Article

Incidence and treatment of inadequate postovulatory progesterone concentrations in repeat breeder cows

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LEI2 5RD, UK.
The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.76). 07/2008; 181(2):158-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.02.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The incidence of low day 5 milk progesterone in dairy cows has been investigated and the efficacy of treating the problem assessed. The incidence of inadequate milk progesterone (empirically defined as <3ng/mL) in repeat breeder cows was 34% compared with 11.4% in first insemination cows. Treatment with an intravaginal progesterone device for 7 days starting from day 5 or 6 did not improve pregnancy rate. Treatment with 1500 iu human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on day 5 gave an increase in pregnancy rate that was dependent on initial progesterone concentration and significant (P<0.05) in multiparous but not primiparous cows. While the incidence of inadequate day 5 progesterone was high in repeat breeder cows, it was responsive to hCG treatment, although only in multiparous and not primiparous animals.

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    • "Although several causes of repeat breeding have been described , e.g. oestrus detection errors, endocrine dysfunction , and infections (Kendall et al., 2009;Moss et al., 2002;Perez-Marin and Espana, 2007), the particular reason for repeat breeding often remains speculative. Hormonal treatment , such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), has been used to increase the rate of pregnancy for RB cows (Kharche and Srivastava, 2007), but success has been limited . "
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    ABSTRACT: Repeat-breeder (RB) cows are a major source of economic waste due to their decreased fertility. Embryo transfer (ET) is an alternative tool to improve the fertility of RB cows. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of recipient parity and the season on pregnancy rates following ET in RB Japanese Black beef cattle. Embryos were transferred nonsurgically to recipients, consisting of 155 heifers (< 2 years old) and 172 cows (< 8 years old), which were defined as RB cattle. Of the recipients that were presented for ET, 57 recipients received a fresh embryo and 270 recipients received a frozen embryo. There were no differences in the pregnancy rates between cattle that received fresh embryos or frozen embryos. The rates of recipients with pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, and normal calving were similar between heifers and cows. In cows, the pregnancy rates were lower (P < 0.05) in summer (June to August) than in spring (March to May) and winter (December to February). In heifers, however, there were no differences in the pregnancy rates among the seasons. Our findings indicate that in RB Japanese Black beef cattle, the parity of the recipients does not have an effect on the pregnancy rates following the transfer of fresh and frozen embryos. However, heat stress may affect reproductive performance in RB Japanese Black cows.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Recent publications by Werner et al. [39] and Sens and Heuwieser [38], however, discussed the role of a-hemolytic streptococci as a potential uterine pathogen. Besides diseases of the uterus, repeat breeding may also be caused by alterations of ovarian hormone profiles, resulting in prolonged duration of estrus, delayed LH peak, and late postovulatory rise in plasma progesterone [11] [13]. "

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2015
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    • "Recent publications by Werner et al. [39] and Sens and Heuwieser [38], however, discussed the role of a-hemolytic streptococci as a potential uterine pathogen. Besides diseases of the uterus, repeat breeding may also be caused by alterations of ovarian hormone profiles, resulting in prolonged duration of estrus, delayed LH peak, and late postovulatory rise in plasma progesterone [11] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with ≥3 consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriological infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%, but common uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Theriogenology
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