced remote working, as in the case of COVID-19.
Purpose With the spread of COVID-19, governments have initiated lockdown procedures and forced organizations to switch to remote working. Employees working remotely in isolated and confined situations are experiencing great stress and uncertainty. This study aims to investigate how remote workers perform during lockdowns. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on social information processing theory, this study developed and tested hypotheses linking professional isolation, cynicism and task performance. This study was comprised of 497 remote workers in the financial industry in China. Findings The findings revealed that professional isolation is positively related to cynicism, and cynicism is negatively related to task performance. Cynicism mediates the relationship between professional isolation and task performance. The results indicated that psychological hardiness moderated the mediation effect of professional isolation on task performance through cynicism. Practical implications This research offers implications for managers and practitioners on reducing employees' feeling of isolation through effective communication, collaboration and support via online platforms and preventing and reducing cynicism by introducing clear organizational policy and practice to balance job demands and job resources. Meanwhile, managers can develop commitment, control and challenge components of employees' psychological hardiness to enhance job performance. Originality/value This study extends the remote working literature in a crisis situation and fills the gap in the cynicism literature by understanding the role played by cynicism for remote workers. The current study also adds to the literature by highlighting the importance of psychological hardiness for remote workers during the pandemic.
Purpose This paper aims to examine the relationships among work–family conflict (WFC), cognitive regulation, psychological resilience (PR), psychological distress (PD), emotional exhaustion (EE) and subjective well-being (SWB) in a very complex model based on job demands–resources. Also, mediator roles of PD, PR and EE are analyzed. Design/methodology/approach Data for the study were collected from 158 full-time nurses working in two hospitals in North Cyprus. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the model. Findings The authors’ findings reveal that cognitive emotion regulation reduces employees' WFC. WFC also has a negative effect on employees' SWB directly and through the mediating role of EE. However, the role of PR in the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and PD was not significant. Originality/value The study adds the original views for hospitals and service providers to recognize the factors which exert detrimental effects on employees' mental health and also the factors which help them to tackle the harsh situation specifically in the time of crisis. Theoretical and practical implications are provided in the study.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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The affective variables of job satisfaction and burnout, as experienced in an employing organization, were studied with respect to their relationship to the quality of life in a family organization. Affective measures were obtained from employees working in social services, whereas the assessment of the quality of life was obtained from their spouses. Results indicated that the employee group was generally dissatisfied and burned out, but that these variables did not relate to their self-reported performance assessments. However, the employees' affective responses were related to spousal reports of problems in the family and home life. Relationships between the employee affective responses and the spouse perceptions of family life revealed that the spouse perceptions were more highly related to employees' satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of the work, and with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization components of burnout, than with intrinsic satisfaction or personal accomplishment. These results can be understood in terms of two types of interpersonal communication between employee and spouse: that which is episodic and public (extrinsic satisfaction) vs. chronic or private (intrinsic satisfaction).
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Arising from interest concerning the possibility of causal relationships among the three components of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, several process models have been proposed for the development of burnout. The present paper first reviews the evidence in favour of the three most influential of these (Leiter and Maslach's model (1988); Golembiewski, Boudreau, Munzenrider, & Luo's (1996) phase model; and Lee and Ashforth's model (1993)). These three models, and our own model (which integrates of two of them, and includes feedback effects of depersonalization on emotional exhaustion) are then compared with each other using structural equation modelling, drawing on longitudinal data from two Dutch samples (total N=1185). The review revealed that none of the seven previous studies on this issue provided any convincing support for any particular causal order proposed so far. In contrast, our own study showed that high levels of exhaustion were associated with high levels of depersonalization over time across both samples. Further, higher levels of depersonalization led to higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal accomplishment. To our knowledge, the present research is the first to provide reliable longitudinal evidence for the conceptualization of burnout as a developmental process, although the effects are not large enough to be of practical use in the recognition of burnout.
The Maslact Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a copyrighted instrument that must be obtained directly from the publisher, Mindgarden, Inc. For details about how to obtain the MBI and its Manual, please visit the Mindgarden website using the link shown below. MINDGARDEN WEBSITE FOR MBI: Please note that the company offers special pricing for students, making it very affordable. For details about how to obtain permission to use the MBI for your research as a student, please visit the Mind Garden website using the link shown below. MINDGARDEN WEBSITE FOR MBI, use by students: If you have any questions, you can contact Mindgarden directly by visiting this website:
Confirmatory factor analysis in two large samples (N = 411 and N = 1,235) was conducted to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the 74-item (revised) and 41-item (reduced) versions of the substitutes for leadership scales recently developed by Podsakoff, Niehoff, MacKenzie, and Williams (1993), and Podsakoff, MacKenzie, and Fetter (1993). Following this, the reliabilities and subscale intercorrelations of the two versions of the scale were compared in order to determine how faithfully the 41-item version represents the 74-item scale. Next, the reliabilities of both versions were compared with the reliability of Kerr and Jermier's (1978) original scale, and their nomological validity was evaluated. The overall pattern of results indicated that both versions were reasonably reliable and valid, and both were better than Kerr and Jermier's original scale.