Induction of Protective Genes Leads to Islet Survival and Function

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Journal of Transplantation 12/2011; 2011:141898. DOI: 10.1155/2011/141898
Source: PubMed


Islet transplantation is the most valid approach to the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the function of transplanted islets is often compromised since a large number of β cells undergo apoptosis induced by stress and the immune rejection response elicited by the recipient after transplantation. Conventional treatment for islet transplantation is to administer immunosuppressive drugs to the recipient to suppress the immune rejection response mounted against transplanted islets. Induction of protective genes in the recipient (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), A20/tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein3 (tnfaip3), biliverdin reductase (BVR), Bcl2, and others) or administration of one or more of the products of HO-1 to the donor, the islets themselves, and/or the recipient offers an alternative or synergistic approach to improve islet graft survival and function. In this perspective, we summarize studies describing the protective effects of these genes on islet survival and function in rodent allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation models and the prevention of onset of diabetes, with emphasis on HO-1, A20, and BVR. Such approaches are also appealing to islet autotransplantation in patients with chronic pancreatitis after total pancreatectomy, a procedure that currently only leads to 1/3 of transplanted patients being diabetes-free.

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Available from: Leo E Otterbein
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    • "Immunosuppressive strategies have lowered islet rejection rates (Shapiro et al., 2000; Ryan et al., 2004; Matsumoto et al., 2007; Kenmochi et al., 2008), but the procedure is still hampered by oxidative-stress induced apoptosis that reduces the number of transplanted islets (Emamaullee and Shapiro, 2006; Wang et al., 2011). Anti-inflammatory strategies that improve the number of effective transplanted islets include stimulation of HO expression (Ribeiro et al., 2003), bilirubin IXα administration to recipient or donor islets during processing (Wang et al., 2011), and administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor to donor pancreata (Ito et al., 2008). Biliverdin IXα as an anti-inflammatory islet protectant has not yet been reported due at least partly to the limited amounts of commercially available biliverdin IXα. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to produce mesobiliverdin IXα, an analog of anti-inflammatory biliverdin IXα, and to test its ability to enhance rat pancreatic islet yield for allograft transplantation into diabetic recipients. Mesobiliverdin IXα was synthesized from phycocyanobilin derived from cyanobacteria, and its identity and purity were analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Mesobiliverdin IXα was a substrate for human NADPH biliverdin reductase. Excised Lewis rat pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα and biliverdin IXα-HCl (1-100 μM) yielded islet equivalents as high as 86.7 and 36.5%, respectively, above those from non-treated controls, and the islets showed a high degree of viability based on dithizone staining. When transplanted into livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, islets from pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα lowered non-fasting blood glucose (BG) levels in 55.6% of the recipients and in 22.2% of control recipients. In intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting BG levels of 56 post-operative day recipients with islets from mesobiliverdin IXα infused pancreata were lower than those for controls and showed responses that indicate recovery of insulin-dependent function. In conclusion, mesobiliverdin IXα infusion of pancreata enhanced yields of functional islets capable of reversing insulin dysfunction in diabetic recipients. Since its production is scalable, mesobiliverdin IXα has clinical potential as a protectant of pancreatic islets for allograft transplantation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
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    • "In addition, biliverdin interaction with biliverdin reductase signals the downstream production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interferon-10 [14] and the nitrosylation-dependent inhibition of pro-inflammatory TLR4 expression [15]. Thus, biliverdin, acting together with biliverdin reductase, is increasingly recognized as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent [3,16-18]. Examples of its cytoprotective effects in animal models include those for ischemia/reperfusion following liver [19] and small bowel [10] transplants, vascular injury [20], endotoxic shock [21], vascular intimal hyperplasia [9], and nephropathy [8]. In addition, biliverdin has been reported to inhibit in vitro replication of hepatitis C [22] and other viruses [23,24] and to reverse parameters of type 2 diabetes in mice [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Biliverdin IXα is produced when heme undergoes reductive ring cleavage at the α-methene bridge catalyzed by heme oxygenase. It is subsequently reduced by biliverdin reductase to bilirubin IXα which is a potent endogenous antioxidant. Biliverdin IXα, through interaction with biliverdin reductase, also initiates signaling pathways leading to anti-inflammatory responses and suppression of cellular pro-inflammatory events. The use of biliverdin IXα as a cytoprotective therapeutic has been suggested, but its clinical development and use is currently limited by insufficient quantity, uncertain purity, and derivation from mammalian materials. To address these limitations, methods to produce, recover and purify biliverdin IXα from bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli were investigated and developed. Results Recombinant E. coli strains BL21(HO1) and BL21(mHO1) expressing cyanobacterial heme oxygenase gene ho1 and a sequence modified version (mho1) optimized for E. coli expression, respectively, were constructed and shown to produce biliverdin IXα in batch and fed-batch bioreactor cultures. Strain BL21(mHO1) produced roughly twice the amount of biliverdin IXα than did strain BL21(HO1). Lactose either alone or in combination with glycerol supported consistent biliverdin IXα production by strain BL21(mHO1) (up to an average of 23. 5mg L-1 culture) in fed-batch mode and production by strain BL21 (HO1) in batch-mode was scalable to 100L bioreactor culture volumes. Synthesis of the modified ho1 gene protein product was determined, and identity of the enzyme reaction product as biliverdin IXα was confirmed by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and its ability to serve as a substrate for human biliverdin reductase A. Conclusions Methods for the scalable production, recovery, and purification of biliverdin IXα by E. coli were developed based on expression of a cyanobacterial ho1 gene. The purity of the produced biliverdin IXα and its ability to serve as substrate for human biliverdin reductase A suggest its potential as a clinically useful therapeutic.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: The characterization of DNA replication origins in yeast has shed much light on the mechanisms of initiation of DNA replication. However, very little is known about the evolution of origins or the evolution of mechanisms through which origins are recognized by the initiation machinery. This lack of understanding is largely due to the vast evolutionary distances between model organisms in which origins have been examined. In this study we have isolated and characterized autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) in Lachancea kluyveri - a pre-whole genome duplication (WGD) budding yeast. Through a combination of experimental work and rigorous computational analysis, we show that L. kluyveri ARSs require a sequence that is similar but much longer than the ARS Consensus Sequence well defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, compared with S. cerevisiae and K. lactis, the replication licensing machinery in L. kluyveri seems more tolerant to variations in the ARS sequence composition. It is able to initiate replication from almost all S. cerevisiae ARSs tested and most Kluyveromyces lactis ARSs. In contrast, only about half of the L. kluyveri ARSs function in S. cerevisiae and less than 10% function in K. lactis. Our findings demonstrate a replication initiation system with novel features and underscore the functional diversity within the budding yeasts. Furthermore, we have developed new approaches for analyzing biologically functional DNA sequences with ill-defined motifs.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · BMC Genomics
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