Staging of prostate cancer

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2012; 60(1):87-117. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04025.x
Source: PubMed


Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

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Available from: Liang Cheng, Mar 26, 2014
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    • "Recently, the diagnostics of early stages of PCa is based mostly on evaluation of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in serum of patients (Lilja et al., 2008). Men with high levels of PSA undergo biopsy in order to determine histopatological grading of PCa- Gleason scoring which classifies tumors from 1 to 5 (most to least differentiated) (Epstein, 2010) as well as staging-determination of the status of their primary tumors (T1-T4; from bounded to fully invasive), with or without lymph node involvement (N0 or 1) (Cheng et al., 2012). The results from this screening diagnosis lead into conventional treatment, including radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer belongs to the most common cancers and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. A genetic predisposition with epigenetic changes in DNA contributes to the development of the disease. DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation belong to the most studied epigenetic changes in prostate cancer development. Both forms may lead to chromosomal instability and transcriptional gene silencing. This article is aimed at brief review of information in respect to DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation in the prostate cancer development. Moreover, we discuss their implication for diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences
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    • "All prostate specimens were re-evaluated regarding to histopathological variables and re-staged according to the 2010 revision of the TNM classification [29] independently by two experienced pathologists (E.R, L.T.B). A positive surgical margin (PSM) was defined as tumor extension to the inked surface of the resected specimen [30-32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and a mayor cause of mortality in the western world. The impact of clinicopathological variables on disease related outcomes have mainly been reported from a few large US series, most of them not reporting on perineural infiltration. We therefore wanted to investigate relevant cancer outcomes in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy in two Norwegian health regions with an emphasis on the impact of perineural infiltration (PNI) and prostate specific antigen- doubling time (PSA-DT). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 535 prostatectomy patients at three hospitals between 1995 and 2005 estimating biochemical failure- (BFFS), clinical failure- (CFFS) and prostate cancer death-free survival (PCDFS) with the Kaplan-Meier method. We investigated clinicopathological factors influencing risk of events using cox proportional hazard regression. Results After a median follow-up of 89 months, 170 patients (32%) experienced biochemical failure (BF), 36 (7%) experienced clinical failure and 15 (3%) had died of prostate cancer. pT-Stage (p = 0.001), preoperative PSA (p = 0.047), Gleason Score (p = 0.032), non-apical positive surgical margins (PSM) (p = 0.003) and apical PSM (p = 0.031) were all independently associated to BFFS. Gleason score (p = 0.019), PNI (p = 0.012) and non-apical PSM (p = 0.002) were all independently associated to CFFS while only PNI (P = 0.047) and subgroups of Gleason score were independently associated to PCDFS. After BF, patients with a shorter PSA-DT had independent and significant worse event-free survivals than patients with PSA-DT > 15 months (PSA-DT = 3-9 months, CFFS HR = 6.44, p < 0.001, PCDFS HR = 13.7, p = 0.020; PSA-DT < 3 months, CFFS HR = 11.2, p < 0.001, PCDFS HR = 27.5, p = 0.006). Conclusions After prostatectomy, CFFS and PCDFS are variable, but both are strongly associated to Gleason score and PNI. In patients with BF, PSA-DT was most strongly associated to CF and PCD. Our study adds weight to the importance of PSA-DT and re-launches PNI as a strong prognosticator for clinically relevant endpoints.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Urology
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    • "However, ADT is primarily palliative, nearly all patients will eventually develop the androgen-independent and highly metastatic forms of PCa termed castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) [1,2]. Docetaxel-based chemotherapy remains the first-line treatment for men diagnosed with CRPC providing modest survival and palliative benefits [1,2,4]. Unfortunately, chemotherapy resistance develops in more than half of all CRPC patients and remains the major obstacle in treatment of CRPC [1,2,4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in the aging male population and represents the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men around the world. The Deltex (DTX)-3-like E3 ubiquitin ligase (DTX3L), also known as B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP), was originally identified as a binding partner of the diphtheria-toxin-like macrodomain containing ADP-ribosyltransferase-9 (ARTD9), also known as BAL1 and PARP9. We have previously demonstrated that ARTD9 acts as a novel oncogenic survival factor in high-risk, chemo-resistant, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTD8, also known as PARP14 functions as a STAT6-specific co-regulator of IL4-mediated proliferation and survival in B cells. Methods Co-expression of DTX3L, ARTD8, ARTD9 and STAT1 was analyzed in the metastatic PCa (mPCa) cell lines PC3, DU145, LNCaP and in the normal prostate luminal epithelial cell lines HPE and RWPE1. Effects on cell proliferation, survival and cell migration were determined in PC3, DU145 and/or LNCaP cells depleted of DTX3L, ARTD8, ARTD9, STAT1 and/or IRF1 compared to their proficient control cells, respectively. In further experiments, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitations were conducted to evaluate the physical and functional interactions between DTX3L, ARTD8 and ARTD9. Results Here we could identify DTX3L, ARTD9 and ARTD8 as novel oncogenic survival factors in mPCa cells. Our studies revealed that DTX3L forms a complex with ARTD8 and mediates together with ARTD8 and ARTD9 proliferation, chemo-resistance and survival of mPCa cells. In addition, DTX3L, ARTD8 and ARTD9 form complexes with each other. Our study provides first evidence that the enzymatic activity of ARTD8 is required for survival of mPCa cells. DTX3L and ARTD9 act together as repressors of the tumor suppressor IRF1 in mPCa cells. Furthermore, the present study shows that DTX3L together with STAT1 and STAT3 is implicated in cell migration of mPCa cells. Conclusions Our data strongly indicate that a crosstalk between STAT1, DTX3L and ARTD-like mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases mediates proliferation and survival of mPCa cells. The present study further suggests that the combined targeted inhibition of STAT1, ARTD8, ARTD9 and/or DTX3L could increase the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiation treatment in prostate and other high-risk tumor types with an increased STAT1 signaling.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Molecular Cancer
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