Potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors
Division of Gastroenterology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 North St. Clair Street, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Current Gastroenterology Reports
07/2008; 10(3):208-14. DOI: 10.1007/s11894-008-0045-4
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have revolutionized the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease over the past two decades. Among the most commonly prescribed agents worldwide, PPIs' overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, emerging evidence indicates that PPI therapy, particularly with long-term and/or high-dose administration, is associated with several potential adverse effects, including enteric infections (eg, Clostridium difficile), community-acquired pneumonia, and hip fracture, all of which have received much attention recently. We review the current data on these and other potential consequences of PPI therapy. More judicious use of PPIs (eg, administering them in no more than the minimum effective dose to older adult patients) may help to further limit the impact of some of these possible adverse effects.
Available from: Kouichi Sakurai
- "Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder caused by the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus
. A major therapeutic strategy for GERD is the inhibition of acid secretion using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
. However, in clinical practice troublesome GERD symptoms persist in 20%–30% of patients despite daily treatment with a standard PPI dose
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Japan tends to increase in elderly women. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, acts as a prokinetic agent and improves gastric emptying and gastric accommodation. Our previous prospective randomized placebo-controlled study showed that RKT combined with a standard-dose of rabeprazole (RPZ) significantly improved the acid-related dysmotility symptoms (ARD) in elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of elderly PPI-refractory NERD patients with ARD symptoms who responded to RKT.
Two hundred forty-two patients with PPI-refractory NERD were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of either RPZ (10 mg/q.d.) + RKT (7.5 g/t.i.d.) (RKT group) or RPZ + placebo (PL group). Among them, 95 were elderly (≥65 years) with ARD (RKT group: n = 52; PL group: n = 43). We analyzed the changes using the 12 subscale score of frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and 15 items of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale at 4 and 8 weeks and compared the therapeutic efficacy between the 2 groups.
There were no marked differences in baseline demographic or clinical characteristics in the 2 groups except for rate of current smoking. The FSSG score (mean ± SD at 0, 4, and 8 weeks) in both the RKT (16.0 ± 7.0; 9.9 ± 8.4; 7.0 ± 6.4) and PL (15.1 ± 6.4; 10.9 ± 6.7, 11.1 ± 8.5) groups significantly decreased after treatment. However, the degree of improvement of total and ARD scores of FSSG after the 8-week treatment was significantly greater in the RKT group than in the PL group. Combination therapy with RKT for 8 weeks showed significant improvement in 3 subscale scores (abdominal bloating, heavy feeling in stomach and sick feeling after meals) of the ARD domain and 1 subscale score (heartburn after meals) of the reflux symptom domain.
RKT may be useful for improving GERD symptoms in elderly PPI-refractory NERD patients with ARD. Thus, RKT was particularly effective for resolving postprandial GERD symptoms (heavy feeling in stomach, sick feeling, and heartburn after meals).
Available from: Alipasha Meysamie
- "Although these drugs are one of the most frequently prescribed medications, have recently raised concern that taking them, particularly at high doses, may result in decreased calcium absorption, hypocalcaemia, and therefore osteoporosis (3, 4). Two population-based epidemiological studies in Denmark and UK have supported this hypothesis (5, 6). "
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Pantoprazole, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders, which in high doses has been suggested to decrease calcium absorption leading to hypocalcaemia and therefore osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether pantoprazol, could alter the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats.
Materials and Methods:
A time course study was established using 72 rats which were divided into six groups of 12 samples each (four: vehicle; eight: pantoprazole + vehicle). Pantoprazole at a dose of 200 mg/kg suspended in carboxymethyl cellulose (0.25 percent) was administered by a gastric tube. The upper incisors and first molars were ligated by a 5 mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring to deliver an initial force of 60 g. Animals were euthanized two weeks after orthodontic treatment followed by assessment of tooth movement and histomorphometric evaluation of the detached maxillae. Lateral skull radiographs were obtained once a week, starting from the first day to the 6th week of the study. OTM and bone density data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.
No significant changes in OTM measurements and optical density were observed in vehicle-receiving animals during the study (P=0.994). OTM was significantly increased after six weeks pantoprazole therapy which continued until the 7th week of the experiment (P=0.007). Optical density significantly increased in the pantoprazole-treated rats after six weeks.
Long term PPI therapy at high doses could lead to osteoporosis and enhanced OTM.
Available from: link.springer.com
- "Other factors contributing to the pathophysiology of GERD include esophageal peristalsis, mucosal hypersensitivity at the bottom of the esophagus to reflux contents such as gastric acid or bile acid, or disorders of gastric motility (gastric reservoir function or emptying). Hence, the inhibition of acid secretion by using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been suggested as the most effective therapeutic strategy for GERD . However, certain agents that regulate the physiological functions of the esophagus, e.g., its motor functions, may also prove useful in GERD treatment. "
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ABSTRACT: Treatment with kampo, the Japanese traditional medicine, is a form of pharmacological therapy that combines modern Western and traditional Asian medical practices. In Japan, various traditional medicines are often combined with Western medicines and prescribed for patients with diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and post-operative ileus. Based on numerous past observations, Japanese traditional medicines are thought to be particularly useful in the treatment of medically unexplained physical symptoms such as nausea, abdominal discomfort, and anorexia. However, the detailed mechanism by which they mediate their pharmacological action is yet unknown. In addition, the clinical evidence to support their use is insufficient. This review focuses on the basic evidence of the pharmacological action and the clinical efficacies of kampo medicines accumulated over several past decades. In addition, we introduce both the current novel insights into kampo medicines and the therapeutic approach employed when they are used to treat various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
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