Candida albicans-Induced DC Activation Partially Restricts HIV Amplification in DCs and Increases DC to T-Cell Spread of HIV

ArticleinJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 48(4):398-407 · September 2008with6 Reads
Impact Factor: 4.56 · DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181776bc7 · Source: PubMed


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the innate and adaptive responses needed to control pathogens, yet HIV exploits DCs to promote infection. The influence of other pathogens on DC-HIV interplay has not been extensively studied. We used Candida albicans (Candida) as a model pathogen which elicits innate DC responses that are likely important in controlling Candida by healthy immune systems. HIV did not impede Candida-specific DC activation. Candida-induced CD80 and CD83 upregulation was greater in DCs that had captured HIV, coinciding with increased amplification in presence of T cells and reduced but persistent low-level DC infection. In contrast, HIV-infected DCs matured normally in response to Candida, but this did not shut down HIV replication in DCs, and again Candida augmented HIV amplification in DC-T-cell mixtures. HIV-infected DCs secreted more IL-10 and IL-1beta earlier than uninfected DCs and initially induced a higher frequency of CD4CD25FoxP3 T-regulatory cells in response to Candida. Elevated early IL-10 production in cocultures was evident only when azidothymidine (AZT) was included to limit T-regulatory cell infection and destruction. Therefore, HIV manipulates the DC's innate and adaptive responses to Candida to further augment HIV spread, ultimately destroying the cells needed to limit candidiasis.