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Abstract

Although business process management (‘BPM’) is a popular concept, it has not yet been properly theoretically grounded. This leads to problems in identifying both generic and case-specific critical success factors of BPM programs. The paper proposes an underlying theoretical framework with the utilization of three theories: contingency, dynamic capabilities and task–technology fit. The main premise is that primarily the fit between the business environment and business processes is needed. Then both continuous improvement and the proper fit between business process tasks and information systems must exist. The underlying theory is used to identify critical success factors on a case study from the banking sector.
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... Change management is essential in implementation of BPM (Trkman 2010;Schmiedel et al. 2013). Problems may occur, for instance, if organizations strategy is not aligned with the BPM efforts, top management doesn't give their support for BPM efforts or the organizational culture does not support BPM (Trkman 2010;Schmiedel et al. 2013). ...
... Change management is essential in implementation of BPM (Trkman 2010;Schmiedel et al. 2013). Problems may occur, for instance, if organizations strategy is not aligned with the BPM efforts, top management doesn't give their support for BPM efforts or the organizational culture does not support BPM (Trkman 2010;Schmiedel et al. 2013). Among other things, it's important that employees are trained and they have access to process models and the models are actively used for example in improvements and audits (Trkman 2010;Laamanen 2003, 96-97). ...
... Problems may occur, for instance, if organizations strategy is not aligned with the BPM efforts, top management doesn't give their support for BPM efforts or the organizational culture does not support BPM (Trkman 2010;Schmiedel et al. 2013). Among other things, it's important that employees are trained and they have access to process models and the models are actively used for example in improvements and audits (Trkman 2010;Laamanen 2003, 96-97). In the end, BPM is maturity development process and organizations should to work persistently to reach their goals (Harmon 2014, xxix;Laamanen 2003, 40-42). ...
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This essay is based on theory of process modeling and the case study conducted in a Finnish nation-wide health care service organization where 112 processes were defined and modeled by 59 employees in 102 workshops. The case organization has totally more than 500 employees. Health care organizations can be regarded as high-reliability organizations, which must continuously perform in a near error-free manner despite their complex, unpredictable and dangerous operating environments. Therefore, high-quality descriptions of the processes will in particular help the activities of such organisations. Published on TALK by STUDENT Journal on 8 th of June, 2022: https://talkbystudents.turkuamk.fi/master-school/challenges-of-process-modelling-in-theory- and-practice
... Yet, to date, there is no clear explanation of how organisations can institutionalise outcomes of individual process improvement initiatives carried out as a part of the organisation-level BPM. This understanding is critical, given the high investment and major failures still occurring after decades of BPM practice (Castro et al., 2019;Roberto and Levesque, 2005;Trkman, 2010). This study therefore aims to address the research question: "How can process improvement initiatives be institutionalised?" ...
... Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2015), as critical success factors of BPM (e.g. Alibabaei et al., 2009;Trkman, 2010;Vuksic et al., 2016), as essential factors influencing BPM adoption (e.g. Buh et al., 2015), etc. ...
... We next turn our attention to the new factors identified as influencing the transitions between the different stages of the institutionalisation process. Tobert and Zucker (1996) Internal pressures Sample BPM literature discussing similar aspects (d) Need for strategic alignment As a critical success factor for BPM and as a core element of BPM (Bai and Sarkis, 2013;Buh et al., 2015;Ngai et al., 2008;Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2015;vom Brocke and Mendling, 2018) Strategic alignment influence on the success rate of reengineering and continuous improvement programmes (Lok et al., 2005) (e) Need for removing deviations from performance targets Performance measurements as a critical success factor (Alibabaei et al., 2009;Bai and Sarkis, 2013;Buh et al., 2015;Trkman, 2010) Performance measurements as critical for achieving sustainable improvement (Trkman, 2010) (f) Cost control/cost reduction As boosting operational efficiency and reduce costs (Scheer and Hoffmann, 2015) (g) Improve employee and process issues As attempts made to improve the operational efficiency (Scheer and Hoffmann, 2015) (h) Continuous improvement culture As a critical success factor for BPM (Trkman, 2010) As the heart of the "BPM value" proposition (Rudden, 2007) Importance of developing "a culture of change, continuous improvement and cross-functional team work" to succeed in BPM. (Thompson et al., 2009, p. 12) As part of the "continuity" principle of BPM (vom Brocke et al., 2014) (i) The existence of an active BPM CoE Creating a BPM CoE is discussed as an important phase (reached only with some maturity) when creating an enterprise-wide adoption of BPM (Rosemann, 2015) CoE is a symbol of BPM institutionalisation; according to the principles of "good" BPM (vom Brocke et al., 2014) discussed only those factors that influence the transition from Habitualisation to Objectification and from there to Sedimentation. ...
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Purpose Understanding how organisations can institutionalise the outcomes of process improvement initiatives is limited. This paper explores how process changes resulting from improvement initiatives are adhered to, so that the changed processes become the new “norm” and people do not revert to old practices. This study proposes an institutionalisation process for process improvement initiatives. Design/methodology/approach Firstly, a literature review identified Tolbert and Zucker’s (1996) institutionalisation framework as a suitable conceptual framework on which to base the enquiry. The second phase (the focus of this paper) applied the findings from two case studies to adapt this framework (its stages and related factors) to fit process improvement contexts. Findings The paper presents an empirically and theoretically supported novel institutionalisation process for process improvement initiatives. The three stages of the institutionalisation process presented by Tolbert and Zucker (1996) have been respecified into four stages, explaining how process changes are institutionalised through “Planning”, “Implementation”, “Objectification” and “Sedimentation” (the original first stage, i.e. “Habitualisation” being divided into Planning and Implementation). Some newly identified Business Process Management (BPM) specific factors influencing the institutionalisation processes are also discussed and triangulated with the BPM literature. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the BPM literature by conceptualising and theorising the stages of institutionalisation of process improvement initiatives. In doing so, the study explicitly identifies and considers several key contextual factors that drive the stages of institutionalisation. Practitioners can use this to better manage process change and future researchers can use this framework to operationalise institutionalisation of process change. Originality/value This is the first research study that provides an empirically supported and clearly conceptualised understanding of the stages of institutionalising process improvement outcomes.
... Rockart [26] defined CSFs as the crucial areas of business activities that require constant and careful attention from top management. Identifying the CSFs is substantial to businesses [27,28]; the approach has been broadly accepted in the IS literature for a long time [29,30], and is believed to be a valid research methodology to make sense of finding latent elements for competitive advantage [27,31,32]. ...
... Identifying critical success factors is substantial for businesses [27,28]. It is required for the top management to identify the performance factors and priorities in the information systems development strategy to stay competitive. ...
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Strategic information system planning (SISP) is a central process that enables organizations to identify the strategic alignment of their IT portfolio to achieve their business needs and objectives. The extant SISP literature has focused on theoretical and processual aspects and has left methodological ambiguity about how SISP is practiced. This paper contributes to the current knowledge by providing a mixed-methods SISP framework labeled CSF-MCDM for company-wide strategic alignment. The paper conducts a methodological synthesis, embracing an expert-based qualitative approach based on a PEST-SWOT and causal layered analysis to draw the critical success factors of a next-generation business system for an automotive company in South Korea. The derived CSF dimensions and sub-criteria are evaluated by the multi-criteria decision-making model, engaging a strategy-as-practice lens to SISP to enable an integrative analysis of IS strategy formulation, planning, and implementation. The findings reveal the relative strategic priorities of dimensions, the following core activities, and the global priorities for resource distribution planning for IS strategy of the firm. This paper argues that bringing replicability with SISP and diversifying methodological approaches within the organization is substantial. This paper also suggests that future researchers validate the suggested framework for scientific replicability and expand the SISP research stream within the entire IS/IT ecosystem.
... However, some researchers argue that IT-enabled business processes are fundamental components in gaining competitive advantage (Doherty & Terry, 2009;Gu & Jung, 2013;Ray et al., 2005). Thus, the critical IT resources and capabilities are the ones that serve business processes considered vital, and they deserve the most attention to gain the desired competitive advantage (Trkman, 2010). IT governance provides better management and utilization of IT resources and capabilities, especially those that support the critical business processes, making them flexible and ready for any needed changes in unpredictable conditions. ...
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We used a novel approach by extending the resource-based view with the dynamic capabilities view to capture the relationship between IT governance and organizational agility. Results from our survey of senior managers suggest that IT and innovation capabilities fully mediate IT governance on organizational agility. They show the strong impact of both IT governance and IT capability on organizational agility with high market turbulence, whereas innovation capability highly impacts organizational agility with low market turbulence.
... To increase their level of process orientation, many organizations have started business process management (BPM) initiatives and emphasized a change in the organizational and information technology (IT) structure (vom Brocke and Mendling, 2018;Dumas et al., 2018). However, research toward BPM success factors observes a need for a more holistic framework, including soft factors, such as culture and people (Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2014;Trkman, 2010). ...
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Purpose Organizations rely on their business processes to achieve their business objectives and ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Hence, conformance to process specifications is essential to remain compliant. Various factors influence an organization’s ability to operate in conformance to its process specifications. This study investigates the influence of business process management (BPM)-supportive culture and individual process orientation on process conformance. Design/methodology/approach A construct was created for perceived process conformance and two constructs were selected from literature to represent BPM-supportive culture and individual process orientation. A survey was conducted with 178 employees of a global enterprise, hypotheses were formulated, and a statistical model was constructed and validated. Findings Results pinpoint the key role of the BPM-supportive culture in influencing both individual process orientation and conformance. Individual process orientation is also found to have a significant influence on process conformance. The findings provide additional evidence for the significance of human-related aspects of BPM in achieving BPM success. Originality/value The contributions of this paper help better understand how soft factors of BPM contribute to employees’ process conformance drawing on and relating concepts of BPM and organizational routines.
... Research supports the contingency plan, revealing a correlation between internal consistency in human resource management practices and organizational efficiency. These high-performance work systems are made up of a variety of human resource management strategies that function collaboratively rather than individually to improve an organization's overall efficiency and effectiveness (Trkman, 2010). The contingency technique is founded on the idea that specific human resource management practices, when aligned with one another and the company's strategic goals, can improve organization performance. ...
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The leadership succession planning literature has placed emphasis on the three diverse perspectives, first is the contention that a resource-based approach to human resource alignment through resource, capability, and competence deployment as preferable. Second, the premise that specific human resource management practices can increase organization performance when they are aligned with one another and the organization's strategic goals. Third, the focus on the use of organization's internal resources for leadership succession planning. In this study, the research focuses on leadership succession planning and organizational transition with the goal of implementing leadership talent development and retention strategies in the organization. The research examines existing conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature and makes a case for a theoretical model that connects leadership succession planning and organizational transition in the perspective of both leadership talent retention and talent development policy dynamics. The study analyzes significant organizational outcomes as a result of the implementation of leadership succession planning, with implications for seamless organizational transition and leadership talent retention based on the establishment of leadership talent development policy. The research identifies a phenomenon originating from the deployment of leadership succession planning and presents a theoretical model with various implications for future empirical investigation based on the postulates of several underpinning theories.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop a map for the holistic business process management (BPM) diagnosis in order to guide the choice of techniques that encompass all dimensions of the business process. Design/methodology/approach The design science research method was used, with the elaboration of seven steps to project solutions to empirical problems: (1) identification of the problem, (2) awareness of the problem, (3) definition of expected results, (4) design and development, (5) demonstration, (6) evaluation of artifacts and (7) communication. These steps were organized in different analyzes: descriptive, experimental and observational. The descriptive analysis comprised steps one to three (identification of the problem, awareness of the problem, definition of expected results) and made use of the systematic literature review procedure for proposing artifacts. The experimental analysis comprised steps four to five (design and development, and demonstration), where the consultation with specialists' procedures and then the Delphi procedure for the construction of the artifacts were carried out. In the observational analysis, steps six (evaluation of artifacts), where two case studies were performed, and step seven (communication), in which the map for the holistic BPM diagnosis was presented were carried out. Findings The article systematizes the BPM diagnostic techniques scattered throughout the literature and relates how these techniques relate to dimensions. A map for the holistic BPM diagnosis is generated containing 21 techniques and 9 dimensions, with 45 relationships between these techniques and tools. Another aspect is that the map shows that in BPM promotion projects, techniques are not restricted to any specific phase of the life cycle. Practical implications Professionals can use the map to form a blend with selected techniques and use them for holistic BPM diagnosis according to the skills and other resources of the project team. Originality/value The map developed is innovative because it relates a set of consolidated techniques for each dimension of the process to provide the holistic diagnosis for the organization. It is important to highlight that these techniques and dimensions were scattered in the literature.
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The applicability of Lean practices has been growing in the most different types of organizations, including public ones. Considering the growing need for better and more effective management systems, the objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of Lean practices on process effectiveness. A literature review was carried out to find Lean practices applicable to the public sector organizations and to outline the hypotheses of the work. The method of work consists of a survey, whose data collection was conducted through a questionnaire. The population of the study was composed by all the administrative servants of a public institution in Brazil. A valid sample of 997 answers was obtained from the studied institution. The data analysis was carried out by means of descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression. The results allow identifying a positive influence of four Lean practices on the effectiveness of processes, which are: “Continuous improvement,” “Long-term thinking,” “Leadership support,” and “Focus on the final user.” The results also showed the influence of some dummy variables, such as “time in the public service” and “being head of sector.” As a conclusion of this work, it can be stated that Lean practices act as a basis for the effectiveness of processes and may optimize operational and administrative activities in public organizations.
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Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is a comparably new phenomenon in process digitalization and automation. Prior research has identified a clear need to analyze Critical Success Factors (CSF) for RPA. In this study, we set out to derive a corresponding framework. Based on a structured review of the literature and an analysis of 19 expert interviews, we identify 32 CSFs which we subsume in several contextual clusters. Building on prior literature on CSF, we critically discuss how far the success factors we found are RPA-specific or hold for other process automation technologies or process improvement efforts in general, too. Based on this, we highlight implications for both theory and practice and areas for future research.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore if six sigma and lean are new methods, or if they are repackaged versions of previously popular methods – total quality management (TQM) and just-in-time (JIT). Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a critical comparison of lean with JIT and six sigma with TQM, a study of the measure of the publication frequency – the number of academic articles published every year of the previous 30 years – for each topic, and a review of critical success factors (CSF) for change efforts. Findings – The more recent concepts of lean and six sigma have mainly replaced – but not necessarily added to – the concepts of JIT and TQM. lean and six sigma are essentially repackaged versions of the former, and the methods seem to follow the fad (product) life cycle. The literature offers fairly similar and rather general CSF for these methods, e.g. top management support and the importance of communication and information. What seems to be missing, however, is the need for a systemic approach to organizational change and improvement. Practical implications – A prediction is, given the fad or product life cycle phenomenon, that there will be a new method promoted soon, something perhaps already experienced with the borderline preposterous concept of lean six sigma. On the other hand, based on the gap in time between both JIT and lean, and TQM and six sigma – a gap filled by BRP/reengineering – the next method will be process oriented. This paper concludes with the discussion of the need for a process-based approach to organizational improvement efforts. Originality/value – This paper is of value in that it analyzes what lessons can be learnt from organizational change and improvement efforts. The analysis includes a comparison of CSF for any change project before discussing the need for a process (systems) perspective for successful organizational improvement efforts.
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