Risk Factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals: traditional and HIV-related factors

Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.9). 12/2011; 59(5):628-35. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.050
Source: PubMed


Despite improvements in survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, kidney disease remains an important complication. Few studies have evaluated risk factors associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected individuals. We sought to identify traditional and HIV-related risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals and compare ESRD risk by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria levels.
Retrospective cohort study.
22,156 HIV-infected veterans without pre-existing ESRD receiving health care in the Veterans' Affairs medical system between 1996 and 2004.
Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <3.5 mg/dL), CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, proteinuria, and eGFR were identified using the Veterans' Affairs electronic record system.
ESRD was ascertained by the US Renal Data System.
366 cases of ESRD occurred, corresponding to 3 cases/1,000 person-years. Hypertension (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), diabetes (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7) were associated independently with ESRD risk in multivariate-adjusted models, as were CD4 lymphocyte count <200 cells/μL (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0), HIV viral load ≥30,000 copies/mL (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.8), hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and hypoalbuminemia (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.5). Compared with persons without chronic kidney disease, defined as eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and no proteinuria, lower eGFR and higher proteinuria categories were associated jointly with exponentially higher ESRD rates, ranging from 6.6 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion of 30-100 mg/dL and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 193 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion ≥300 mg/dL and eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).
Results may not be generalizable to female and nonveteran populations.
In HIV-infected persons, ESRD risk appears attributable to a combination of traditional and HIV-related risk factors for kidney disease. Combining eGFR and proteinuria for chronic kidney disease staging is most effective for stratifying the risk of ESRD.

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    • "However, both adjusted estimates were >1, suggesting a possible relation, which may be mediated both directly, by a HCV glomerulonephritis, and indirectly, by hepatorenal syndrome and factors associated with IDU. In the literature, there are conflicting reports on this associa- tion[49,50]. African ancestry was not associated with chronic renal impairment in our analysis, but our power to detect such an association was low (<10% had African ancestry, and >40% had unavailable ethnicity information). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Several antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are associated with chronic renal impairment, but the extent of such adverse events among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with initially normal renal function is unknown. Methods: D:A:D study participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥ 90 mL/min after 1 January 2004 were followed until they had a confirmed eGFR of ≤ 70 mL/min (the threshold below which we hypothesized that renal interventions may begin to occur) or ≤ 60 mL/min (a value indicative of moderately severe chronic kidney disease [CKD]) or until the last eGFR measurement during follow-up. An eGFR was considered confirmed if it was detected at 2 consecutive measurements ≥ 3 months apart. Predictors and eGFR-related ARV discontinuations were identified using Poisson regression. Results: Of 22 603 persons, 468 (2.1%) experienced a confirmed eGFR of ≤ 70 mL/min (incidence rate, 4.78 cases/1000 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.35-5.22]) and 131 (0.6%) experienced CKD (incidence rate, 1.33 cases/1000 person-years of follow-up [95% CI, 1.10-1.56]) during a median follow-up duration of 4.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.7-6.1 years). A current eGFR of 60-70 mL/min caused significantly higher rates of discontinuation of tenofovir (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.38-2.14]) but not other ARVs compared with a current eGFR of ≥ 90 mL/min. Cumulative tenofovir use (aIRR, 1.18/year [95% CI, 1.12-1.25]) and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir use (aIRR, 1.19/year [95% CI, 1.09-1.32]) were independent predictors of a confirmed eGFR of ≤ 70 but were not significant predictors of CKD whereas ritonavir-boosted lopinavir use was a significant predictor for both end points (aIRR, 1.11/year [95% CI, 1.05-1.17] and 1.22/year [95% CI, 1.16-1.28], respectively). Associations were unaffected by censoring for concomitant ARV use but diminished after discontinuation of these ARVs. Conclusions: Tenofovir, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir use were independent predictors of chronic renal impairment in HIV-positive persons without preexisting renal impairment. Increased tenofovir discontinuation rates with decreasing eGFR may have prevented further deteriorations. After discontinuation, the ARV-associated incidence rates decreased.
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    • "In addition, there is mounting evidence that earlier initiation of cART also averts non-HIV associated morbidity (e.g. cardiovascular and renal events) that we did not factor into our model because data from resource-limited settings has not yet been generated [35,36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ugandan national guidelines recommend initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4+ T cell (CD4) count below 350 cell/μl, but the implementation of this is limited due to availability of medication. However, cART initiation at higher CD4 count increases survival, albeit at higher lifetime treatment cost. This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of initiating cART at a CD4 count between 250–350 cell/μl (early) versus <250 cell/μl (delayed). Methods Life expectancy of cART-treated patients, conditional on baseline CD4 count, was modeled based on published literature. First-line cART costs $192 annually, with an additional $113 for patient monitoring. Delaying initiation of cART until the CD4 count falls below 250 cells/μl would incur the cost of the bi-annual CD4 count tests and routine maintenance care at $85 annually. We compared lifetime treatment costs and disability adjusted life-expectancy between early vs. delayed cART for ten baseline CD4 count ranges from 250-350 cell/μl. All costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Results Treatment delay varied from 6–18 months. Early cART initiation increased life expectancy from 1.5-3.5 years and averted 1.33–3.10 disability adjusted life years (DALY’s) per patient. Lifetime treatment costs were $4,300–$5,248 for early initiation and $3,940–$4,435 for delayed initiation. The cost/DALY averted of the early versus delayed start ranged from $260–$270. Conclusions In HIV-positive patients presenting with CD4 count between 250-350 cells/μl, immediate initiation of cART is a highly cost-effective strategy using the recommended one-time per capita GDP threshold of $490 reported for Uganda. This would constitute an efficient use of scarce health care funds.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Public Health
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