World Map of the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification Updated

Article (PDF Available)inMeteorologische Zeitschrift 15(3):259-263 · May 2006with 5,534 Reads
DOI: 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130
Abstract
The most frequently used climate classification map is that of Wladimir Köppen, presented in its latest version 1961 by Rudolf Geiger. A huge number of climate studies and subsequent publications adopted this or a former release of the Köppen-Geiger map. While the climate classification concept has been widely applied to a broad range of topics in climate and climate change research as well as in physical geography, hydrology, agriculture, biology and educational aspects, a well-documented update of the world climate classification map is still missing. Based on recent data sets from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at the German Weather Service, we present here a new digital Köppen-Geiger world map on climate classification, valid for the second half of the 20 century. German Die am häufigsten verwendete Klimaklassifikationskarte ist jene von Wladimir Köppen, die in der letzten Auflage von Rudolf Geiger aus dem Jahr 1961 vorliegt. Seither bildeten viele Klimabücher und Fachartikel diese oder eine frühere Ausgabe der Köppen-Geiger Karte ab. Obwohl das Schema der Klimaklassifikation in vielen Forschungsgebieten wie Klima und Klimaänderung aber auch physikalische Geographie, Hydrologie, Landwirtschaftsforschung, Biologie und Ausbildung zum Einsatz kommt, fehlt bis heute eine gut dokumentierte Aktualisierung der Köppen-Geiger Klimakarte. Basierend auf neuesten Datensätzen des Climatic Research Unit (CRU) der Universität von East Anglia und des Weltzentrums für Niederschlagsklimatologie (WZN) am Deutschen Wetterdienst präsentieren wir hier eine neue digitale Köppen-Geiger Weltkarte für die zweite Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts.
0046352bd5e1dc90ae000000.pdf
1.53 MB

Supplementary resources

  • ... In this study, our goal was to quantify patterns of supplemental feeder use by wild, free-ranging Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus, hereafter chickadee) during winter in a Mediterranean climate. Such climates are characterized by mild, rainy winters with no regular snow cover and temperatures above freezing (Kottek, Grieser, Beck, Rudolf, & Rubel, 2006) and therefore offer a strong contrast to the winter conditions typical of continen- tal climates. In particular, evaluating supplemental feeder use in Mediterranean climates allows for winter conditions in which to test theoretical predictions that stem from the starvation-pre- dation trade-off. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purposeful provisioning of food to wild animals is a widespread and growing activity that has the potential to impact populations and communities. Nevertheless, studies assessing use of recreational feeders by free‐living birds during winter are surprisingly rare and largely limited to regions with continental climates characterized by freezing temperatures and snow cover. In contrast, there is little information available regarding bird use of feeders within warmer climates during winter, despite widespread recreational feeding in these areas. In this study, we quantified visitation patterns to bird feeders in a Mediterranean climate to evaluate the relationship between feeder use and several environmental variables known to influence supplemental feeder use in continental climates. We established a network of bird feeders in Corvallis, Oregon, USA, that were filled with black oil sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds and equipped with radio frequency identification (RFID) data loggers that recorded >315,000 visits by 70 individual Black‐capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) across a 5‐month period (October 2016–March 2017). We found extensive variation in feeder use, with individuals averaging 1–406 feeder visits/day and using 1–9 of the 21 feeders that were available; individual variability was largely consistent during the course of our study. At the population level, we found that feeder use decreased from the start of our study, and this decline continued through the period when foraging was most limited by daylight, including the winter solstice. In contrast to theoretical predictions and empirical work in continental climates, we found that weather variables did not drive feeder use and that feeder visits peaked at mid‐day and gradually decreased until sunset. Our study indicates that individual‐level differences combined with seasonality to drive feeder use patterns, and we conclude that use of supplemental feeders during winter in Mediterranean climates appears to differ notably from feeder use in continental climates. Intentional recreational feeding can impact bird populations, and nearly all previous studies have been limited to cold regions characterized by freezing temperatures and snow cover. We assessed bird feeder visitation patterns by individually PIT‐tagged songbirds in a Mediterranean climate during winter to examine the relationships between feeder use and environmental characteristics. We found that individual‐level differences combined with seasonality to drive feeder use patterns, and that feeder use patterns in Mediterranean climates appear to differ notably from those observed in continental climates.
  • ... This framework responds to the recent calls in the literature to 3 The term has different usages in the literature depending on the application, but climatic zones generally share similar precipitation characteristics, sun exposure, and thus vegetation pattern. (see the updated Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Kottek et al., 2006). expand on concepts traditionally used by most economics research on the subject matter (Forsyth and Schomerus, 2013;von Uexkull, 2014;Buhuaug, 2015). ...
    Research
    Full-text available
    How can we study conflict risk in a changing climate? I propose the integration of interdisciplinary notions drawing from climate and vulnerability studies to mainstream economic frameworks.
  • ... According to the morphologic description, and the main physical and chemical char- acteristics (Table S1, Supplementary Material), the soils of the two sites were classified as fine-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Mollic Haplu- dalfs (Bentancor, 2017). The climate is temperate subtropical, being temperate and humid without a dry season (Cfa), according to the Köppen-Geiger classification ( Kottek et al., 2006). The average annual temperature is 18 °C, with average temperatures of 12 °C and 24 °C for the coldest and warmest months, respectively. ...
    Article
    Short-rotation plantations have been suggested to develop renewable energies in South America. Our study evaluated the biomass production of Eucalyptus benthamii, E. dunnii and E. grandis plantations at stocking densities of 2220, 3330, 4440 and 6660 trees ha−1 in the North (Tacuarembó) and West (Paysandú) of Uruguay, over a 76-month period. The species survival was not related to planting density, and the highest mortality rates occurred at Tacuarembó. The effects of tree competition were more evident for E. grandis. At Tacuarembó site, the average survival of the species were: 57, 57 and 46% at age 76 months for E. benthamii, E. dunnii and E. grandis, respectively. Survival rates were similar for the different planting densities, with ranges between 50 and 57%. At Paysandú site, the average survival of the species were: 83, 86 and 75% for E. benthamii, E. dunnii and E. grandis, respectively, with a range from 78 to 84% for different planting densities. Weather conditions (temperature and rainfall) were similar at both sites throughout the evaluation period. Wood density and individual and total biomass weight (kg tree−1 and Mg ha−1, respectively) were evaluated sampling destructively 2592 trees and logarithmic biomass equations were developed using the diameter at breast height (cm) and total height (m) of the trees. Wood density increased with the age of the crop only at Paysandú. On average, wood density increased from 0.405 g cm−3 at age 18 months to 0.497 g cm−3 at age 76 months. The highest wood density was observed at 76 months on E. benthamii (0.413 and 0.431 g cm−3) and E. dunnii (0.496 and 0.539 g cm−3) at Tacuarembó and Paysandú, respectively. Age had no effect on the wood density at Tacuarembó. The stem biomass showed an inversely-proportional relationship with the planting density. Individual stem biomass was higher for E. grandis (81 and 74 kg tree−1 on average at Tacuarembó and Paysandú, respectively) than for the other species. The highest biomass per hectare was achieved for the highest planting density, specifically for E. dunnii (193 Mg ha−1) and E. grandis (203 Mg ha−1) at Paysandú and for E. dunnii (157 Mg ha−1) at Tacuarembó. At both locations, the effects of contrasting planting densities on biomass production increased throughout the rotation. Free download for 50 days: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1YYyM1L~GwGgex
  • ... UVI AES is located on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The territory presents an equatorial cli- mate with dry summers (As) accord- ing to K€ oppen-Geiger classification ( Kottek et al., 2006). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Basil ( Ocimum sp.) is a fast-growing, high-value cash crop for aquaponics. Plant suitability evaluation in tropical conditions is critical to recommend new cultivars, increasing grower portfolio and minimizing the production risks associated with untested selections. Two trials were conducted to identify suitable basil cultivars for tropical outdoor aquaponics production using the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) Commercial Aquaponics System in the U.S. Virgin islands. We evaluated five basil cultivars in Summer 2015 (Genovese, Lemon, Purple Ruffles, Red Rubin, and Spicy Globe), and seven cultivars in Fall 2015 (Cinnamon, Genovese, Lemon, Purple Ruffles, Red Rubin, Spicy Globe, and Thai). In both trials, 3-week-old seedlings were transplanted in net pots at a density of 1.5 plants/ft ² (16.15 plants/m ² ). The 6-inch portions and upper portions of the canopy were harvested as a salable product and the resultant material (leaves and stems) considered as total yield per square meter. In the summer, yield was higher in ‘Genovese’ (14.91 kg·m ⁻² ) and ‘Spicy Globe’ (13.99 kg·m ⁻² ); ‘Purple Ruffles’ resulted in the lowest yield (4.18 kg·m ⁻² ). Leaf anthocyanin was greater for the red cultivars Red Rubin [28.35 anthocyanin content index (ACI)] and Purple Ruffles (34.36 ACI) compared with the other cultivars. Chlorophyll content was the highest in ‘Genovese’ [48.59 chlorophyll content index (CCI)]. In the fall, ‘Cinnamon’ (6.60 kg·m ⁻² ), ‘Genovese’ (6.70 kg·m ⁻² ), and ‘Spicy Globe’ (6.35 kg·m ⁻² ) showed the highest yield and ‘Purple Ruffles’ the lowest (1.68 kg·m ⁻² ). Leaf anthocyanin differed in all cultivars, with the higher values in Purple Ruffles (80.5 ACI) and Red Rubin (36.5 ACI). Chlorophyll content was a response of plant growth and cultivar, with values increasing over time and ranging from 12.06 (Lemon) to 17.99 CCI (Cinnamon). Plant growth index (PGI) was higher than that of other cultivars in Genovese and Lemon on day 58 (summer), and higher in Cinnamon on day 87 (fall). Yield was greater during the summer, which was calculated from May to August, in comparison with the fall, calculated from September to November. Yield declined for the fourth harvest in the summer, indicating that growers may need to end production after the third harvest and replant the crop. The results of this experiment indicate that basil has potential as a specialty, short-season, and high-value crop in the UVI Commercial Aquaponics System. Of the cultivars tested, Genovese and Spicy Globe were the highest yielding cultivars within the environmental and geographical conditions of this study for two consecutive seasons (summer and fall).
  • Chapter
    The water cycle components are being retrieved by an increasing number of satellite missions. However, the monitoring of the water cycle by satellite Earth Observations is still a challenge. Data sets suffer from numerous systematic and random errors and they are often not coherent with each other. We focus here on the Mediterranean basin, one of the regions most sensitive to climate change. A satellite-based analysis of the water cycle is undertaken using a collection of available satellite data sets. Our satellite data set combination uses a simple bias correction and weighted average, and provides a better water budget closure results than any raw satellite data set. Our almost purely satellite data set allows to better describe the full water cycle, not only over the continents, but also in the atmosphere and over the ocean. The limitation/possibilities of this satellite multi-component data set are described: (1) although improved, the water cycle is still not closed by satellite data and the satellite community should focus on this issue, (2) our combined data set shows good coherency with the ERA-I reanalysis which is the reference so far, both in terms of seasonal climatology and long-term trends. This means that, even if the water budget is not yet closed by satellite data, our monitoring of the water cycle using satellite observations is improving, even over complex regions such as the Mediterranean basin.
  • Chapter
    The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid climate. In this paper, we present an assessment of changes in the spatial range of the Mediterranean climate in Europe and the conversion into arid climate under different greenhouse gas forcings, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We used 11 simulations in two future 30-year periods of state-of-the-art regional climate models from EURO-CORDEX. Our results indicate that by the end of the century under RCP8.5 the present Mediterranean climate zone is projected to contract by 16%, i.e. an area (~ 157,000 km²) equivalent to half the size of Italy. This compares with the less severe scenario RCP4.5 that projected only a 3% reduction. In addition, the Mediterranean climate zone is projected to expand to other zones by an area equivalent to 24 and 50% of its present extent under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Our study indicates that expansion of the arid zone is almost always the cause for contraction of the Mediterranean zone. Under RCP8.5 the arid zone is projected to increase by more than twice its present extent, equivalent to three times the size of Greece. Results of this study are useful for identifying (1) priority zones for biodiversity conservation, i.e. stable Mediterranean climate zones, (2) zones requiring assisted adaptation, such as establishment of new protected areas, implementation of buffer zones around protected areas and creating ecological corridors connecting stable Mediterranean zones.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    It is unclear whether CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis can propagate through slower ecosystem processes and lead to long-term increases in terrestrial carbon. Here the authors show that CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis leads to a 30% increase in forest regrowth over a decade of CO2 enrichment.
  • Article
    There have been numerous statistical and dynamical downscaling model comparisons. However, differences in model skill can be distorted by inconsistencies in experimental set-up, inputs and output format. This paper harmonizes such factors when evaluating daily precipitation downscaled over the Iberian Peninsula by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM) and two configurations of the dynamical Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) (one with data assimilation (D) and one without (N)). The ERA-Interim reanalysis at \(0.75^{\circ }\) resolution provides common inputs for spinning-up and driving the WRF model and calibrating SDSM. WRF runs and SDSM output were evaluated against ECA&D stations, TRMM, GPCP and EOBS gridded precipitation for 2010–2014 using the same suite of diagnostics. Differences between WRF and SDSM are comparable to observational uncertainty, but the relative skill of the downscaling techniques varies with diagnostic. The SDSM ensemble mean, WRF-D and ERAI have similar correlation scores (\(\hbox {r}= 0.45\)–0.7), but there were large variations amongst SDSM ensemble members (\(\hbox {r}=0.3\)–0.6). The best Linear Error in Probability Space (\(\hbox {LEPS}= 0.001\)–0.007) and simulations of precipitation amount were achieved by individual members of the SDSM ensemble. However, the Brier Skill Score shows these members do not improve the prediction by ERA-Interim, whereas precipitation occurrence is reproduced best by WRF-D. Similar skill was achieved by SDSM when applied to station or gridded precipitation data. Given the greater computational demands of WRF compared with SDSM, clear statements of expected value-added are needed when applying the former to climate impacts and adaptation research.
  • Article
    High-resolution aerial photographs have important applications in vegetation mapping, especially in environments, such as wetlands, which are not easily accessible by ground operators. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with cameras capable of taking photographs of <1 cm pixel resolution, are promising not only for the vegetation mapping but also for the identifcation of plant species. This paper illustrated the results of three diferent fight heights (5 m=3.5126 mm/pixel; 10 m=7.0252 mm/pixel; 25 m=17.5630 mm/pixel), using 12MP images and their magnifcation, on the identifcation of vegetation and botanical species in a rewetted peatland populated mainly by Phragmites australis and Myriophyllum aquaticum within the Massaciuccoli Lake basin (Northern Tuscany, Italy). Among the obtained images, we selected the best fight height for the vegetation mapping and the botanical identifcation of the plant species using both visual and automated image analyses. Images taken from fights at 25 m of height proved to be useful for a sufciently detailed mapping, while those from 10 m of height were more suitable for the detection of plant microcommunities. However, the most accurate identifcation of the species (at the taxonomic level of genus/species) was possible only with the images taken from 5 m of height.
  • Article
    We compared selected thermal indices in their ability to predict heat-related mortality in Prague, Czech Republic, during the extraordinary summer 2015. Relatively, novel thermal indices—Universal Thermal Climate Index and Excess Heat Factor (EHF)—were compared with more traditional ones (apparent temperature, simplified wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), and physiologically equivalent temperature). The relationships between thermal indices and all-cause relative mortality deviations from the baseline (excess mortality) were estimated by generalized additive models for the extended summer season (May–September) during 1994–2014. The resulting models were applied to predict excess mortality in 2015 based on observed meteorology, and the mortality estimates by different indices were compared. Although all predictors showed a clear association between thermal conditions and excess mortality, we found important variability in their performance. The EHF formula performed best in estimating the intensity of heat waves and magnitude of heat-impacts on excess mortality on the most extreme days. Afternoon WBGT, on the other hand, was most precise in the selection of heat-alert days during the extended summer season, mainly due to a relatively small number of “false alerts” compared to other predictors. Since the main purpose of heat warning systems is identification of days with an increased risk of heat-related death rather than prediction of exact magnitude of the excess mortality, WBGT seemed to be a slightly favorable predictor for such a system.
  • Article
    Long-term global gridded datasets of observed precipitation are essential for the analysis of the global water and energy cycle, its variability, and possible changes. Several institutions provide those datasets. In 2005 the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) published the so-called Variability Analysis of Surface Climate Observations (VASClimO) dataset. This dataset is especially designed for the investigation of temporal change and variability. To date, however, the GPCC has not published how this dataset has been produced. This paper aims to fill this gap. It provides detailed information on how stations are selected and how data are quality controlled and interpolated. The dataset is based only on station records covering at least 90% of the period 1951–2000. The time series of 9343 stations were used. However, these stations are distributed very inhomogeneously around the globe; 4094 of these stations are within Germany and France. The VASClimO dataset is interpolated from relative deviations of observed monthly precipitation, leading to considerably lower interpolation errors than direct interpolation or the interpolation of absolute deviations. The retransformation from interpolated relative deviations to precipitation is done with local long-term averages of precipitation interpolated from data of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The VASClimO dataset has been interpolated with a method that is based on local station correlations (LSC) that is introduced here. It is compared with ordinary kriging and three versions of Shepard's method. LSC outperforms these methods, especially with respect to the spatial maxima of interpolation errors.
  • Article
    In this paper attempts are made to trace the ways in which climates were shown on maps of the world beginning with the Greek philosopher Pythagoras and ending with Koeppen. Much of the information was obtained by examining original maps in the Clements Library of the University of Michigan. It is concluded that the most-used climate classification of climates today, that of Koeppen, derives from the five climate zones of the ancient Greeks and that the world is ready for a new classification.
  • Article
    A database of monthly climate observations from meteorological stations is constructed. The database includes six climate elements and extends over the global land surface. The database is checked for inhomogeneities in the station records using an automated method that refines previous methods by using incomplete and partially overlapping records and by detecting inhomogeneities with opposite signs in different seasons. The method includes the development of reference series using neighbouring stations. Information from different sources about a single station may be combined, even without an overlapping period, using a reference series. Thus, a longer station record may be obtained and fragmentation of records reduced. The reference series also enables 1961–90 normals to be calculated for a larger proportion of stations. The station anomalies are interpolated onto a 0.5° grid covering the global land surface (excluding Antarctica) and combined with a published normal from 1961–90. Thus, climate grids are constructed for nine climate variables (temperature, diurnal temperature range, daily minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, wet-day frequency, frost-day frequency, vapour pressure, and cloud cover) for the period 1901–2002. This dataset is known as CRU TS 2.1 and is publicly available (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/). Copyright
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We quantify the maximum possible influence of vegetation on the global climate by conducting two extreme climate model simulations: in a first simulation (desert world), values representative of a desert are used for the land surface parameters for all non glaciated land regions. At the other extreme, a second simulation is performed (green planet) in which values are used which are most beneficial for the biosphere's productivity. Land surface evapotranspiration more than triples in the presence of the green planet, land precipitation doubles (as a second order effect) and near surface temperatures are lower by as much as 8 K in the seasonal mean resulting from the increase in latent heat flux. The differences can be understood in terms of more absorbed radiation at the surface and increased recycling of water. Most of the increase in net surface radiation originates from less thermal radiative loss and not from increases in solar radiation which would be expected from the albedo change. To illustrate the differences in climatic character and what it would imply for the vegetation type, we use the Kppen climate classification. Both cases lead to similar classifications in the extra tropics and South America indicating that the character of the climate is not substantially altered in these regions. Fundamental changes occur over Africa, South Asia and Australia, where large regions are classified as arid (grassland/desert) climate in the desert world simulation while classified as a forest climate in the green planet simulation as a result of the strong influence of maximum vegetation on the climate. This implies that these regions are especially sensitive to biosphere-atmosphere interaction.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The Koppen climate classification was applied to the output of atmospheric general circulation models and coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation models. The classification was used to validate model control runs of the present climate and to analyse greenhouse gas warming simulations The most prominent results of the global warming con~putations were a retreat of regions of permafrost and the increase of areas with tropical rainy climates and dry climates.
  • Article
    Continental differences in the variability of annual runoff were investigated using an expanded and improved database to that used in previous work. A statistical analysis of the data, divided by continent and Köppen climate type, revealed that continental differences exist in the variability of annual runoff. The variability of annual runoff for temperate Australia, arid southern Africa and possibly temperate southern Africa were noted to be generally higher than that of other continents with data in the same climate type. A statistical analysis of annual precipitation by continent and Köppen climate type revealed that differences in the variability of annual precipitation could account for some but not all the observed differences in the variability of annual runoff. A literature review of potential causes of continental differences in evapotranspiration resulted in the hypothesis that the significantly higher variability of annual runoff in temperate Australia and possibly temperate southern Africa may be due to the distribution of evergreen and deciduous vegetation. The process model Macaque was used to test this hypothesis. The model results indicate that the variability of annual runoff may be between 1 and 99% higher for catchments covered in evergreen vegetation as opposed to deciduous vegetation, depending on mean annual precipitation and the seasonality of precipitation. It is suggested that the observed continental differences in the variability of annual runoff are largely caused by continental differences in the variability of annual precipitation and in temperate regions the distribution of evergreen and deciduous vegetation in conjunction with the distribution of mean annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality.