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How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?

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Abstract

A new assessment is made of the developing world's progress against poverty. By the frugal $1 a day standard there were 1.1 billion poor people in 2001--almost 400 million fewer than 20 years earlier. During that period the number of poor people declined by more than 400 million in China, though half the decline was in the early 1980s and the number outside China rose slightly. At the same time the number of people in the world living on less than $2 a day rose, so that there has been a marked bunching up of people living between $1 and $2 a day. Sub-Saharan Africa has become the region with the highest incidence of extreme poverty and the greatest depth of poverty. If these trends continue, the 1990 aggregate $1 a day poverty rate will be halved by 2015, meeting the Millennium Development Goal, though only East and South Asia will reach this goal. Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

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... GTAP's global database Version 5.4 provides us with comprehensive global trade data with income split between two labor types: skilled and unskilled (Dimaranan andMcDougall 2002 and. 3 There are considerable heterogeneities within these two groups and so, we could expect considerable heterogeneity in the impacts of trade on inequality and poverty within both the skilled and unskilled populace (Ravallion 2004). The national Gini index does not capture the inequality across income groups differentiated according to skill content. ...
... A poverty gap is another signaling indicator of an income inequality gap. 17 According to Chen and Ravallion (2004), "poverty gap [measures] the mean distance below the poverty line as a proportion of the poverty line." Non-poor or rich is assumed to have a zero poverty gap and hence, this measure reflects inequality among the poor. ...
... Let PG r = poverty gap in any region 'r'; G convert (r) = transformed Gini values due to spillover effect (as before from equation (20)); µ(r) = mean absolute income of a nation 'r' as ratio of income to poverty line of $1.08 a day (see Chen and Ravallion 2004 ...
... The effects of poverty and Black people's disproportionately high rates of poverty are one enduring issue that exists across all continents (Gillum, 2019). There are significant levels of persistent poverty in several African nations (Beegle, Christiaensen, Dabalen & Gaddis, 2016;Chen & Ravillion, 2004). In fact, the number of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa nearly doubled between the years 1981 and 2001, and the percentage of the world's poor who live in Africa increased from 11% to 29% during those years, making this region's level of poverty noticeably worse than that of other developing countries. ...
... In fact, the number of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa nearly doubled between the years 1981 and 2001, and the percentage of the world's poor who live in Africa increased from 11% to 29% during those years, making this region's level of poverty noticeably worse than that of other developing countries. According to a World Bank assessment from 2012, 43% of Africans were classified as being poor (Beegle, Christiaensen, Dabalen, & Gaddis, 2016;Chen & Ravillion, 2004). Galal (2022) estimates that as of 2022, 18.2 million South Africans lived in extreme poverty, with the daily poverty line being $1.90 USD. ...
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Intimate partner violence is a scourge that cripples’ families and society at large. The consequences of IPV are observed on emotional, physical, sexual, spiritual, social, and financial levels. Unfortunately, victimized women who are Church going may be forced to believe that their abuse is God's will. This arises in certain Christian homes where the Ephesians letter of Paul is utilized to force females to submit to their husbands as if they were submissive to the Lord. Here, only husbands’ views and practices relating to spiritual, financial, social, and sexual aspects are considered genuine and inspired by God. This paper aimed to explore a feminist approach to the theology of sin and forgiveness in intimate partner violence within marriage in the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. To achieve this purpose this paper looked at how a feminist approach can offer a new perspective to the Anglican Church of Southern Africa’s understanding of the theology of sin and forgiveness in intimate partner violence. This paper concludes that the understanding of sin and forgiveness in Christian Churches as well as in the Anglican Church of Southern Africa leaves no option for those who find themselves as victims of intimate partner violence within marriage. Whilst forgiving is noble and is what all Christians should conform to, victims should be given a chance to combine forgiveness with ethical accountability. This paper utilized secondary data and feminist analysis as a methodology. This paper has four proposals for the Anglican Church of Southern Africa which will see intimate partner violence being mitigated among the Church’s members.
... Az 1980-as évek első felében látványosan mérséklődött az extrém szegénység Kínában, az első sikereket a mezőgazdasági termelés javulása, valamint az ipar elinduló fejlődése hozta el (Naughton, 2018a;Chen-Ravallion, 2004). Az 1980-as évektől Kína gazdasága a beáramló külföldi tőke és a belső gazdasági reformok következtében évtizedekig átlagosan évi 10%-os ütemmel növekedett, ezzel párhuzamosan a gazdaság kapitalista jellegűvé vált. ...
... Ugyanakkor fontos jelezni, hogy a jövedelmek növekedésével párhuzamosan a szegénység mérséklése kapcsán már az 1980-as években érzékelhető eredményeket értek el Kínában: százmilliós nagyságrendben csökkent a legsúlyosabb szegénységben élők száma. Az 1980-as évek végén és az 1990-es évek elején volt egy stagnálás Kínában e téren (is), majd az 1990-es évektől folytatódott a csökkenés (Chen-Ravallion, 2004). Viszont -a hatásokat összevezetve -lényeges látni azt, hogy az 1990-es években a szociális ellátások hiánya, az egyenlőtlenségek növekedése rontotta a reformok, a jövedelmek növekedése révén a szegénység mérséklésében elért eredményeket. ...
Article
A történelem során Kína hosszú ideig az egyik meghatározó civilizáció, nagyhatalom volt, majd a 19. században elveszítette nagyhatalmi státuszát, amit a 21. századra egyértelműen visszanyert. Napjainkban Kína jelentős alakítója a világpolitikai és a világgazdasági folyamatoknak. Magyarország és Kína politikai, gazdasági és humán, kulturális kapcsolatrendszere az elmúlt évtizedekben komplexszé és éretté vált. A magyar–kínai viszony Magyarország külpolitikájában stratégiai jelentőséggel bír. A nagymértékben nyitott magyar gazdaságra Kína mindenkori helyzete sokféle – közvetlen és közvetett – hatást gyakorol. Kína 2021-ben ünnepelte az ún. első centenáriumi cél időszakát, ehhez kapcsolódóan Kína vezetői korábban célul tűzték ki, hogy a Kínai Kommunista Párt alapításának (1921) centenáriumára az ország közepesen jómódú társadalommá váljon. Felvetődik a kérdés: mennyiben és miként sikerült teljesítenie Kínának az első centenáriumi célkitűzést napjainkra, és mi várható a következő időszakban? Jelen tanulmány tárgya Kína aktuális helyzetének: társadalmának, gazdaságának, kormányzatának komplex (több szempontú), alapvetően statisztikai szemléletű elemzése.
... Broadly speaking, around 800 million of the world's extreme poor (defined by the World Bank as those who live under a $1 a day, measured at purchasing power parity) lived in East Asia in the year 1981. By 2001, this figure had decreased to around 250 million (Chen & Ravallion, 2004). No other region in the world has seen such a massive reduction of poverty of this type. ...
... In fact, in this same time frame, the number of extreme poor in many other regions such as Eastern Europe, Central Asian, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa, this type of poverty increased. Told another way, in 1981 around 55% of the world's poor lived in East Asia; by 2001, this figure had reduced to around 15% (Chen & Ravallion, 2004). Seen yet another way, the Chinese economy continues to grow at an impressive rate -by a factor of 12 in between 1990 and 2007 (Giovanni et al., 2014). ...
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In this paper, network analysis is used to examine the changing role that China hasplayed in the World Trade Network in the years 1995, 2005, and 2014. A network is con-structed from a World Input-Output Matrix consisting of 43 countries and 56 industries.This matrix is transformed into a technology matrix where a filter is used to turn thismatrix into a binary matrix. This matrix, in turn, is used to form a unweighted anddirected network where each vertex represents a country and each edge represents a sig-nificant commercial relation that exceed the world average. Network centrality measuressuch as indegree, outdegree, betweeness centrality, hub index, and authority index arederived from this network and used to trace the role that China, Japan, South Korea,and Taiwan have played in World Trade, and see if there is evidence of interaction be-tween these. Of the network measures used in this unweighted matrix, it is found thatexport-related measures show a strong positive correlation with GDP and import relatedmeasures have a negative correlation with GDP. It is observed that China has a largeincrease in all centrality measures across these years, while the centrality measures ofthe other East Asian nations remain largely unchanged. This, in conjunction with theincrease in density and diameter of the World Trade Network as a whole, lead us tobelieve that even though China has made huge gains from trade through an export-ledapproach in the preceding decades with no evidence of displacement or “crowding out”of other developed economies in the East Asian region. This work presents that network analysis can present a viable and useful methodology to not only examine the structureof World Trade, but to examine the patterns of trade across time. Furthermore, it puts into context China’s export-led approach to development and qualitatively demonstratesthe huge impact this has had in China’s place in World Trade and the world economy.
... According to [12], in the main factors for the success of green revolution in Asian countries; adoption of improved technologies was the foremost factors. According to [13], traditionally, agricultural technology adoption decision was seriously been determined by imperfect information, risk, uncertainty, institutional constraints, human capital, input availability and infrastructural problems. ...
... Many studies on off-farm income reported a positive impact on technology adoption. According to [12], off-farm income is an important strategy for solving credit constraints faced by the rural households in many developing countries. As [28,29] reported off-farm income act as a substitute for borrowed capital in rural economies where credit markets are either missing or dysfunctional. ...
Article
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Adoption of improved agricultural technologies is the tool for boosting production and productivity of agricultural sector, poverty reduction and ensuring food security in developing countries. Due to a plenty of determining factors in most developing countries, the rate and intensity of adoption of improved agricultural technologies is still low. This study focuses on some potential factors hindering farmers from adopting and using of improved agricultural technologies in developing countries. Many literature were reviewed and found that economical, technological, Socio-cultural, demographic and institutional factors are the main determinant factors in technology adoption and diffusion. In order to increase the likelihood of adoption of the improved agricultural technologies by farmers, policy makers should focus on building irrigation scheme, strengthening research-extension-farmers (R-E-F) linkage, making credit services more accessible without bias, equipping development agents with different training and workshops, empowering educational sector to focus on adult teaching, advising farmers to improve their educational level and making information accessible to farmers on time and finally the technology developer should incorporate the need and perceptions of farmers during technology design and development; will enhance the adoption of the technology more easily.
... We use poverty data from the WDI database which has also been used in various important studies (see Alvaredo & Facundo, 2015;Chen et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2010 among others). Because poverty data is collected from individual household surveys in each country, the data is relatively sparse, especially in low-and middle-income countries. ...
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In this paper we examine the interrelatedness between regime types of democracy and non-democracy and poverty reduction. The liberal international order and democratic principles have been challenged by the populace's general discontent in recent years, while the reduction of poverty is a central goal of the global development agenda as embodied by the Sustainable Development Goals. Democracies could promote poverty reduction by encouraging redistribution, lifting barriers for poor people, or giving better access to the institutions of society. Democracies might hinder poverty reduction if they are captured by elites or become dysfunctional in general. Our data cover around 140 countries and a period from 1980-2018. We use a mix of methods to address endogeneity concerns. In dynamic panel estimates that control for past influences of poverty, GDP and inequality we find no significant impact of democratization-measured mainly by electoral democracy-on poverty rates. In more flexible and causal treatment effects estimates we find democratization reduces poverty rates by about 11-14% in the first five years after democratization on a 95% significance level and about 20% 10-14 years after democratization on a 90% significance level. Although we find mixed results, we are still confident that democratic political institutions matter greatly, and societies are better off when the political systems are more inclusive. The fact that our results do not find clear support for this suggest that electoral democracy-without further aspects considering the level of democracy-does not have a clear-cut effect on poverty.
... Social and economic problems in mining are more likely originated from institutional environments rather than from mining itself (Davis & Tilton, 2002;Bebbington et al., 2018), and resource-dependent countries tend to prioritize benefits of corporations over those of social members, such as communities (Bebbington, Humphreys Bebbington, Bury, Lingan, Muñoz, & Scurrah, 2008). Stakeholder relationships involving communities in such informal institutional environments are increasingly recognized as critical to various governmental and nongovernmental actors (Chen & Ravallion, 2004;UNDP, 2008). Interactions with each affected community require a company to choose an appropriate communication method and understand the organizational context and norms embedded within each community (Selmier et al., 2015). ...
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Although companies recognize the importance of social responsibility and community engagement, conflicts between companies and communities have been noticeably increasing. To better understand the role of institutional environments in company-community conflicts, we analyze two mining conflicts-Minera Yanacocha's Minas Conga extension project in Peru and Minera Los Pelambres' El Mauro Tailings Dam in Chile. Our findings imply that, to prevent negative consequences and alleviate company-community conflicts, mining companies should address underlying structural causes and pursue informal approaches in order to obtain and maintain their social license. We find that better formal institutional environments not only alleviate conflict intensity but also facilitate informal approaches through which companies and communities can cooperate to resolve conflicts. The best practice would be to start and continue dialogues between communities and companies, mediated by impartial governments, to understand the concerns of the counterparty and find means by which to address the causes.
... The process and procedures involved from the outset of Shea fruits collection prior to obtaining the final product are no doubt utterly tedious and time consuming. The fortune and accomplishment achieved by most countries of world in their green revolution drive and initiatives were fastened to their strong will to create awareness on the need and essence to adopt modern processing technologies (Ravallion and Chen, 2004;Kasirye, 2010). This may not be unconnected to the fact that adoption of modern processing technologies come aboard with advantages such as greater income and poverty reduction; reduced staple food prices; bring forth enriched nutritional products; income for landless labourers as well as provision of more employment opportunities (Kasirye, 2010). ...
... The process and procedures involved from the outset of Shea fruits collection prior to obtaining the final product are no doubt utterly tedious and time consuming. The fortune and accomplishment achieved by most countries of world in their green revolution drive and initiatives were fastened to their strong will to create awareness on the need and essence to adopt modern processing technologies (Ravallion and Chen, 2004;Kasirye, 2010). This may not be unconnected to the fact that adoption of modern processing technologies come aboard with advantages such as greater income and poverty reduction; reduced staple food prices; bring forth enriched nutritional products; income for landless labourers as well as provision of more employment opportunities (Kasirye, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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The study assessed shea butter processors’ socio demographic variables and sources of awareness towards the adoption of shea butter modern processing technologies in Oke-Ogun Region, Oyo State. Multistage sampling technique was used for the study. Three (3) major Shea Butter producing Local Government Areas which include Saki West, Atisbo and Iseyin were purposely selected from the region. The second stage involved 30% random selection of wards from the selected Local Government Areas. The wards in Atisbo are as follows: Tede, Irawo-ile, Irawo-Owode, Okiki, Alaga, Ago-Are, Agunrege and Baasi.The following wards Ado-Awaye, Osogun, Ekunle, Faramola, Injemba, Isalu, Koso, and Ladogan are in Iseyin. The Saki West on the other hand has Ajegunle, Aganmu, Bagii, Ekoka, Iya, Ogidogbo, Oke-Owo, Sangote and Bapon. The third stage involved 60% random selection of processors from each wards. This leads to the selection of 228 processors for the purpose of the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage distributions as well as regression analysis were used to analyse the collected data. The regression coefficients at (p< 0.05) show that there is a significant association between sources of awareness such as social media (3.436), extension agents (0.637) and workshops & training (2.039) and the level of use of modern processing technologies. Keywords: Shea Butter; Processors; Awareness; Modern Technologies; Oke-Ogun
... Poverty: The final outcome variable, Poverty status, is a binary variable for whether or not a household falls below the poverty line. Here, we measure poverty based on consumption data, which is preferred over income data (Chen & Ravallion, 2004;Stoyanova & Tonkin, 2018). Following Moratti and Natali (2012), consumption expenditures include: food, non-food items (including health, education and other non-food items), housing (including rent and utilities), and consumer durables. ...
Article
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have received increasing attention in recent years as a promising means to address poverty challenges in rural China. This paper uses a unique three-wave panel data set of household surveys, collected from seven officially recognized poor counties in rural China during 2012–2018, to examine the effect of ICT adoption on poverty. The results show that ICTs contributed positively to poverty reduction in the sampled counties, which may have been primarily achieved through increased migration and off-farm income, instead of through improved agricultural production and farm income. This suggests that ICT development facilitated households escaping poverty by helping them diversify their livelihood strategies away from agriculture in remote mountainous areas. The findings highlight the importance of creating incentives to complement the opportunities brought by ICTs for local development. It is important to strike a balance between poverty reduction and food security objectives.
... According to Huang (2006), large firms tend to have a more stable cash flow. According to Chen (2004), large firms tend to be diversifying and may eventually fail due to the assumption that they are 'too big to fail'. Large firms have an economy of scale, i.e. the profit made by lowering production costs per unit as output levels increase (Ross et al., 2010, p. 916). ...
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This research aims to investigate the effect of managerial characteristics on firm policy and performance. This research uses data from UK-listed companies (FTSE100) during the period 2015-2021. The results show that female Chief Executive Officers have a negative impact on financing policy. It has a positive effect on company performance, but no significant effect on investment policy. We also find that Chef Executive Officer education has a negative effect on financing policy, but a positive effect on investment policy and performance. At the same time, Chief Executive Officer's age has a negative influence on financing policy, but no influence on investment policy and performance. The results of our research support the theory of behavioral finance by providing empirical evidence that the behavioral aspects of the manager is been correlated with female gender, education, and age in terms of influencing firm policies and performance. The implication of this research is that investors should be aware of the characteristics of the Chief Executive Officer of the companies in which they invest their money because Chief Executive Officer Characteristics can be using as a benchmark for predicting performance and executive policy decision-making.
... According to Huang (2006), large firms tend to have a more stable cash flow. According to Chen (2004), large firms tend to be diversifying and may eventually fail due to the assumption that they are 'too big to fail'. Large firms have an economy of scale, i.e. the profit made by lowering production costs per unit as output levels increase (Ross et al., 2010, p. 916). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to investigate the effect of managerial characteristics on firm policy and performance. This research uses data from UK-listed companies (FTSE100) during the period 2015-2021. The results show that female Chief Executive Officers have a negative impact on financing policy. It has a positive effect on company performance, but no significant effect on investment policy. We also find that Chef Executive Officer education has a negative effect on financing policy, but a positive effect on investment policy and performance. At the same time, Chief Executive Officer's age has a negative influence on financing policy, but no influence on investment policy and performance. The results of our research support the theory of behavioral finance by providing empirical evidence that the behavioral aspects of the manager is been correlated with female gender, education, and age in terms of influencing firm policies and performance. The implication of this research is that investors should be aware of the characteristics of the Chief Executive Officer of the companies in which they invest their money because Chief Executive Officer Characteristics can be using as a benchmark for predicting performance and executive policy decision-making.
... million were from Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank 2002). It is important to note that this number has risen from below 160 million in 1981, an increase of 87.5%, in only 20 years compared to a dramatic fall from 800 million to almost 250 million, a decrease of 68.7% , in East Asia during the same period (Chen and Ravallion 2004). ...
Thesis
p>The thesis consists of three papers that deal with poverty in Uganda. The first paper evaluates whether economic growth alone is sufficient for absolute poverty reduction. Using cross-sectional household survey data from Uganda, the paper makes use of the poverty decomposition techniques to identify the main sources of absolute poverty changes. It was found that even in the midst of growth there are possibilities for the persistence of extreme poverty. The effect of growth on poverty reduction was lessened by worsening consumption inequality especially from 1997. Since the redistributive effect is non-negligible, there is a need for an investigation of factors affecting redistribution. This is what the second and third papers attempt to address. The second paper attempts to investigate the effect of the decentralised mechanism of community targeting on the households' wellbeing using micro-level data from Uganda. Developments in the theoretical literature pitting the efficiency advantages argument against that of local capture have brought the issue to the fore. Particular reference is made to the debate on the importance of contiguity and preference heterogeneity embedded in the Tiebout (1956) sorting versus the recent contribution by Bardhan and Mookherjee (2000) showing that decentralisation could have adverse effects through greater local capture. This is relevant to the debate about the decentralisation reforms going on across the Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper tests the implications of the empirical question, "Can decentralisation be a useful institutional reform to reduce the absolute poverty in less developed countries (LDCs), or might absolute poverty increase as political power shifts downwards due to greater capture of the programmes by local elites?" It was found that greater local capture, indeed, exacerbated extreme poverty, finding no support for strong efficiency advantages argument in Uganda. This might suggest that decentralisation reforms need to be carefully undertaken if they are to improve the economic wellbeing of households in countries faced with incomplete political markets and information flow constraints. theories by exploring these The third paper evaluates the causal effect of fertility on household welfare using panel data drawn from the Uganda household survey data for 1992/93 and 1999/00, exploring the Malthusian theory in a dynamic context. It was found that, on average, the households that experience a childbearing event have a lower real food consumption compared to the households that did not. This result suggests that high fertility rates can actually lower economic wellbeing and, therefore, are partly responsible for the persistence of extreme poverty in Uganda and many other LDCs with similar fertility trends.</p
... Indeed, such levels of income per day are often below the guaranteed minimum wage (6.3 Euros per day of labor) in the agricultural sector in Morocco, which is regulated by official decree. Given that this daily income is just above the poverty line (Chen and Ravaillon, 2004), our results confirm the acute economic vulnerability of farmers who raise livestock. Our results also showed that the time spent on routine labor (i.e. ...
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In this study, uses of labor were characterized using the ‘Work Balance’ method in a sample of 17 oasis farms. The results showed that almost 44% of total uses of labor are devoted to livestock, while the remainders 56% are used for crops. The labor required to raise livestock was almost entirely (92%) provided by family member, whereas that required for crops was mostly provided by hired laborers. Date palms are the pillar of the oasis farming system and enable the positive synergies of this mixed crop/livestock system. Date wastes and cereal straw are used to feed the animals, while the livestock supplies the farmers with milk and meat, and their sale ensures the purchase of agricultural inputs in the period preceding date harvest. Our results show that labor is an essential component of oasis farming systems, as it provides opportunities to achieve a circular economy. Otherwise, on farms specialized in crops that have no livestock, the economic efficiency of labor is higher, thanks to higher investments. Taken together, these results suggest that there are ways to improve the efficiency of the uses of labor on oasis farms.
... Famers' production potentials is critical to meeting anticipated rising inputs cost, and it is helpful to examine ongoing modern technologies and adoption of innovations impact on the gross margins in cases of current farming scenario to improve living standards. The success of the Asian green revolution based on the successful adoption of modern and advanced technologies, as well as the improvement of the economic well-being of the farming community through employment, poverty reduction, high returns, and improved land productivity (Ravallion and Chen, 2004). Innovation is new idea, thought or practices that is unknown in the beginning, is opted by the innovators, followed by group or community as a way forward to mitigate the problem of sector or organization (Rogers, 1995;Berger, 2005;Yildrim et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Innovation is the development of a new idea or a new production method to improve the performance of ongoing operations. The purpose of this study was to determine the adoption of innovation and its impact on the profitability of dairy farms in district Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan, using a structured questionnaire distributed to 160 dairy farmers using a random sampling technique. The obtained data were analyzed in order to compute the dairy farm income, total revenue, profit margins, and net present value and benefit cost ratios. Multiple regression analysis used to determine the effect of innovation adoption on the profitability of dairy farmers. The mean value of quarterly profit across dairy farms was 30772.71 TL with NPV and BCR values of 222.44 and 1.68 respectively. The profitability of the dairy farmers negatively affected by the age of the farmer, and a positive association found between the farming experience, total number of milking animals and innovation adoption index. Land, machinery, and credit costs must be minimized by the government to improve the adoption practices among dairy farmers.
... Globalization and world-wide economic liberalization are exposing small scale farming, small and medium processors and agribusinesses to new opportunities as well as new forces of marginalization. Various studies such as Chen and Ravallion (2004), World Bank (2004) and Johannesburg Summit (2002) show that proportion of population living in poverty has fallen for East Asia and quite significantly in South Asia while has increased slightly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the EU, small and medium enterprises comprise about 99% of all firms and employ about 65 million people. ...
Conference Paper
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... It was also argued that the elasticity depends on the initial level of income and inequality [Bourguignon (2003) Ravallion and Chen (1997)]. Therefore, in African economies, elasticity is much lower than in other regions of the world [Shaohua and Ravallion (2004)]. Bhalla (2002) calculated a very high value, i.e. -5.0 of growth elasticity to poverty; however, Bhalla (2004) also calculated the mean elasticity of -3.4. ...
Article
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Over the years, poverty reduction has been recognised as the main objective of development policy. To reduce poverty, economic growth is very crucial. The responsiveness of growth to wards poverty reduction is measured by the ‘growth elasticity of poverty’. The present study attempts to calculate growth elasticities of poverty in nine selected Asian countries for the period 1986-2015 by using three different methodologies. The study finds that calculated elasticities have considerable variations by using different methodologies. It is suggested that the calculation of elasticity using the formula is most appropriate because it directly calculates the elasticity by using the data of poverty rate and per capita GDP. The study also finds that China has the highest growth elasticity of poverty considering the poverty line of USD 1.90 and USD 3.20 a day. It was also found that the responsiveness of growth to poverty reduction has increased during the period of 2001-2015 in comparison to the period of 1986-2000.
... The world has become more populated, production has increased rapidly, while income and wealth inequalities seem to increase. Although the absolute number living in poverty may have decreased between 1981 and 2001 (Chen and Ravallion, 2004), a large part of the global population lives in extreme poverty, and pressure on the natural resource base and ecosystems may create a threat to the existing level of development (Todaro, 1997;Milanovic, 1999;Mc-Neil, 2000;Sachs, 2006;Woodward and Simms, 2006). It may be argued that issues of sustainable development (SD) are related to increasing scarcity of, in particular, land and other natural resources, creating the need for management of these scarce resources (see Rydén, 2008). ...
Book
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The main general aim of the book: To extend New Institutional Economics from a theory mainly focusing on the importance of property rights and transaction costs for economic growth and productive efficiency to a theory elaborating the importance of social, political and economic order (institutional capital) for achieving Sustainable Development.
... When the government provides subsidies to the industrial sectors, it creates opportunities to export its goods, the people of that country can easily get industrial goods at reasonable prices due to high production in the industrial sector, and the industrial sector gets a new export market in the rest of the world. Chen and Ravallion (2003) stated that industrial growth decreases poverty in developing countries. Table 5 represents that the coefficient of AGRI indicates that a 1-unit increase in AGRI increases poverty by 1.71%. ...
Article
en According to the World Bank, the COVID-19 pandemic is going to exacerbate the situation of poverty. It predicts that the poverty rate could rise by 0.3 to 0.7 percentage points, to around 9% in 2020. This study aims at providing insights into poverty in Pakistan and analyzes the impact of fiscal decentralization on poverty alleviation. According to the Asian Development Bank, Pakistan houses roughly 210 million poor people. This study follows the data between 1975 and 2018, applying a unit root test to station this data. The statistical models are developed with a view to the autoregressive distributed lag co-integration technique for estimation. The findings of the study conclude that fiscal decentralization has a direct and indirect impact in eradicating poverty. We thus conclude that the government should provide autonomy to the provinces in Pakistan, as the central government alone cannot tackle and understand the local problems. Therefore, the government must adopt a fiscal decentralization policy. This study further suggests that the government should effectively utilize the progressive taxation strategy to maximize revenues and cater to poverty alleviation. 摘要 zh 世界银行数据表明,新冠肺炎(COVID-19)大流行将加剧贫困。数据预测,2020年贫困率可能增加0.3-0.7个百分点,上升至9%左右。本研究旨在研究巴基斯坦贫困,并分析财政分权对减贫造成的影响。亚洲开发银行数据显示,巴基斯坦有将近2.1亿贫困人口。本研究选取1975-2018年的数据,并用单位根检验来平稳数据。以自回归分布滞后模型(ARDL)协整为目的,提出用于预测的统计模型。研究发现表明,财政分权对消除贫困具有直接和间接的影响。因此,我们的结论认为,巴基斯坦政府应为各省提供自治权,因为中央政府无法独自应对和理解地方问题。因此,政府需采纳财政分权政策。本研究进一步暗示,政府应有效使用累进税策略,以期将税收最大化并应对减贫。 Resumen es Según el Banco Mundial, la pandemia de COVID-19 va a agravar la situación de pobreza. Predice que la tasa de pobreza podría aumentar de 0,3 a 0,7 puntos porcentuales, a alrededor del 9 por ciento en 2020. Este estudio tiene como objetivo proporcionar información sobre la pobreza en Pakistán y analiza el impacto de la descentralización fiscal en el alivio de la pobreza. Según el Banco Asiático de Desarrollo, Pakistán alberga aproximadamente a 210 millones de personas pobres. Este estudio sigue los datos entre 1975 y 2018, aplicando una prueba de raíz unitaria para estacionar estos datos. Los modelos estadísticos se desarrollan con miras a la técnica de cointegración Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) para la estimación. Los hallazgos del estudio concluyen que la descentralización fiscal tiene un impacto directo e indirecto en la erradicación de la pobreza. Por tanto, llegamos a la conclusión de que el gobierno debería otorgar autonomía a las provincias de Pakistán, ya que el gobierno central por sí solo no puede abordar y comprender los problemas locales. Por lo tanto, el gobierno debe adoptar una política de descentralización fiscal. Este estudio sugiere además que el gobierno debería utilizar eficazmente la estrategia de tributación progresiva para maximizar los ingresos y atender la mitigación de la pobreza.
... In order to achieve a satisfactory population coverage, the World Bank re-uses the available consumption or income distributions outside of their year of origin. For comparability, we follow this approach of the Bank as detailed in (Chen & Ravallion, 2010;Chen & Ravallion, 2004& Ferreira et al., 2015. To extrapolate the distribution to a different year a relevant variable from national account statistics (NAS) is used to estimate the mean of the distribution, while the shape of the distribution remains unchanged. ...
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The dollar-a-day method, applied in monitoring the UN’s development goals against poverty, provides no confidence interval for the official figures of global poverty reduction, a practice that does not allow statistical testing. Using Monte Carlo micro-simulations we construct confidence intervals that reflect the error introduced by the process of determining the International Poverty Line, as well as the uncertainty of the involved Purchasing Power Parity exchange rates. These estimates identify a reduction of 5.19% between 1990 and 2015 at 95% confidence level, in stark contrast with the remarkable 73% reduction of global poverty reported in the World Bank official statistics published on September 18, 2018. At the same time, MDG1 obtains with a 80% confidence level. The cost-of-basic-needs method paints a more promising picture identifying a 35.71% reduction at 95% confidence level, while the confidence level at which poverty in 2015 was half of 1990 stands at 46%. We conclude that the derivation method of the international poverty line introduces high levels of uncertainty in the estimates.
... The worst remuneration (less than 1 US $ per day of work) was observed in 'Multi species' livestock systems and they reflect the low yields in crops combined to several setbacks in animal husbandry (a very low annual milk yield per cow and also a very high mortality rate in lambs). These results confirm the acute economic vulnerability of such farms, where some of the members have to emigrate to improve the livelihoods of the rest of the family, as the daily incomes are below the poverty line (Chen and Ravaillon, 2004). At the opposite, farms with higher investments in dairy cattle production and better raw margins in crops (particularly date palms) or less workers (particularly in 'Range land systems' with camels wandering in desert range lands) manage to get a remuneration of work almost equal to the guaranteed wage in agriculture by the Moroccan law (6.3 ...
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Multiple constraints, such as an increased demographic pressure and a growing competition for limited water resources, are significantly affecting farming systems in the oases. The combination of these constraining factors impacts the efficiency of inputs' uses and hampers the incomes from the agricultural activities. Livestock has always been a component of the oasis farming systems, covering a wide range of functions: transportation, soil preservation, income generation through meat and milk, draft, and saving. Faced to the recent changes, this study aimed to characterize the roles and contribution of livestock on the overall performances of the oasis farming systems. To do so, twelve farms illustrating four types of livestock systems were selected. Within each farm, we calculated common agricultural efficiency indicators to assess the use efficiency of the most critical production factors in the oasis: land, labor, water and capital. The results demonstrated that efficient oasis farming systems rely on the crops/livestock association. Thereby, while providing self-consumed food products, livestock intensified farming systems (D'man prolific sheep with off-farm feed resources and dairy cattle) allow an increase in crops' yields and their incomes. This is particularly obvious for date palms' incomes, which benefit from the surplus irrigation of the underlying lucerne. In parallel, in specific contexts of the oases where the intensification of agriculture is quite impossible (for instance within areas with scarce groundwater or saline water, or in farms with limited capital) livestock remains the main source of income, adding value to the vast pastoral areas and to the by-products of crops (wastes of dates, wheat bran and straw, etc.).
... situated in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. It has an estimated population of 20.6 million(Chen, et al 2004). Healthcare services are being delivered in a context of severe resource constraints. ...
... It is a lowincome country, situated in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. It has an estimated population of 20.6 million (Chen et al. 2004). In Cameroon, basic public and social amenities for the vulnerable are either absent or inadequate. ...
... Adoption of improved agricultural technologies has been associated with higher earnings and lower poverty; improved nutritional status; lower staple food prices; increased employment opportunities as well as earnings for landless laborers (Kasirye and Katuagi, 2010). Adoption of improved technologies is believed to be a major factor in the success of the green revolution experienced by Asian countries (Ravallion and Chen, 2004;Kasirye and Katuagi, 2010) on the other hand, non-adopter can hardly maintain their marginal livelihood with socio-economic stagnation leading to deprivation (Jain et al., 2009). ...
... The dense institutional nature of modern mining, in Africa and elsewhere, leads to institutional frameworks which drive or retard sustainable development, particularly for local communities, which we term communities of place (CofP). Many CofP members engage primarily in pastoralism and small-scale farming, and their livelihoods, social structures and sustainability are directly affected through mining operations: as stewards of their lands, CofP members' basic rights are recognized by the United Nations and other multilateral institutions, many governments, NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and some business organizations (Chen and Ravallion, 2004: Muthuri et al., 2012: Ruggie, 2016Selmier et al., 2015). These rights theoretically empower CofP to judge the legitimacy of a mining multinational enterprises' (MNEs) "social license to operate" (SLO), (African mining-centric analyses include Bird, 2016;Bowen et al., 2010;Hilson and Murck, 2001;Moffat and Zhang, 2014;UNDP, 2008). ...
Article
Communities of Place (CofP¹) members’ rights concerning their livelihoods, social structures and sustainability empower them to judge the legitimacy of a mining MNE’s “social license to operate” by demanding efficacious, just CSR programs and projects. Many eyes monitor whether mining companies pursue sustainable development, but no eyes are more important than those of CofP, whose lands surround mining operations, and those of artisanal miners (ASM), whose livelihoods depend on access to mining sites. Their rights have been recognized in UN programs such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Conducting a longitudinal qualitative case study examining mining MNEs, CofP situations and country-level contexts in Tanzania and the DRC, we consider mining MNEs’ success and failure in pursuing SDGs. We sketch how efficacious CSR, monitoring, and political will have been necessary conditions in mining MNEs’ efforts to promote SDGs.
... It is a lowincome country, situated in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. It has an estimated population of 20.6 million (Chen et al. 2004). In Cameroon, basic public and social amenities for the vulnerable are either absent or inadequate. ...
Preprint
Indicators are foundational for planning, monitoring, and evaluating health services in developing countries. Most health indicators use population-based data, to enable comparison across geographical areas and over time. This paper is based on an interpretative case study on health indicators and how they are calculated and used at health facilities in Cameroon. We found that health managers at different levels of health systems do not share the same understanding of health indicators and we observed a widespread absence of population data. We further observed that health managers derive alternative ways of calculating indicators in the absence of population data. This paper contributes by discussing the implications of a lack of a common understanding of health indicators and the absence of population data to calculate health coverage indicators. Though this study was limited to data and program managers at district and regional levels, the findings raise issues that have wider applicability in the implementation of electronic health information systems as well as how indicators such as UHC goals are calculated.
... Various studies have focused on adoption of agricultural technology in order to improve the productivity (Vaidyanathan, 2010;Abdullah and Samah, 2013;Shaffril et al., 2009;Samah et al., 2009;Adrian et al., 2005;Ghosh and Ganguly, 2008). In Asian countries, the adoption of improved agricultural technologies was considered as a major factor in the success of the Green Revolution (Chen and Ravallion, 2004). ...
... According to World Bank analyses, between 1981 and 2005 the number of people living in extreme poverty declined by 505 million (24). This decline is accounted for entirely by economic growth in China, where half of the poverty reduction occurred before that country embraced domestic or global market reforms (23). Excluding China, extreme poverty increased by 123 mil-lion between 1981 and 2005, with decreases in poverty in some countries offset by greater increases in others. ...
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Evidence of a social gradient in health literacy has been found in all reported national population surveys. Health literacy is a midstream determinant of health but not a panacea for health inequities created by the maldistribution of opportunity and resources. It is possible to optimize the contribution health literacy makes in mediating the causes and effects of established social determinants of health. Existing interventions demonstrate the feasibility of improving health literacy among higher-risk populations, but research remains underdeveloped and effects on health inequity are largely untested. Future health literacy intervention research should focus on ( a) improving the quality of health communication that reaches a diversity of populations, especially by improving frontline professional skills and support; ( b) enabling people to develop transferable skills in accessing, understanding, analyzing, and applying health information; and ( c) ensuring that priority is proportionate to need by reaching and engaging the population groups who are disproportionately affected by low health literacy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 42 is April 1, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... When the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were first published in September 2000, being income poor meant earning $1 a day(Chen and Ravallion, 2004). This international poverty line was revised in 2005 to earning less than $1.25 a day(Ravallion et al., 2009) which was again updated in October 2015 by the World Bank to $1.90(Kathleen et al., 2016). ...
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The use of migrant labour is prevalent on cocoa plantations in Ghana and though it boosts cocoa production and serves as an economic coping strategy, there may be negative consequences. Using primary data from 600 respondents, this study investigated migrants’ working conditions, work-related challenges, welfare and social benefits from migration for cocoa production in Ghana. Data was analyzed using perception index, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, coping strategy index, multivariate probit, multiple linear regression, negative binomial regression, multidimensional poverty index (MPI), asset score, per capita expenditure and income, and quantile regression. Migrants and host employers have positive perceptions about the welfare and working conditions of migrant labourers. Migrants are generally satisfied with their working hours, nature of contract, and freedom but unsatisfied with remuneration, welfare and health/safety conditions associated with working on cocoa farms. The predominant work-related challenges cocoa farm labourers face are the temporary nature of their work/contracts, low wages, poor quality food, poor accommodation, and limited access to social amenities. The study has shown that there is net social gain from labour migration for cocoa production. The MPI and per capita expenditure suggest that non-migrants are better off in welfare than migrants. Education, secondary occupation, nature of contract, expectation and earnings before migration, social capital, asset ownership, and social amenities are key determinants of migrants’ satisfaction with working conditions, number of coping strategies adopted for food shortfalls, and welfare. To improve their welfare and satisfaction with working conditions, migrants on cocoa farms should be given protective working gear, long-term or renewable contracts and they should be encouraged to join social groups and engage in secondary occupations.
... Poverty affects individuals and groups. It is not confined to the developing nations as it also manifest itself in developed countries in a set of problems such as homelessness and the persistence of ghetto housing clusters (Chen & Ravallion, 2007). Thus, poverty is both rural and urban based in nature. ...
Article
This study analyzes how employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) and ownership structure affect bank performance. The study employs the generalized method of moments to examine data from 39 Vietnamese commercial banks from 2009 to 2020. The findings indicate that banks with ESOP improve ROA by 57% more than banks without ESOP. However, a percentage increase in state and domestic ownership reduces the ROA by 0.7% and 0.4%, respectively. The study has important implications for governments and regulators. While the findings do not support the cherry-picking and free-rider theories, they align with agency theory and prior literature.
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Political Tourism, Tourism and Peace
Thesis
This thesis analyses the relationship between military expenditure, industrialisation and economic growth in Africa. A balanced panel of 35 African countries was disaggregated into eight African regional economic communities (RECS), spanning 1990 to 2015. The study comprises five essays, excluding the first and last chapters, which set out the general introduction and conclusions, with policy recommendations. Each of the five essays are self-contained and can be considered standalone pieces of research work. The first essay (Chapter 2) investigates the causal relationship between military expenditure, industrialisation, and economic growth. We employed the Panel Vector Error Correction Model (PVECM) and the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) causality test. At both continental and regional economic levels, the PVECM causality test suggests that industrialisation and growth cause military expenditure both in the short-run and long-run. The Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) causality results reveal significant country-by-country differences among the variables. In the main, the causality results imply that African governments fund military expenditure/activities by taxing production. The second essay (Chapter 3) investigates the degree of convergence in military expenditure and security outcomes for the eight regional economic communities. We applied the Phillips and Sul convergence test to each of the region’s military expenditure and security outcomes. The results suggest that the convergence club of military expenditure and security outcomes cannot be generalised across the RECs of African countries, and likewise for the overall convergence of the regions. The non-convergence of the full sample and the presence of the different subgroup convergence clubs for both variables imply that the RECs of African countries are characterised by individual factors, which in turn determine an idiosyncratic course of their own path for defence and security policies. The empirics further confirm that the regions appear to have chosen dissimilar paths for their defence and security measures. The third essay (Chapter 4) investigates the impact of military expenditure on industrialisation in the regional economic communities of African countries. We applied panel causality and Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) estimation techniques. The System-GMM results show that military expenditure has: (1) significant positive impact on industrialisation in AMU, CENSAD, IGAD, and SADC; (2) insignificant impact in COMESA, ECCAS and ECOWAS regions. The positive impact of military expenditure on industrialisation in the four regions suggests that military expenditure needs to create a conducive environment for the industrialisation process and that it will be relatively effective, while in regions where the impact is insignificant, the need for greater coordinated military spending to promote the industrialisation process is suggested. The fourth essay (Chapter 5) investigates the relationship between military expenditure and economic growth by considering the role that state fragility plays in Africa and its regional economic communities (RECs). We applied similar methodology to that used in the third essay. To measure levels of income, real gross domestic product per capita served as the proxy, while state fragility was measured by the state fragility index, and military expenditure was measured by military expenditure as a percentage of GDP. Our analysis suggests that the effect of military expenditure on growth is negative at the Africa level, with significant regional economic level differences, and that the effect is influenced by the presence of state fragility. This implies that complementary effects exist between military expenditure and state fragility on growth. The fifth essay (Chapter 6) investigates the convergence in military expenditure and economic growth in Africa and its RECs. Overall, the results at the Africa level reveal no evidence of convergence in military expenditure and growth. The results of the analysis show that there exist: (i) two convergence clubs for military expenditure; and (ii) five convergence clubs for growth. The empirical findings further suggest that the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) form distinct convergent and divergent clubs, exhibiting considerable heterogeneity in the underlying defence and growth patterns. In addition, the empirics confirm that the countries in each region appear to have chosen dissimilar defence and growth transitional paths.
Article
The rapid increase in population worldwide is causing large scale of production of agricultural products and increased preparation of plants, livestock, vegetables and much more agricultural items for people's use and food security. The implications from this is that, South East Asian, especially, invests in technology for large scale production for a sustainable environment. By applying the panel data analysis technique Fully Modified OLS and Dynamic OLS, this paper investigates the causal relationship between agricultural production, pollution emissions and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) among, South East Asian countries. The paper results show the variable has a long-run and short-run relationship with a positive value. While in a developing country, investment in an agricultural product based on sustainable agriculture that meets present food requirements without affecting the environment should be considered as an alternative for the benefit of future generations.
Article
This study examines the cause-and-effect relationship between military expenditure, security outcome and industrialisation for a panel of 35 African countries spanning from 1990 to 2015. We employed: (i) the Pairwise Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality test; and (ii) the newly developed panel VAR in generalised method of moment (GMM) estimation approach was applied to determine what magnitude can future disparities in industrialisation be explained by military expenditure and security outcome. The empirical results suggest the existence of a long-run relationship between military expenditure, security outcome and industrialisation. The causality tests reveal that there is feedback causality between the three variables: Military expenditure promotes security outcome and industrialisation in Africa and vice versa. Thus, an appropriate defense and security sector policies will further contribute to the industrialisation process of Africa.
Chapter
The regional monsoon system is one of the most salient regional climate systems, of which the Indian monsoon system is most famed for. The Indian monsoon system is captured by the indicators such as the monsoon precipitation ratio and the monsoon variability index. Despite the monsoon, India was successful in feeding its 1.3 billion people by adopting the high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat through the Green Revolution. Climate change may harm the yields of these staple cereals significantly. On the other hand, farm animals are a key element of food and nutritional security in India, which is reflected in the movement often referred to as the Indian Dairy Revolution. A study of the Indian monsoon system indicates that farm animals such as water buffaloes and goats are a key strategy for adapting to the Indian monsoon system. The impacts of the monsoon are, however, far outreaching: to note some, displacements of people, seasonal migrations, mud-houses, rain-retreat, and lack of toilets. Considering many and grave challenges facing the country, a strong economic growth should be seen as a foundation for feeding its people, despite the global climate change concerns.
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The purpose of study is to examine the role of guanxi or human networks on economic development. We are concerned with dynamic interdependence between wealth, guanxi and human capital in a neoclassical growth model. Guanxi changes due to investment in human networking and can affect productivities of economic activities. Establishing guanxi costs time, consumer goods and capital goods. We introduce guanxi into the Solow-Uzawa growth model. We simulate the nonlinear dynamic model. The economic system has a unique stable equilibrium point. We are mainly concerned with the effects of changes in some parameters on the equilibrium and transitional processes of the economic dynamics. We get some insights into interdependence between guanxi and economic growth. For instance, if trust deteriorates among member of society which results in a rise in deterioration rate of guanxi, then the guanxi becomes weaker and the human capital falls; the household spends more hours on establishing guanxi and less hours on work; the national output, national capital and national output fall; the wage rate and rate of interest fall; and the per household wealth and consumption levels of two goods fall.
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The increased intensity of globalization across borders integrated the sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries into the world economy as shown by the increasing degree of trade openness (from 55.4% in 1980–1984 to 65.6% in 2000–2015) and foreign direct investment as a percentage of GDP (from 0.3% in 1980–1984 to 2.85% in 2000–2015). The quality of life of the people in the region improved marginally regarding access to basic needs. However, the effects of globalization on access to basic needs such as water, sanitation, healthcare services have received little attention. Thus, this study investigates the impact of globalization on human welfare in sixteen SSA countries over the period 1980-2015. Using a panel fixed effect approach, the findings revealed that globalization through its various channels (trade openness, capital and financial flows and labour mobility and information technology), improves human welfare indicators in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the low level of good governance in the region deteriorates the development of human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need to improve the quality of overnance to enhance the welfare of the people through global interactions.
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Adam Smith, with An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations published in 1776 is unanimously hailed as the founder of economics as a social science and also of “economic liberalism” or “capitalism” as it is called to contrast it with “socialism”, the latter propagated by K. Marx at a later date. The group of economists that followed A.Smith, including such notable names as D.Ricardo, N.W.Senior, John Stuart Mill, culminating in Alfred Marshall (1890: Principles of Economics) is called the “Classical School” or alternately the “Manchester School” to refer to their place of origin. Their macroeconomic system is called the “Classical System” (Schumpeter 1954; Roll 1992; Hiç 1994, Paya 1997; Ackley 1961, Branson 1989; Froyen 1990, etc.). Having accepted the Malthusian law of population (T.Robert Malthus: 1798 Essays on the Principle of Population) D. Ricardo had come up with a model in which growth eventually comes to a halt, moving to that point, however, all along at full employment equilibrium (Baumol and Turvey 1970, Hiç 1994). This was also in line with the views of Adam Smith. Marshall had introduced the concept of elasticities and used the partial method of analysis. In contrast, Leon Walras, in his 1874-7: Eléments d’Economie Pure ou Theorie de La Richesse Sociale (1. ed). used the general equilibrium approach to prove that the economy arrives automatically to full employment equilibrium, following Adam Smith and the Classical School. This book offers a summary of the basic views and conclusions of Adam Smith concerning economic regime, as is also followed by the rest of the members of the Classical School: In a milieu of perfect competition prevailing in all the markets or sectors of the economy, including the labor market, full employment equilibrium will be achieved automatically. This equilibrium will, therefore, also maximize the welfare of the workers because the market wage rate, with no intrusions from the government or the unions, will have ensured full employment. Hence, there is no need for interventionism, that is, for the state to intervene prices, wages, channeling of investments and economic decisions in general. Based on the principle of “absolute advantage”, Adam Smith also argued in favor of free international trade, leading to specialization and increased growth rate and welfare of both parties. Therefore, there would also be no need for “protectionism”. The argument for free trade was soon generalized by D. Ricardo by basing it on the general principle of “comparative advantage” (1817: Principles of Political Economy and Taxation). Thus, with Adam Smith we had a strong case for noninterventionism and non-protectionism based on the assumption that perfectly competitive markets will automatically attain full employment as well as foreign trade balance. Adam Smith called it the “invisible hand” and stressed that in a competitive economy all individuals working for their selfinterests would finally produce an equilibrium of maximum welfare for the society as a whole. J. B. Say (1903: Traité d’Economie Politique), the defender of the Classical School in France referred to it as the “law of the markets”. 1776, the year the Wealth of Nations appeared is particularly meaningful. It is a date when the newly increasing “entrepreneurs” or industrialists were becoming complaintive about the widespread interventionism and protectionism that all respective governments implemented to advance their own interests at the expense of other countries. The result was an allround failure to maximize trade, specialization and growth because of severe impediments on international trade and on the decisions of entrepreneurs. This economic regime, called “mercantilism” by Adam Smith had been implemented since 15. up to 18. century. The more prominent implementers and writers on mercantilism were J.B. Colbert (1619-1693) and Josiah Child (1630-1699). Previously, the laissez-faire argument could not hold ground because opponents (physiocrats) had not come up with a scientific analysis of economic events (Schumpeter 1954). The argument of the mercantilists, simplified and shortened, ran as follows: respective countries all sought to maximize their own “interests”, which meant the amount gold that flowed to the coffers of their Central Banks through trade surplus, that is, excess of exports over imports, in a milieu of implementation of the gold money standard. Therefore, they intervened to encourage exports and production of exportable goods and to restrict imports through various means of protectionism and interventionism. And these interventions and protectionisms, in effect, suffocated profit-seeking activities of the entrepreneurs while the curtailment of the growth of international trade adversely affected the income growth of all countries concerned, including those which applied protectionism and quantitative import restrictions. In the field of international policy mercantilists’ approach also encouraged colonialism, or imperialism. All major European countries sought to capture undeveloped countries as colonies to priced industrial goods. The 18. century during the last quarter of which the Wealth of Nations was written was, on the other hand, rife with progress in technology and industrialization (the “industrial revolution”, as called by Arnold Toynbee). It was during this century that the steam engine was invented, the steamboat was put to use, the railroad system was started, textiles began to be manufactured by machine and electricity was developed. All this led to increasing number of industrialists or entrepreneurs, all weary of excessive government intrusions to the markets. The pioneering country in industrial growth and economic regime calling for noninterventionism and non-protectionism was UK. It was also by the end of the same century (1789-1799) that the French Revolution took place, introducing democracy. Democracy had taken place slightly earlier in the USA and UK and it spread to the rest of the major developed European countries at the time. However, an important question soon arose. It was concerned with free international trade and temporary protectionism for less developed (industrialized) countries. A notable German economist-politician F.List (1841: Das Nationale System der Politischen Ökonomie) stated that for the case of Germany which was relatively less industrialized compared to Britain, free international trade would prevent the development of German industry to become competitive. He, therefore, argued in favor of “protection” for a temporary period up until the German industry is developed and becomes competitive. This argument was incorporated into the Classical System as the “infant-industry” argument by J. S. Mill. This argument was, in fact, also most meaningful for less developed countries (LDCs) in their early stages of development following W.W. 2. But the argument is for a “temporary and decreasing protection” rather than “permanent and absolute protectionism” that the governments of LDCs generally fell into. Another important question was the assumption in A. Smith and the Classical School of the existence of “perfectly competitive” markets for the “invisible hand” to work. But the assumptions behind perfect competition were hard to find in the actual world of industry. K. Marx had a radical view in this respect that private entrepreneurs would, in short time, develop into monopolies. But the governments, in actual practice, issued laws to prevent the establishment of monopolies, trusts and cartels as was advocated by the Classical economists. What theoretically was important was that the assumption of homogeneous goods produced by all the industrialists was never met. - Based on empirical observances, this led to another correction to bring economic theory and economic regime propositions closer to reality. Pioneer efforts in this field came from Joan Robinson (1933: The Economics of Imperfect Competition) and E.H. Chamberlin (1933: The Theory of Monopolistic Competition). While Marxists insisted on the unavoidable evolution of monopolies and also considered the advertisement costs of monopolistic competition and of oligopolistic firms a social waste, a consensus was reached on this issue with the help of the above-mentioned works as well as those by T.Scitovsky (1951: Welfare and Competition), N.Kaldor (1939 EJ, “Welfare Proposition in Economics”, J.M. Clark (1940 AER June, “Towards a Concept of Workable Competition”), W.J.Fellner (1948: Competition Among the Few: Oligopoly and similarly Market Structures); and others. The consensus was that markets displaying properties of monopolistic competition as well as oligopolistic markets that are competitive can still maximize welfare such that there would be no need for state intervention in these markets. In fact, any government intervention may harm, rather than improve welfare. -Another major critical problem faced was the persistent occurrence of business cycles giving rise to unemployment during the depression phases of the cycle; a phenomenon contrary to the automatic full employment equilibrium conclusions of A. Smith and the Classical School. According to the Classical School – excepting the Ricardian growth model accepting the Malthusian law of population which eventually halts growth – the economies would continuously grow at full-employment equilibrium with no limits. The existence, in actual practice, of business cycles was tried to be explained unsatisfactorily with mistakes made in monetary policy and in the changes in volume of credit supplied by banks e.g. A. Marshall (1923: Money, Credit and Commerce), and by others. Marx had viewed the business cycles as an inherent property of the capitalist system but could not make a scientifically acceptable explanation. Thus, the Great Depression broke out in 1929 at a time when economic theory lacked a scientific explanation of the business cycle. According to Marx, the depression was inevitable. The Classical economists, in turn, offered only lowering of wages to remedy unemployment and that was to no avail. The governments, both the US and the European, all curtailed government expenditures in view of the decrease in tax revenues in order to avoid budget deficits; they also curtailed their exports. Hence, because of both these wrong policies the depression deepened. Only after 1933 F.D. Roosevelt became president of the USA the first time as a member of the Democrat Party that the US put into effect the New Deal to alleviate the plight of the workers and the farmers. And this policy also alleviated to some limited degree the severity of the depression. The depression caused a distrust of the Classical macroeconomic system and its conclusion of automatic full employment. Thus, we had what was termed by L.Klein (1947) the Keynesian revolution”. With his book General Theory of Employment Interest and Prices published in 1936, Keynes discarded the Classical macroeconomic system, building his own based on more realistic, verified and verifiable relations between macroeconomic variables; and the conclusion he reached was that the economy would not give full employment equilibrium automatically. Instead, the tendency would be a less than full employment equilibrium, that is, involuntary unemployment. To attain full employment, it was required that the state should intervene at the macro policy level, by means of monetary and fiscal policy. Monetary policy of increasing money supply to reduce interests’ rates, hence, to raise private investments could be more effective in fighting a recession but ineffective to avoid a depression. Fiscal policy, lowering taxes to increase disposable private income, hence private consumption, but particularly straight-forward increase of government expenditures, on the other hand, would be the more effective measure against depression. During and after W.W.2 all Western countries implemented Keynesian macroeconomic policies and enjoyed, till the petroleum crisis of 1973, relatively stable growth, with both inflation and recessions held in control. As a later consensus, it was realized that taxation as a flexible anti-cyclical policy was politically difficult to implement; it was particularly difficult to raise taxes once lowered. Even government expenditures as anticyclical policy created political problems. Hence, most countries sufficed with monetary policy to check both inflation and also recession, and monetary policy was implemented by an independent Central Bank which, however, could always contact the government. What did the Keynesian revolution imply for the validity of the Classical School and the liberal economic regime of nonintervention which the Classical School advocated? Definitely the Classical macroeconomic system was proven wrong, just as also had been the conclusion that it would automatically maximize the welfare of the workers. But it should be underlined that Keynesian recipe of government intervention was confined to the macro level. Otherwise, Keynes assumed that with workable competition prevailing in all production sectors of the economy, there would be no need for any intervention at the micro or sectoral level. Like the welfare measures implemented for the workers, Keynesian interventionist policies confined to the macroeconomic level may have created important exceptions to the purist laissez-faire view. But, in fact, it too resulted in saving capitalism and made it resilient against both inflations as well as recessions and depressions.
Thesis
This study develops a Commonage Cooperative Model (CCM) to enhance consistency in performance and sustainability of small-scale pig farming SMMEs. It expounds on the economics of scale derived through resourcing among the alliances of wider stakeholders. Hence, it advances existing models in agribusiness-related strategic management that supports Local Economic Development (LED). Being driven by the government policies on cooperative development, the model encompasses a value chain of small-scale pig farming SMMEs that can cooperate to improve competition.
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To what extent do India's rural poor share in agricultural growth? Combining data from 24 household sample surveys spanning 35 years with other sources, we estimate a model of the joint determination of consumption-poverty measures, agricultural wages, and food prices. We find that higher farm productivity brought both absolute and relative gains to poor rural households. A large share of the gains were via wages and prices, though these effects took time. The benefits to the poor were not confined to those near the poverty line. CONTENTS Acknowledgments .................................................... iv 1. Introduction .......................................................1 2. Model ............................................................5 3. Estimates .........................................................9 Data ........................................................... 9 Results ........................................................ 12 4. Implications ................
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The data underlying recent concerns about rising inequality and poverty in rural China have been questioned from a number of points of view. We review the issues, and attempt to resolve the main ones by reprocessing the primary data for four southern provinces over 1985–1990. Our revisions suggest that the poorest are better off than was thought, that inequality is lower, and that poverty and inequality have increased less than the original data would suggest. The main reason for these changes is that the official data continued to rely on planning prices which undervalued non-marketed home production of grain, and at a rising rate over time. Otherwise the broad trends of recent concern to policy makers are confirmed: The period saw significant gains to the rural poor in the richer and more rapidly growing coastal region, but low growth and adverse distributional effects slowed progress in the poorer inland provinces.
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In a cross-country data set for developing and transitional economies, private consumption per capita from the national accounts deviates on average from mean household income or expenditure based on national sample surveys. Growth rates also differ systematically, so that the ratio of the survey mean to mean consumption from the national accounts tends to fall over time. The exceptions to these general findings are revealing, however. There are strong regional effects. The aggregate difference in the levels is due more to income surveys than to expenditure surveys. Divergence over time is mainly due to the severe data problems in the (contracting) transition economies. Copyright (c) 2003 President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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The World Bank prepares and publishes estimates of the number of poor people in the world. While everyone knows that these numbers should be taken with a pinch of salt, the numbers are arguably important. In an institution where the reduction of poverty is the paramount objective, some overall yardstick of progress (or the lack of it) is required. The numbers are frequently quoted by politicians and by leaders of international organizations, including the Bank itself, who believe the numbers are effective for advocacy. Indeed, there is a long history of studies of poverty mobilizing support among the non-poor for anti-poverty policies. So it is important to know whether the world and national poverty counts are sound enough to support these uses. As recent discussions have made clear, the apparent lack of poverty reduction in the face of historically high rates of economic growth, both in the world as a whole, and in specific countries (most notably India), is providing fuel for the argument that economic growth does little to reduce poverty. How confident can we be that the data actually support these inferences? Are the changes in the poverty counts sufficiently well-measured to support conclusions about growth and poverty reduction? Should the World Bank stand ready to be judged by its success in reducing the current measures of world or even national poverty? If not, can better data collection or better methodologies improve the numbers?
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Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument.
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We show how changes in poverty measures can be decomposed into growth and redistribution components, and we use the methodology to study poverty in Brazil and India during the 1980s. Redistribution alleviated poverty in India, though growth was quantitatively more important. Improved distribution countervailed the adverse effect of monsoon failure in the late 1980s on rural poverty. However, worsening distribution in Brazil, associated with the macroeconomic shocks of the 1980s, mitigated poverty alleviation through the limited growth that occured. India's higher poverty level than Brazil is accountable to India's lower mean consumption; Brazil's worse distribution mitigates the cross-country difference in poverty.
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We assess the developing world's progress in reducing poverty during the late 1980s using new data on the distribution of household consumption or income per person for 44 countries. Local currencies are adjusted to purchasing power parity. To assess robustness, restricted dominance tests are applied to the poverty comparisons. An overall decrease in poverty incidence is indicated over a wide range of poverty lines and measures. However the change is small, and numbers of poor increased at roughly the rate of population growth. The experience was diverse across regions and countries; poverty fell in South and East Asia, while it rose in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright 1994 by The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth.
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The authors estimate that in 1985 about one in five persons in the developing world lived in poverty, judged by the standards of the poorest countries. This rises to one in three at a common, more generous, poverty line. The aggregate consumption short-fall of the poorest fifth is about one half of one percent of world consumption, while that of the poorest third is a further one percent. The shape of the distribution of consumption suggests that aggregate poverty would fall fairly rapidly if moderate growth in average consumption levels can be sustained, and the poor share at least proportionally in that growth. However, it would take only small adverse shifts in the world distribution of consumption to eliminate the gains to the poor from growth. Copyright 1991 by The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth.
Article
This paper m a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department -- is part of a larger effort in the department to monitor progress in reducing poverty in the world. Copies of the paper are available free from the World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433. Please contact Andrea Ramirez, room N8-036, telephone 202-458-5734, fax 202-522-1153, Internet address mravallion@worldbank.org. December 1996. (36 pages) The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in prowess to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author. They do not necessarily represent the view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries bey represent
Is World Poverty Falling ____________Counting the World’s Poor: Problems and Possible SolutionsAdjusted Indian Poverty Estimates for 1999-00
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Deaton, Angus. 2002a. “Is World Poverty Falling,” Finance and Development, 39(2). ____________. 2002b. “Counting the World’s Poor: Problems and Possible Solutions,” World Bank Research Observer, 16(2). ____________. 2003. “Adjusted Indian Poverty Estimates for 1999-00,” Economic and Political Weekly, 38(4): 322-326. ____________ . 2004. “Measuring Poverty in a Growing World (or Measuring Growth in a Poor World,” Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming
World Development Report: Poverty China 2020: Sharing Rising Income Attacking Poverty Globalization, Growth and Poverty World Development Indicators
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Comment on 'Counting the World's Poor' by Angus Deaton
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Ravallion, Martin. 2002a. " Comment on 'Counting the World's Poor' by Angus Deaton. " World Bank Research Observer 16(2):149–56.
How Not to Count the Poor: A Reply to Reddy and Pogge World Bank The Debate on Globalization, Poverty and Inequality: Why Measurement Matters
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———. 2002b. " How Not to Count the Poor: A Reply to Reddy and Pogge. " World Bank, Development Research Group, Washington, D.C. ———. 2003a. " The Debate on Globalization, Poverty and Inequality: Why Measurement Matters. " International Affairs 79(4):739–54.
Purchasing Power Parity for International Comparison of Poverty: Sources and Methods," mimeo, Development Data Group
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Ahmad, Sultan. 2003. "Purchasing Power Parity for International Comparison of Poverty: Sources and Methods," mimeo, Development Data Group, World Bank, www.worldbank.org/data/ICP.
Poverty and Inclusion from a World Per-spective Paper presented for the Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics The Size Distribution of Income among World Citizens
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Atkinson, Anthony B., and François Bourguignon. 1999. " Poverty and Inclusion from a World Per-spective. " Paper presented for the Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, European Conference, Paris. Bourguignon, Francois, and Christian Morisson. 2002. " The Size Distribution of Income among World Citizens, 1820–1990.
How Did the World's Poor fare in the 1990s?
_____________and _____________, 2001. "How Did the World's Poor fare in the 1990s?", Review of Income and Wealth, 47(3):.283-300.
Measuring Poverty in a Growing World (or Measuring Growth in a Poor World
____________. 2004. " Measuring Poverty in a Growing World (or Measuring Growth in a Poor World, " Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming.
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World Bank. 1990. World Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press.
Has India's Post-Reform Economic Growth Left the Poor Behind
__________ and ______________. 2002. " Has India's Post-Reform Economic Growth Left the Poor Behind, ", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16(3): 89-108.
China's (Uneven) Progress Against Poverty
_____________and _____________, 2004. "China's (Uneven) Progress Against Poverty," mimeo, Development Research Group, World Bank.