Improving care for patients with type 2 diabetes: applying management guidelines and algorithms, and a review of new evidence for incretin agents and lifestyle intervention
Diabetes affects an estimated 25.8 million US adults, or 8.3% of the population. By 2050, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the United States may be as high as 1 in 3 adults. This paper summarizes key national treatment goals, guidelines, and algorithms for T2DM management in a way that clarifies their similarities and areas of disparity, for use by managed care organizations and other healthcare professionals. In addition, the role of long-standing and newer classes of antihyperglycemic agents, including incretin-related agents, bromocriptine, and colesevelam, will be reviewed, as will emerging research on the role of lifestyle intervention in T2DM and prediabetes. Lastly, comparative and long-term clinical efficacy data on incretin therapy, reported at the American Diabetes Association's 2011 71st Scientific Sessions, will be summarized. Although the treatment landscape for T2DM has increased substantially in complexity, major guidelines have similar goals. While established, relatively inexpensive, and thoroughly investigated antihyperglycemic agents maintain popularity, incretin-based agents offer glycemic efficacy along with other benefits relative to weight loss or neutrality and low rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, the feasibility of matching patients to appropriate lifestyle intervention, for both diabetes and diabetes prevention, is increasing.
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