Prepregnancy Obesity Prevalence in the United States, 2004–2005

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 08/2008; 13(5):614-20. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-008-0388-3
Source: PubMed


To provide a current estimate of the prevalence of prepregnancy obesity in the United States.
We analyzed 2004-2005 data from 26 states and New York City (n = 75,403 women) participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, an ongoing, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors associated with pregnancy. Information was obtained from questionnaires self-administered after delivery or from linked birth certificates; prepregnancy body mass index was based on self-reported weight and height. Data were weighted to provide representative estimates of all women delivering a live birth in each particular state.
In this study, about one in five women who delivered were obese; in some state, race/ethnicity, and Medicaid status subgroups, the prevalence was as high as one-third. State-specific prevalence varied widely and ranged from 13.9 to 25.1%. Black women had an obesity prevalence about 70% higher than white and Hispanic women (black: 29.1%; white: 17.4%; Hispanic: 17.4%); however, these race-specific rates varied notably by location. Obesity prevalence was 50% higher among women whose delivery was paid for by Medicaid than by other means (e.g., private insurance, cash, HMO).
This prevalence makes maternal obesity and its resulting maternal morbidities (e.g., gestational diabetes mellitus) a common risk factor for a complicated pregnancy.

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    • "The role of allied health professionals including dietitians, exercise physiologists and psychologists in providing education and guidance on achieving optimal preconception health behaviours was also highlighted. Their role is key in optimising preconception health given the health implications of excess weight on infertility and adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes[16], the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in women entering pregnancy17181920and the need for optimising diet and physical activity behaviours for prevention and management of overweight and obesity[21]. The role of stress preconception or during assisted reproduction is also recognised as being potentially deleterious to fertility and should be appropriately identified and managed[22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled "Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?" The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area.
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    • "1 in 5 women who deliver in the US are obese [1]. The offspring of these women have a higher risk of developing obesity and insulin resistance and dying of cardiovascular disease in later life [2e4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Adequate maternal supply and placental delivery of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for normal fetal development. In humans, maternal obesity alters placental FA uptake, though the impact of diet remains uncertain. The fatty fetal liver observed in offspring of Japanese macaques fed a high fat diet (HFD) was prevented with resveratrol supplementation during pregnancy. We sought to determine the effect of HFD and resveratrol, a supplement with insulin-sensitizing properties, on placental LCPUFA uptake in this model. METHODS: J. macaques were fed control chow (15% fat, n = 5), HFD (35% fat, n = 10) or HFD containing 0.37% resveratrol (n = 5) prior to- and throughout pregnancy. At ∼130d gestation (term = 173d), placentas were collected by caesarean section. Fatty acid uptake studies using (14)C-labeled oleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) were performed in placental explants. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation increased placental uptake of DHA (P < 0.05), while HFD alone had no measurable effect. Resveratrol increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity and mRNA expression of the fatty acid transporters FATP-4, CD36 and FABPpm (P < 0.05). Placental DHA content was decreased in HFD dams; resveratrol had no effect on tissue fatty acid profiles. DISCUSSION: Maternal HFD did not significantly affect placental LCPUFA uptake. Furthermore, resveratrol stimulated placental DHA uptake capacity, AMPK activation and transporter expression. Placental handling of DHA is particularly sensitive to the dramatic alterations in the maternal metabolic phenotype and placental AMPK activity associated with resveratrol supplementation.
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    • "The highest prevalence of pre-pregnancy obesity was found in Mississippi (24.2%) and West Virginia (25.1%) and the lowest prevalence was noted in Colorado (13.9%) and Utah (14.0%) [2]. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy obesity overall was 70% higher in non-Hispanic blacks compared to non- Hispanic whites and Hispanics [2]. Obesity in pregnancy has been associated with increased pregnancy complications. "

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