Antidiabetes and Antihypertension Potential of Commonly Consumed Carbohydrate Sweeteners Using In Vitro Models

Laboratório de Química, Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular de Alimentos, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Journal of medicinal food (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 11(2):337-48. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2007.689
Source: PubMed


Commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners derived from sugar cane, palm, and corn (syrups) were investigated to determine their potential to inhibit key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension based on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using in vitro models. Among sugar cane derivatives, brown sugars showed higher antidiabetes potential than white sugars; nevertheless, no angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was detected in both sugar classes. Brown sugar from Peru and Mauritius (dark muscovado) had the highest total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, which correlated with a moderate inhibition of yeast alpha-glucosidase without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase activity. In addition, chlorogenic acid quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography was detected in these sugars (128 +/- 6 and 144 +/- 2 microg/g of sample weight, respectively). Date sugar exhibited high alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE inhibitory activities that correlated with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neither phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity was detected in corn syrups, indicating that nonphenolic factors may be involved in their significant ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE. This study provides a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and useful information to make better dietary sweetener choices for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension management.

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    • "The discrepancy is attributed to the lower dose of extract used (Okabe et al. 2009). But in vitro experiments by Galvez et al. (2008) from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil and the University of Massachusetts in the US found that dark muscovado from Peru and Mauritius showed moderate inhibition of yeast a-glucosidase, without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic a-amylase, key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. NCS contains a small amount of policosanols, particularly octacosanol (Asikin et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS), the technical name of the product obtained by evaporating the water in sugar cane juice, is known by many different names in the world, the most important being un-refined muscovado, whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (South Asia) and kokuto (Japan). Scientific research has been confirming that NCS has multiple health effects but it is still practically outside the current focus on functional foods and nutriceuticals. 46 academic publications have been identified which reports them. The highest frequency is immunological effects (26%), followed by anti-toxicity and cytoprotective effects (22%), anticariogenic effects (15%) and diabetes and hypertension effects (11%). Some of these effects can be traced to the presence of Fe and Cr, and others are suggested to be caused by antioxidants.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Sugar Tech
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    • "However, these drugs are reported to cause various side effects such as abdominal distention, flatulence and possibly diarrhea due to the excessive inhibition of pancreatic a-amylase, which resulted in the abnormal bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon (Ranilla, Kwon, Genovese, Lajolo, & Shetty, 2008). Hence, at present there is an increasing interest among food scientists to search for an alternative natural source of a-amylase inhibitor with potential antioxidant activity (Cheplick, Kwon, Bhowmik, & Shetty, 2007;Kwon, Vattem, & Shetty, 2006;Ranilla et al., 2008). The methanolic extract of raw seed materials of S. sesban showed 81.43% of a-amylase inhibition (Figure 5) under in vitro assay conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The methanolic extract of Sesbania sesban Merrill (Fabaceae) raw seed materials contained total free phenolic content of 14.56 +/- 1.11 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract dry matter (DM). Encouraging levels of reducing power (FRAP, 1068 mmol Fe[II]/mg extract), inhibition of beta-carotene bleaching (49.80%) and scavenging activity against DPPH (51.65%) as well as superoxide (44.87%) radicals were exhibited by the raw sample. Further, it also recorded 81.43% of alpha-amylase and 67.05% of a-glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics. Sprouting + oil-frying caused an apparent increase on the total free phenolic content and also significantly improved the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of S. sesban seed extract, while soaking + cooking as well as open-pan roasting treatments showed diminishing effects. Hence, such favorable sprouting + oil-frying treatment could be recommended for the versatile use of S. sesban seeds as a natural source of dietary antioxidants with the potential to manage type II diabetes.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · CyTA - Journal of Food
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    • "These preliminary studies indicate that DF does not adversely affect the glucose tolerance in healthy people and at the same time it is too early to suggest that DF ingestion would benefit or adversely affect the control of diabetes in patients. Ranilla et al. (2008) have demonstrated that date sugars are phenol rich, potent antioxidant, and strong inhibitor of αglycosidase , and α-amylase. Among the several sugars tested, date sugar has been shown to have the highest activity and is directly related to the total phenolics present and inhibitory activity against DPPH radical formation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
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