Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Patients With Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation. Biochemical Assessment of Collagen Type-I Turnover

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 07/2008; 52(3):211-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.03.045
Source: PubMed


We investigated whether the serum markers of collagen turnover differed in various forms of atrial fibrillation (AF) and in sinus rhythm (SR) in humans.
Structural alterations and fibrosis have been implicated in the generation and perpetuation of AF.
Serum C-terminal propeptide of collagen type-I (CICP), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (CITP), matrix metalloproteinase-1, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 were measured as markers of collagen synthesis and degradation in 70 patients with AF and 20 healthy control subjects in SR.
C-terminal propeptide of collagen type-I and CITP were significantly higher in AF patients than in control subjects (91 +/- 27 ng/ml vs. 67 +/- 11 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 0.38 +/- 0.20 ng/ml vs. 0.25 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). Persistent AF patients had higher levels of CICP (105 +/- 28 ng/ml vs. 80 +/- 21 ng/ml, p < 0.001), but not CITP, compared with those with paroxysmal AF. Patients with persistent AF had lower levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 but increased levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 compared with patients with paroxysmal AF (11.90 +/- 4.79 ng/ml vs. 14.98 +/- 6.28 ng/ml, p = 0.03 and 155 +/- 45 ng/ml vs. 130 +/- 38 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 levels were significantly lower in control subjects compared with those in both paroxysmal and persistent AF patients (102 +/- 15 ng/ml vs. 130 +/- 38 ng/ml vs. 155 +/- 45 ng/ml, respectively, p < 0.001).
Serum markers of collagen type-I turnover differed significantly between patients with AF and SR. Furthermore, these markers also differed significantly between paroxysmal and persistent AF patients, suggesting that the intensity of the extracellular synthesis and degradation of collagen type-I may be related to the burden or type of AF.

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    • "Case-control studies of genetic polymorphisms that alter MMP-9 production and function have also provided some support for a role of MMP-9 in the etiology of AF [33], [34]. Further, there are data to suggest that levels of MMPs and TIMPs may differ according to the whether the individual has paroxysmal or persistent AF [35]. For example, patients with persistent AF were reported to have significantly higher levels of serum CICP, TIMP-1 but lower MMP-1 levels compared with those with paroxysmal AF suggesting that the degree of atrial remodeling is due in part to the type of AF: a recent study reported higher MMP-9 levels in patients with permanent AF compared with with paroxysmal AF [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodelling are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), but no prospective data have yet been published. Hence, we examine whether plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors are related to increased risk of incident AF. We used a case-cohort design in the context of the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. From 13718 eligible men and women free from AF in 1990-92, we selected a stratified random sample of 500 individuals without and 580 with incident AF over a mean follow-up of 11.8 years. Using a weighted proportional hazards regression model, the relationships between MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2 and C-terminal propeptide of collagen type-I with incident AF were examined after adjusting for confounders. In models adjusted for age, sex and race, all biomarkers were associated with AF, but only the relationship between plasma MMP-9 remained significant in the fully-adjusted model: each one standard deviation increase in MMP-9 was associated with 27% (95% Confidence Interval: 7% to 50%) increase in risk of AF with no evidence of an interaction with race or sex. Individuals with above mean levels of MMP-9 were more likely to be male, white and current smokers. The findings suggest that elevated levels of MMP-9 are independently associated with increased risk of AF. However, given the lack of specificity of MMP-9 to atrial tissue, it remains to be determined whether the observed relationship reflects the impact of atrial fibrosis or more generalized fibrosis on risk of incident AF.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "This paradox was also the case in experimental studies with rapid atrial pacing induced AF, wherein increased MMP-9 expression was accompanied by an incremental tendency of TIMP-1 and -3 as well [37]. In addition, a recent study involving patients with lone AF revealed that individuals with persistent AF had higher serum levels of C-terminal pro-peptide of collagen type-I and TIMP-1 and lower levels of MMP-1 when compared to normal individuals [38]. These inconsistent results are quite intriguing and can be explained in part by the significant differences regarding the methodology of each study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are essential for the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We investigated differences in serum levels of these markers between patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and sinus rhythm (SR). Serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were measured in 86 patients: 27 on SR without any AF history, 33 with paroxysmal and 26 with permanent AF. All subjects had essential hypertension, normal systolic function and no coronary artery disease. Patients with AF had higher MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 and lower TIMP-1 compared to SR subjects (all p < 0.001). Paroxysmal AF was associated with higher MMP-2 levels compared to permanent AF (p < 0.001). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 but not MMP-3 was higher in permanent compared to paroxysmal AF group (p < 0.001). Patients with AF had lower levels of TIMP-1 compared to those with SR while permanent AF subjects had lower TIMP-1 levels than those with paroxysmal AF (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Lower TIMP-1 was the only independent factor associated with AF (OR: 0.259, 95%CI: 0.104-0.645, p = 0.004). In hypertensives, paroxysmal AF and permanent AF differ with respect to serum MMPs. Increased MMP-2 is associated with paroxysmal, whereas increased MMP-9 with permanent AF. Additionally, lower levels of TIMP-1 had a strong association with AF incidence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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    • "Recent reports indicate that serum markers of collagen type-1 are critical parameters for distinguishing paroxysmal and persistent AF [50]. This important finding enabled AF to be diagnosed easily by a noninvasive method, serum sampling. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical settings (Fuster et al., 2001), and it is often associated with congestive heart diseases (Issac et al., 2007). Many studies in both laboratory and clinical settings have sought to analyze the mechanisms of AF, develop treatments based on these mechanisms, and examine atrial remodeling in chronic AF. The aim of this paper is to analyze recent findings regarding the atrial remodeling that occurs in AF. In particular, we will describe the electrical and structural changes that involve atrial myocytes and the extracellular matrix. We will also describe the general classification and basic pathophysiology of AF and its surgical treatments.
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