Diet diversity and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
European Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.47). 08/2008; 47(5):280-4. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-008-0722-y
Source: PubMed


Diet diversity has been recommended to achieve a healthy diet and prevent cancer.
The relation between diet diversity (i.e., variety in food intake computed as the total number of foods consumed at least once per week) and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was investigated using data from a multicentric case-control study carried out between 1991 and 2005 in Italy.
Cases were 805 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, and controls were 2,081 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic diseases, unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption.
A significant inverse association was observed with total diet diversity. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for education, tobacco and alcohol, was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.61-0.98) for subjects in the highest tertile of diversity. Inverse relations were found also for diversity within vegetables (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.78) and fruits (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.86).
This study suggests that a more diversified, and particularly a diet varied in vegetables and fruit, is a favourable indicator of oral and pharyngeal cancer risk, independently from the major recognised risk factors, i.e. alcohol and tobacco consumption.

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    • "According to the results of an Austrian cohort study, food diversity was positively associated with healthy outcomes [12]. Diets low in diversity were related to chronic diseases such as cancer [13] [14] and metabolic syndrome [15], as well as cardiovascular risk factors [16]. According to data from previous investigations, there is a positive relationship between dietary diversity score (DDS) and the greater intake of all nutrients in adults [10] [17] [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary diversity is recognized as a key indicator of dietary quality. However, its association with blood antioxidant levels has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the association of the dietary diversity score (DDS) with blood antioxidant status in women who attend the sports clubs of a municipality in western Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 397 randomly selected women from the sport clubs of a Tehran municipality. Sociodemographic data were recorded and the women's weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the weight (kg) by height squared (m(2)). A 24-h recall questionnaire was used to estimate food intake. Biochemical indices, including serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured in 90 women selected randomly from all participants. DDS was computed according to the guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The mean of SOD, TAC and GPx were compared across DDS quartiles after adjustment for age, education level, physical activity, energy intake, and BMI using analysis of covariance test. The mean of TAC, SOD, and GPx was linearly increased with increasing the quartile of DDS, after adjustment for age, education level, physical activity, energy intake, and BMI (Ptrend < 0.001). Significant differences were observed for intake of different food groups, except cereals and white roots, between the DDS quartiles. DDS is associated with blood antioxidant markers. Increasing the dietary diversity might be associated with a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: A population-based case-control study of oral and pharyngeal cancer conducted in four areas of the United States provided information on a number of risk factors, including diet. Interviews were obtained from 871 oral cancer patients and 979 controls among whites, frequency matched for age and sex. Consumption frequency of 61 food items was assessed in the questionnaire; attention was given to foods that are sources of vitamins A and C and carotene. The major finding was an inverse relationship between fruit intake and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer; individuals in the highest quartile of intake had about half the risk of those in the lowest quartile. Vitamin C, carotene, or fiber in fruit did not appear to account completely for this relationship, since these nutrients in vegetables did not provide similar protection. This finding suggests the influence of other constituents in fruits, although it is possible that cooking vegetables may have a nutrient-diminishing effect. Dietary intake of other nutrients, such as the B vitamins, vitamin E, folate, and iron, showed no consistent relationship to risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Coffee or other hot beverage consumption did not increase risk; intake of nitrite-containing meats or cooking practices, such as smoking, pickling, or charcoal grilling, also did not increase risk. All analyses were adjusted for the effects of tobacco and alcohol, strong risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer. Dietary findings among the few subjects who did not use tobacco or alcohol were similar to those for all subjects.
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    ABSTRACT: A varied diet may have a favorable role against digestive tract cancers. We analyzed the relationship between diet diversity (i.e. measured by the number of different foods consumed at least once per week) and the risk of esophageal cancer. We considered data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in northern Italy on 304 squamous cell esophageal cancer cases below age 78 years and 743 controls admitted to hospital for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption. There was a significant inverse association for total diet diversity: the multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and non-alcohol energy intake was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.25-0.71) for subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of diversity. Inverse relations were also found for diversity within vegetables (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.21-0.55) and fruits (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33-0.80). No significant association was found for meat and cereal diversity. These results add epidemiological support to the dietary guidelines recommending a more varied diet, particularly in fruit and vegetables, for esophageal cancer prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · International Journal of Cancer
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