Article

Surface Runoff as a Factor Determining Trophic State of Midforest Lake

Polish Journal of Environmental Studies (Impact Factor: 0.87). 12/2011; 20(5):1203-1210.

ABSTRACT

It is generally claimed that surface runoff in forested catchments is minimal and therefore nutrient fluxes via runoff are unimportant. However, significant catchment slope inclination may promote overland water flow and, therefore, surface runoff might be responsible for transferring important nutrient loads to the lake. It was found that surface runoff waters within the catchment of Piaseczno Małe Lake have low pH (4.7-5.6), brown colour (max. 240 mgPt·dm-3), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (max. ca 100 mgC·dm-3) – a major component of humic acids. Moreover, considerably high concentrations of biogenic substances were noted. Compared to beech-growing areas, surface runoff from pine forests contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, but lower concentrations of biogenic substances – differences were statistically significant. Similar tendencies were observed in the laboratory experiment. Moreover, the release of chemical substances from forest litter was found to be rapid. The most significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus ions concentration and water colour and a decrease of pH were observed after the first hour of the experiment. Fluctuations of the colour and pH of the lake water (with the most intense brown colour and the lowest pH of the lake water observed in the periods of the highest rainfall and surface runoffs) indicate a significant role of surface runoff in the determination of the dystrophic condition of Piaseczno Małe Lake.

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    • "Conversely, higher measurements of DOC concentration and water color in the years with late ice out could be caused by relatively short periods between DOC loading after ice melting and the fixed data of DOC sampling. Higher concentrations of water color and DOC was observed in the spring periods directly after ice/snow cover melting; however, it was not statistically confirmed (Klimaszyk and Rzymski, 2011). Similar effects of the high nutrient concentrations in the lake directly after ice cover melting were described by Nõges et al. (2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the changes in the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and phytoplankton community in a hard water lake during different meteorological conditions. We hypothesised that variations in climatic conditions (precipitation and temperature) can influence the physicochemical parameters of water and, in turn, affect SAV and phytoplankton development. The investigations were performed in Lake Rogóźno (the West Polesie region, Eastern Poland) over 10 years from 2003 to 2013. The physicochemical parameters, the structure of macrophytes and the phytoplankton community in the dry (2003-2006, DP) and wet periods (2007-2013, WP) were analysed. Between the dry and wet periods, the water colour and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased considerably, whereas water conductivity decreased. Other parameters (concentration of nutrients, water reaction and transparency) were comparable during both periods. When the precipitation and water level were low (DP), charophytes dominated the SAV and cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton community. After the precipitation and water level increased (WP), the charophyte population declined and the vascular plants and bryophytes dominated. Furthermore, flagellated algae belonging to the dinophytes and cryptophytes were the most numerous in the phytoplankton community. These changes in the SAV and phytoplankton were linked with the variations of physicochemical parameters determined by the total precipitation and mean air temperature in March.
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    • "We found that surface runoff promotes the elution of N, P and other chemicals from soils beneath the colony. The concentration of N and P noted in surface runoff occurring in the area colonized by birds was significantly higher compared to the control, as well as to those concentrations observed in other natural ecosystems (Klimaszyk and Rzymski 2011; 2013b). Despite the fact that the groundwater table beneath the colony is at an insignificant depth below the ground surface (approximately 0.7 m), the penetration of nutrients of bird origin is limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Since 2005, great cormorants have been observed on the Lake Góreckie (Wielkopolski National Park) shoreline. The population of these birds occurring within the lake has gradually increased. In autumn 2008, more than 100 individuals were observed. In the period 2009-2012 the number of birds occupying the island periodically exceeded 250 individuals. So far, there is no breeding colony of great cormorants, but the birds have established a roosting colony on the island. In the period 2009-2012 we conducted research on the impact of the colony of great cormorants on the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements in soils beneath the colony and transfer of chemical elements from the colony to a nearby freshwater ecosystem. Our results show that a relatively small and recent colony of great cormorants can significantly affect the chemistry of soil. Compared to a control, the soil beneath the colony was characterized by statistically higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. A significant accumulation of nutrients was observed in the topsoil zone (to a depth of about 20 cm). Enrichment of soil in chemical elements has resulted in their further transport to a nearby lake. Compared to the control, the groundwater and surface runoff from the colony area revealed several-fold higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The maximum abundance of cormorants in the roosting colony was reflected in the elevated concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the littoral water near the colony. Our study demonstrates that the roosting colony of great cormorants can play a significant role in accelerating the eutrophication of surface waters.
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    • "The effect of these processes are changes in the structure of biocenoses, e.g. a decrease in biodiversity , changes in the phytoplankton community, in which cyanophytes or chlorophytes often take over the dominance (Reynolds 2006). A large area of coniferous forests and peatlands in the catchment of lakes is often a cause of increased supply of humic substances to water (Irfanullah 2009; Klimaszyk & Rzymski 2011). Such water bodies, called humic lakes, have yellow-brown or brown colour of water, low transparency, low water reaction and low calcium concentration (Górniak 1996; Wojciechowski 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of coniferous forest cover in the catchment basin and relative catchment area (catchment area to lake volume ratio) on phytoplankton composition in humic lakes. The study was carried out in 11 small and shallow lakes situated in the West Polesie region (Eastern Poland). The lakes were divided with respect to forest cover in their catchment basins into two groups: high forest cover — HFC (more than 60%) and low forest cover — LFC (less than 60%). The study showed that both, land use in the catchments (proportion of forests) and the relative catchment area determined physicochemical and biological parameters in the lakes. The high relative catchment area affects their high productivity expressed by high chlorophyll a concentration and low water visibility. The lakes of the LFC group had low water colour as well as high concentration of total phosphorus (Ptot), reaction (pH), and conductivity of water and a large number of cyanophytes and chlorophytes. The dominant species, e.g., Planktolyngbya limnetica, Limnothrix planctonica, Planktothrix agardhii, Coenococcus planctonicus, were characteristic of high trophic status. In the lakes of the HFC group, Ptot, pH, conductivity of water and the contribution of cyanophytes and chlorophytes was considerably lower, whereas the water colour and the number of raphidophytes represented by Gonyostomum semen was high. The large number of raphidophytes and the small amount of chlorophytes and cyanophytes in the lakes of the HFC group indicated the lake naturalness.
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Piotr Rzymski added an answer in Water Quality:
    Could people comment on concentrations versus loads when it comes to water quality in a waterbody?
    Here in the EU it's all concentration focused. Also what nutrient and forms are people interested in? E.g. DON appears little in literature but is very important.
    Piotr Rzymski
    What EU do you mean? Investigations in EU? Or European comission. Of course, estimating loads on nutrients is essential in understanding impacts the catchment areas have on surface water. In Poland there are few developed classifications of "susceptibility of lakes to degradation" which include , inter alia, evaluation of lakes morphometric features, use of catchment area etc.

    Check this by Bajkiewicz-Grabowska:
    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00208211?LI=true

    Speaking of nutrients in surface water, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main one, of course including existing forms. It is important to estimate loads of N and P transported each year from agricultural catchment areas, in terms of developing sustained agriculture which does not degradate lakes. A boom for fertilizers is the mani eutrophication stimulator in Poland. Anyway, even if the catchment area is 100% natural, forested it still transport some loads of N, P and other. However, attached paper does not descirbe "loads" it at least points out that forests can be a soruce of humification of lakes via surface runoff, particularly in small, non throughflow lakes situated within coniferous forests.
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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: It is generally claimed that surface runoff in forested catchments is minimal and therefore nutrient fluxes via runoff are unimportant. However, significant catchment slope inclination may promote overland water flow and, therefore, surface runoff might be responsible for transferring important nutrient loads to the lake. It was found that surface runoff waters within the catchment of Piaseczno Małe Lake have low pH (4.7-5.6), brown colour (max. 240 mgPt·dm-3), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (max. ca 100 mgC·dm-3) – a major component of humic acids. Moreover, considerably high concentrations of biogenic substances were noted. Compared to beech-growing areas, surface runoff from pine forests contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, but lower concentrations of biogenic substances – differences were statistically significant. Similar tendencies were observed in the laboratory experiment. Moreover, the release of chemical substances from forest litter was found to be rapid. The most significant increase in nitrogen and phosphorus ions concentration and water colour and a decrease of pH were observed after the first hour of the experiment. Fluctuations of the colour and pH of the lake water (with the most intense brown colour and the lowest pH of the lake water observed in the periods of the highest rainfall and surface runoffs) indicate a significant role of surface runoff in the determination of the dystrophic condition of Piaseczno Małe Lake.
      Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Polish Journal of Environmental Studies